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iHJi?l»iH'A  S 


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3  1833  01080  9132 


Historical  Society  Papers. 




Kev.  J.  WILLIAM  JONES,  D.  D., 

Secretary  Southern  Historical  Society. 







Defence  of  Mobile  in  1865,  by  General  D. 
H.  Maury 1 

Detailed  Minutije  of  Soldier  Life,  by  Carl- 
ton McCarthy 13 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg,  by  General  James 
H.Lane 19 

Address  on  the  Character  of  Gen.  R.  B. 
Lee,  by  Capt.  John  Hampden  Chamber- 
layne •» 

Defence  of  Fort  Morgan— Reports  of  Gen- 
eral R.  L.  Page 3T 

Diary  of  Captain  R.  E.  Park 43 

Editorial  Paragraphs 4T 


General  R.  H.  Anderson's  Report  of  the 
Battle  of  Gettysburg 49 

Diary  of  Captain  R.  K.  Park 55 

Battle  of  Atchafalaya  River— Letter  from 
General  Thomas  Green 62 

Lieutenant-General  S.  D.  Lee's  Report  of 
the  Tennessee  Campaign 64 

General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart's  Report  of  his  Ex- 
pedition into  Pennsylvania 72 

Letters  on  the  Treatment  and  Exchange 

of  Prisoners 7T 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Gregg 82 

Dahlgren's  Ride  into  Fredericksburg 8T 

Editorial  Paragraphs 91 


Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1865— 
Report  of  Gen.  L  M.  St.  John,  Commis- 
sary General 9T 

General  Early's  Valley  Campaign,  by  Gen- 
eral A.  L.  Long 112 

Diary  of  Captain  R.  B.  Park 123 

Letter  from  General  A.  S.  Johnston 128 

Maryland  Troops  In  the  Confederate  Ser- 
vice, by  Lamar  Hollyday 130 

Comments  on  the  First  Volume  of  Count 
of  Paris'  Civil  War  in  America,  by  Gen- 
eral J.  A.  Early 140 

The  Last  Confederate  Surrender,  by  Lleu- 
tenant-General  Richard  Taylor 155 

Editorial  Paragraphs 169 


Report  of  Major-General  Carter  L.  Steven- 
son of  the  Tennessee  Campaign 161 

The  Peace  Commission  of  1865,  by  Hon. 
R.  M.  T.  Hunter 168 

Cavalry  Operations  in  May,  1863— Report 
of  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart ITT 

Diary  of  Captain  R.  E.  Park 183 

Field  Letters  from  Stuart's  Headquarters,  190 

Zagonyi's  Charge  with  Fremont's  Body- 
Guard,  by  Col.  Wm.  Preston  Johnston. .  195 

The  Nation  on  our  Discussion  of  the  Pri- 
son Question WT 

Garnett'a  Brigade  at  Gettysburg 215 

Part  taken  by  the  Ninth  Virginia  Cavalry 
in  Repelling  the  Dahlgren  Raid 219  • 

Editorial  Paragraphs 222 


Dalton- Atlanta  Campaign— Report  of  Ma- 
jor-General  C.  L.  Stevenson 225 

Battle  of  Chancellorsville— Report  of  Gen- 
eral R.  E.  Lee 230 

Diary  of  Captain  R.  E.  Park 244 

Torpedoes,  by  General  G.  J.  Rains,  Chief 
of  the  Confederate  Torpedo  Service —  255 

Report  of  Major-General  Samuel  Jones  of 
Operations  at  Charleston,  S.  C 261 

Sketch  of  the  Late  General  8.  Cooper,  by 
General  Fitz.  Lee 269 

Battle  of  Seven  Pines— Report  of  General 

James  Loiigstreet 2T7 

Cavalry  Operations  on   First   Maryland 

Campaign— Report  of  General  J.  K.  B. 

Stuart 281 

Field  Telegrams *»» 

Editorial  Paragraphs 301 

Colonel   Charles   C.  Jones'  Confederate 

Roster 306 

siiiEi  imim  sMEii  mm. 

Yol.  III. 

Kichniond,  Ya.,  January,  1877. 


The  Defence  of  Mobile  in  1865. 

By  General  Dabney  H.  Maury. 

[We  deem  it  a  valuable  service  to  tlie  cause  of  historic  truth  to  be  able  to 
present  from  time  to  time  careful  reviews  of  books  about  tiie  war.  And  our 
readers  will  consider  us  fortunate  in  liaviiig  secured  the  following  review  of 
General  Andrews'  book  from  the  pen  of  tiie  able  soldier  who  made  the  gal- 
lant defence  of  Mobile  against  such  overwlielming  odds.] 

History  of  the  Campaign  of  Mobile. 
trand,  Publisher,  &c. 

By  Brevet  Major-General  C.  C.  Andrews.    D.  Van  Nos- 

This  is  an  octavo  volume  of  more  than  250  pages,  prepared  in 
1865-6,  and  entirely  devoted  to  the  campaign  of  Mobile. 

The  author  manifests  extreme  pride  in  the  success  accomplished 
by  the  Federal  army,  in  which  he  held  high  command.  He  has 
avowedly  endeavored  to  set  forth  fairly  the  facts  of  the  history  he 
has  undertaken  to  record,  but  has  shown  how  difficult  was  the  task 
when  the  passions  of  the  recent  strife  were  so  fresh,  j 

The  first  and  second  chapters  are  devoted  to  the  capture  by 
Farragut  of  Forts  Morgan  and  Gaines  and  Powell.  Though  they 
are  not  very  accurate,  we  let  them  pass. 

Chapter  four  is  very  short,  but  it  contains  as  many  errors  as  can 
well  be  found  in  any  other  chapter  not  longer. 

It  vindicates,  as  the  author  thinks,  Canby's  selection  of  his  base 
of  operations,  which  was  made  upon  the  eastern  shore  of  Mobile 
bay,  and  from  which  he  operated  against  detached  outworks  of 
comparatively  little  importance. 

We  were  infinitely  relieved  when  we  found  the  attack  would  be 
there — but  never  knew  why ;  and  until  General  Andrews  told  us 
in  this  chapter  why  General  Steele's  column  moved  from  Pensacola 
up  to  Pollard,  we  had  been  at  a  loss  to  account  for  that  movement. 
He  says  it  was  to  prevent  us  from  escaping  Canby's  army  on  the 
eastern  shore  and  making  our  way  to  Montgomery !  Such  a  route 
of  escape  had  never  been  contemplated  by  us.    We  always  feared 

2  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

lest  he  might  intercept  us  on  the  Mobile  and  Ohio  railroad,  by 
which  we  ultimately  moved  away  unmolested. 

Had  Canby  landed  on  Dog  river,  west  of  Mobile,  and  invested 
the  city,  he  would  hf»,ve  found  his  work  shorter  and  easier,  and 
might  have  captured  my  whole  army.  The  city  was  level  and  ex- 
posed thr.ughout  the  whole  extent  to  fire  from  any  direction. 
There  were  near  40,000  non-combatants  within  its  lines  of  defence, 
whose  sufferings  under  a  seige  would  soon  have  paralyzed  the  de- 
fence by  a  garrison  so  small  as  ours  was;  and  the  early  evacuation 
would  have  been  inevitable,  while  it  would  have  been  exceedingly 
difficult  of  accomplishment.  Had  Canby  not  made  the  indefen- 
sible blunder  of  landing  his  army  at  Fish  river  to  attack  Mobile, 
the  sending  of  Steele's  corps  towards  Pollard  would  not  have  been 
a  blunder,  for  then  I  might  have  been  forced  to  try  to  bring  out 
my  garrison  on  that  side,  and  to  lead  it  to  Mongomery,  and  have 
had  to  drive  Steele  from  my  path  or  surrender  to  him. 

On  page  41  we  have  an  illustration  of  the  Puritan  origin  of  our 
author,  in  the  following: 

"Such  of  the  soldiers  as  were  disposed  aesembled  in  religious 
meetings  when  circumstances  permitted.  One  pleasant  evening, 
in  Gilbert's  brigade  1,000  men  were  assembled  and  *  *  * 
*  *  *  poured  forth  their  fervent  prayers  and  joined  their 
voices  in  sacred  hymns.  Nor  will  those  who  remember  such  heroes 
as  Havelock  deny  that  piety  is  a  help  to  valor." 

A  little  reflection  on  its  illogical  results  would,  perhaps,  have 
caused  General  Andrews  to  spare  us  this  appeal  to  the  cant  loving 
community  for  whom  he  writes,  and  adopt  the  more  simple  style 
becoming  a  military  historian  of  his  opportunities. 

Canby  was  moving  with  60,000  soldiers  and  Farragut's  fleet  to 
attack  8,000  ill-appointed  Confederates,  and  to  capture  them.  And 
after  our  little  army  had  withstood  his  great  armament  and  armada 
for  three  weeks,  and  had  then  bravely  made  good  its  retreat.  Gen. 
Andrews  calls  upon  his  readers  to  admire  the  great  valor,  supple- 
mented by  the  piety^,  of  the  attacking  army,  because  one  pleasant 
night  they  had  prayers  and  sang  hymns  in  their  bivouac  in  the 
piney  woods. 

He  tells  us  Canby's  base  on  Fish  river  was  only  twenty  miles 
below  Spanish  Fort;  that  he  occupied  nine  days  in  marching  that 
distance;  that  his  wing  entrenched  itself  every  night — all  in  a 
strain  of  grandiloquence  conformable  with  his  illustration  of  its 
piety,  and  rendered  especially  absurd  to  us,  who  knew  that  there 

Defence  of  Mobile.  3 

was  no  force  in  Canby's  front  except  about  five  hundred  cavalry 
under  Colonel  Spence. 

It  is  true,  Spence  handled  his  men  with  excellent  skill  and  cour- 
age, and  no  doubt  had  even  praying  in  a  quiet  way  every  night- 
for  he  made  40,000  Federals  move  very  circumspectly  every  day', 
and  entrench  themselves  every  night  against  him;  and  herel  will 
say  Colonel  Spence  was  one -of  the  most  efficient  and  comfortable 
out-post  commanders  I  ever  had  to  deal  with.  He  always  took  what 
was  given  him  and  made  the  most  of  it.  He  was  devoted,  active, 
brave  and  modest,  and  did  his  whole  duty  to  the  very  last  day  of 
our  existence  as  an  army. 

In  my  comments  on  the  allusion  of  General  Andrews  to  praying 
in  his  camp,  I  do  not  mean  to  dissent  from  the  well  understood 
fact  that  valor  and  piety  often  go  together,  and  we  do  not,  above 
all  things,  wish  to  incur  the  suspicion  of  irreverence.  The  simple 
unpretending  piety  which  prevailed  in  the  Confederate  camps  has 
always  been  the  subject  of  our  genuine  respect.  There  has  never 
been  in  any  army  of  modern  times  a  soldiery  so  sober,  so  continent, 
so  religious  or  so  reliant,  as  was  to  be  found  in  the  armies  of  the 
Southern  Confederacy ;  from  our  great  commander  down  to  the 
youngest  privates  in  the  ranks,  in  all  might  have  been  observed 
one  high  purpose — to  stand  by  the  right — and  to  maintain  that 
the  support  and  aid  of  the  God  of  Battles  was  daily  invoked;  and 
that  it  was  not  invoked  in  vain,  let  the  unsurpassed  achievements 
of  the  Confederate  troops  bear  witness.  There  was  never  a  day 
from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  war  that  the  chaplains  of  our 
regiments  did  not  discharge  their  duty,  and  as  a  class  there  were 
none  in  our  armies  who  held  and  who  still  retain  more  of  the  con- 
fidence, the  respect  and  the  affection  of  the  Confederate  soldiers 
than  the  Confederate  chaplains.  No  matter  what  was  his  sect — 
whether  Roman  Catholic  or  Protestant — every  soldier  knew  he  had 
in  his  chaplain  a  friend,  and  for  many  weary  weeks  after  the  time 
General  Andrews  commemorates,  he  might,  had  he  been  with  us, 
have  daily  attended  mass  performed  by  the  brave  priests  in  the 
camps  of  our  Louisianians,  or  joined  in  the  simpler  devotions 
which  were  led  by  the  devoted  ministers  ol  the  regiments  of  Ector's 
fierce  Texans. 

The  piety  and  the  valor  which  went  hand  in  hand  through 
our  armies,  were  not  working  for  naught — and  it  may  yet  be, 
even  in  the  lifetime  of  General  Andrews,  that  Providence,  who 
works  in  a  misterious  way,  may  manifest  how  surely  the  right  will 

4  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

triumph  in  the  end — and  that  he  will  live  to  see  and  understand 
that  the  principles  we  fought  to  uphold  are  essential  to  civil  liberty 
in  its  highest  perfection,  and  the  time  seems  near  at  hand  when 
all  the  world  will  know  it. 

Page  44,  the  statement  of  the  strength  of  the  garrison  of  Mobile 
is  very  inaccurate.  Including  1,500  cavalry  and  all  the  available 
fighting  men  for  defence  of  Mobile,  and  all  its  outposts,  batteries 
and  dependencies,  my  force  did  not  exceed  9,000  men  of  all  arms! 

The  cavalry  constituted  no  part  of  the  defensive  force  of  the 
places  attacked,  and  all  of  our  infantry  and  a  large  part  of  our 
artillery  was  sent  away  from  Mobile  to  Spanish  Fort  and  Blakely. 
During  the  fighting  on  the  eastern  shore,  the  city  of  Mobile  and 
all  the  works  and  forts  immediately  around  it  were  garrisoned  by 
scarce  3,000  artillerists !  And  by  a  bold  dash,  the  place  could  have 
been  carried  any  night  during  the  operations  against  Spanish  Fort. 

Page  48,  the  author  is  mistaken  in  saying  we  had  Parrott  guns 
in  Spanish  Fort.  The  only  Parrott  gun  we  had  at  that  time 
about  Mobile  was  a  thirty-pounder  Parrott,  named  "  Lady  Richard- 
son." We  had  captured  her  at  Corinth  in  October,  1862,  my  Divi- 
sion Chief  of  Artillery,  Colonel  William  E.  Burnett,  brought  her 
off,  and  added  her  to  our  park  of  field  artillery,  and  we  had  kept 
her  ever  since. 

But  we  had  some  cannon  better  than  any  Parrott  had  ever  made. 
They  were  the  Brooke  guns,  made  at  Selma  in  the  Confederate, 
naval  works,  of  the  iron  from  Briarsfield,  Alabama — the  best  iron 
for  making  cannon  in  the  world. 

Our  Brooke  guns  at  Mobile  were  rifles,  of  11-inch,  10-inch,  7- 
inch  and  6/^-inch  callibres.  They  out-ranged  the  Parrotts,  and, 
though  subjected  to  extraordinary  service,  not  one  of  them  was 
ever  bursted  or  even  strained. 

The  mistakes  into  which  General  Andrews  has  fallen  are  natu- 
ral and  almost  inevitable.  His  real  desire  to  write  fairly  is  evinced 
by  the  handsome  compliments  he  pays  to  Confederate  officers  on 
several  occasions,  as  in  case  of  Lieutenant  Sibley,  who,  with  six 
men,  boldly  attacked  the  wagon  train  of  Canby's  army,  brought 
off  his  spoils,  and  created  a  little  flutter  of  alarm  all  throughout 
the  post. 

General  Andrews  persists  in  his  mistake  as  to  the  numbers  of 
the  garrisons  of  the  respective  places,  and  he  counts  the  same  forces 
twice  in  the  same  place.  Thus,  when  the  "boy  brigade"  was  re- 
lieved in  Spanish  Fort  by  the  Alabama  brigade,  the  boys  were  sent 

Defence  of  Mobile.  5 

away  to  Blakely:  but  the  author  continues  to  count  them  as  if 
still  forming  part  of  Spanish  Fort  garrison. 

But  despite  the  defects  of  the  work,  some  of  which  we  have  en- 
deavored to  illustrate,  it  is  a  valuable  addition  to  the  history  of 
the  times,  and  will  probably  be  the  accepted  authority  on  that  side 
about  the  essential  history  of  the  last  great  battle  of  the  war  be- 
tween the  States,  as  it  is  not  probable  that  anybody  else  will  have 
the  painstaken  industry  and,  at  the  same  time,  the  direct  personal 
interest  in  the  subject  to  embody  in  a  form  so  permanent  the  events 
of  a  campaign  so  brief  and  so  bootless— a  campaign  which  was 
begun  when  scarce  a  hope  was  left  of  that  independence  for  which 
we  had  fought  four  years  and  was  ended  after  Lee's  surrender  at 
Appomattox  had  enshrowed  in  the  pall  of  utter  despair  every 
heart  that  could  feel  a  patriot's  glow  throughout  all  our  stricken 

Because  it  was  my  honor  to  command  that  Confederate  army  at 
Mobile,  and  my  privilege  to  share  its  fortunes  to  the  very  end,  it 
is  my  duty  to  record  its  story.  T  cannot  do  so  more  briefly  than 
in  the  narrative  I  now  reproduce,  which  was  originally  written  by 
me  soon  after  Mr.  Davis,  our  late  honored  President,  was  released 
from  arrest  on  account  of  his  participation  in  the  war  of  secession. 

He  had  entrusted  me  with  the  command  of  the  Department  ot 
the  Gulf  and  the  defence  of  Mobile.  I  felt  a  soldier's  natural  de. 
sire  to  inform  him  how  that  trust  had  been  executed. 

General  Andrews'  book  and  excellent  maps,  in  connection  with 
the  report  and  comments  herein  given,  will  afford  to  the  military 
reader  all  that  is  essential  to  a  proper  understanding  of  the  last 
great  battle  which  has  yet  been  fought  to  uphold  the  rights  of  the 
States  against  the  encroachments  of  the  Federal  power. 

Dabney  H.  Maury, 

Mojor-General  late  Confederate  Army. 

New  Orleans,  Louisiana,  December  25, 1871. 

To  Hon.  Jeffeeson  Davis. 

Late  President  Southern  Confederacy : 

My  dear  sir— I  avail  myself  of  your  permission  to  narrate 
to  you  the  history  of  the  last  great  military  operation  between  tlie 
troops   of  the  Confederate  States  and  the  troops  of  the  Lniled 

Immediately  after  the  battle  of   Nasliville,  preparations   were 
commenced  for  the  reduction  of  Mobile.    Two  corps  which  had 

6  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

been  sent  to  reinforce  Thomas  at  Nashville  were  promptly  returned 
to  Canby  in  New  Orleans,  and  the  collection  of  material  and  trans- 
portation for  a  regular  siege  of  Mobile  commenced.  General  Taylor 
agreed  with  me  in  the  opinion  that  ten  thousand  men  in  Mobile 
would  compel  a  siege  by  regular  approaches,  would  occupy  the 
Federal  troops  in  the  Southwest  for  a  long  time,  and  would  be  as 
much  as  the  Confederacy  could  spare  for  such  objects.  He  thought 
he  could  send  me  such  a  force ;  and  believed  that  the  cavalry  under 
Forrest  would  be  able  to  defeat  Wilson  and  succor  me,  and  prevent 
the  successful  siege  of  the  place  if  I  could  hold  out  for  seven  days. 
The  general  orders  given  me  by  General  Beauregard  and  General 
Taylor  were  to  save  my  garrison,  after  having  defended  my  position 
as  long  as  was  consistent  with  the  ultimate  safet}^  of  my  troops 
and  to  burn  all  the  cotton  in  the  city,  except  that  which  had  been 
guaranteed  protection  against  such  burning  by  the  Confederate 

Canby  organized  his  forces  in  Mobile  bay  and  at  Pensacola. 
Two  army  corps  rendezvoused  on  Fish  river  under  the  immediate 
command  of  Canby ;  another  army  corps  asseniblt-d  at  Pensacola 
under  General  Steele.  The  whole  expeditionary  force  against 
Mobile  consisted  of  fifty  thousand  infantry,  seven  thousand  cavalry, 
a  very  large  train  of  field  and  siege  ariillery,  a  fleet  of  more  than 
twenty  men-of-war,  and  about  fifty  transports,  mostly  steamers. 
The  preparations  having  commenced  in  December,  the  attack 
began  on  the  25th  of  March. 

My  total  effective  force  was  seven  thousand  seven  hundred  ex- 
cellent infantry  and  artillery,  fifteen  hundred  cavalry,  and  about 
three  hundred  field  and  siege  guns.  A  naval  force  of  four  small 
gunboats  co-operated  with  my  troops. 

The  column  under  Canby  marched  from  Fish  river  against  the 
position  of  Spanish  Fort.  On  March  25th  information  received 
through  the  advanced  cavalry  induced  me  to  believe  that  the 
column  from  Fish  river  was  not  more  than  twelve  thousand  strong; 
and  expecting  it  would  march  by  the  river  road  with  its  left  covered 
by  the  fleet,  I  origanized  a  force  of  four  thousand  five  hundred  in- 
fantry and  ten  guns,  and  resolved  to  give  battle  to  Canby  at  the 
crossing  of  D'Olive  creek,  about  two  miles  distant  i'rom  the  works 
of  Spanish  Fort.  The  troops  ordered  for  this  service  were  the 
Missouri  brigade  of  Cockrell,  Gibson's  Louisiana  brigade,  Ector's 
Texas  and  North  Carolina  brigade,  and  Thomas'  brigade  of  Ala- 
bama boy-reserves,  the  third  Missouri  battery  and  Culpeper's 
battery,  I  felt  confident  then,  and  the  light  of  experience  justifies 
the  confidence,  that  had  Canby  marched  upon  us  with  only  twelve 
thousand  troops,  we  should  have  beaten  him  in  the  field;  but  lie 
moved  by  a  road  which  turned  our  position  far  to  the  lelt,  and  his 
force  was  near  forty  thousand  men.  I  therefore  moved  the  troops 
into  Spanish  Fort  and  Blakely,  and  awaited  his  attack  in  them.  I' 
assigned  General  St.  John  Liddell  to  tlie  immediate  command  of 
Blakely,  and  General  Randall  Gibson  to  the  immediate  command 

Defence  of  Mobile.  7 

of  Spanish  Fort.  They  were  both  gentlemen  of  birth  and  breeding, 
soldiers  of  good  education  and  experience,  and  entirely  devoted  to 
their  duty.  Spanish  Fort  was  garrisoned  by  Gibson's  Louisiana 
brigade,  the  brigade  of  Alabama  boy-reserves,  part  of  the  twenty- 
second  Louisiana  regiment  (heavy  artillerists),  Slocomb's  battery 
of  light  artillery,  Massenberg's  (Georgia)  light  artillery  company, 
and  a  few  others  not  now  remembered. 

The  works  of  Spanish  Fort  consisted  of  a  heavy  battery  of  six 
guns  on  a  blufi"  of  the  left  bank  of  the  Apalachie  river,  three 
thousand  yards  below  Battery  Huger.  This  was  strongly  enclosed 
in  the  rear.  On  commanding  eminences  five  hundred  to  six 
hundred  yards  to  its  rear  were  erected  three  other  redoubts,  which 
were  connected  by  light  rifle-pits  with  each  other.  The  wl)ole  crest 
of  the  line  of  defence  was  about  two  thousand  five  hundred  yards, 
and  swept  around  old  Spanish  Fort  as  a  centre,  with  the  right  flank 
resting  on  Apalachie  river,  the  left  flank  resting  on  Bayou  Minette. 
At  first  the  garrison  consisted  of  about  two  thousand  five  hundred 
efl'ectives,  but  I  reduced  its  numbers  by  transferring  the  brigade  of 
boy-reserves  to  Bhikely,  and  replacing  it  by  veterans  of  Ector's 
brigade  and  Holtzelaw's  Alabama  brigade.  After  this  change  was 
made  (about  the  fourth  day  of  the  siege)  the  position  wtis  held  by 
fifteen  hundred  muskets  and  less  than  three  hundred  artillerists 

On  the  twenty-sixth  of  March,  Canby  invested  tlie  position  with 
a  force  of  one  corps  and  two  divisions  of  infantry,  and  a  large  siege 
train;  another  division  of  infantry  invested  Blakely  on  the  same 
day.  The  siege  of  Spanish  Fort  was  at  once  commenced  by  regular 
approaches,  and  was  prosecuted  with  great  industry  and  caution. 
The  defence  was  active,  bold  and  defiant.  The  garrison  fought  all 
day  and  worked  all  night,  until  the  night  of  April  8th,  when  the 
enemy  eff"ected  a  lodgment  on  the  left  flank  which  threatened  to 
close  the  route  of  evacuation  for  the  garrison.  I  had  caused  a 
plank  road  or  bridge  about  one  mile  long  to  be  made  on  trestles 
from  the  left  flank  of  the  lines  of  Spanish  Fort,  over  the  Bayou 
'Minette  and  the  marshes,  to  a.  point  opposite  Battery  Huger;  and 
General  Gibson's  orders  were  to  save  his  garrison,  when  tlie  siege 
had  been  protracted  as  long  as  possible  without  losing  his  troops, 
by  marching  out  over  this  bridge.  On  the  eighth  of  April  1  ordered 
Gibson  to  commence  the  evacuation  that  nigiit,  by  sending  over  to 
Mobile  all  surplus  stores,  etc.,  for  which  ])urpose  I  sent  him  some 
of  the  blockade  steamers.  They  arrived  in  good  time  to  save  his 
garrison,  for  at  10  P.  M.  Gibson,  finding  the  enemy  too  firmly  estab- 
lished on  his  left  to  be  dislodged,  in  obedience  to  his  orders  inarched 
his  garrison  out  on  the  plank  road,  and  abandoned  the  position  of 
Spanish  Fort  and  its  material  to  the  enemy.  He  lost  some 
pickets  and  about  thirty-five  cannon  and  mortars.  I  moved  the 
troops  to  Mobile,  anticipating  an  early  attack  on  the  city.  I  con- 
sider the  defence  of  Spanish  Fort  by  General  Gibson  and  the 
gentlemen  of  his  command  one  of  tlie  most  spirited  defences  ot 
the  war. 

g  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Blakely  was  atta<;ked  by  regular  siege  on  the  1st  of  April,  Steele's 
corps  came  down  from  the  direction  of  Pollard,  and  with  the  divi- 
sions that  had  been  lying  before  Blakely  since  the  26th,  broke 
ground  very  cautiously  against  the  place.  The  position  of  Blakely 
was  better  for  defence  than  that  of  Spanish  Fort.  The  works  con- 
sisted of  nine  lunettes  connected  by  good  rifle-pits,  and  covered  in 
front  by  a  double  line  of  abatis,  and  of  an  advanced  line  of  rifle- 
pits.  The  crest  was  about  three  thousand  yards  long.  Both  flanks 
rested  on  Apalachie  river,  on  the  marsh.  No  part  of  the  line  was 
exposed  to  enfilade  fire.  Thtf  garrison  was  the  noble  brigade  of 
Missourians,  Elisha  Gates  commanding,  the  survivors  of  more  than 
twenty  battles,  and  the  finest  troops  I  have  ever  seen;  the  Alabama 
boy-reserve  brigade  under  General  Thomas,  part  of  Holtzelaw's 
brigade,  Barry's  Mississippi  brigade,  the  First  Mississippi  light 
artillery  armed  as  infantry,  several  light  batteries  with  about  thirty 
five  pieces  of  field  and  siege  artillery,  besides  Cohorn  and  siege 
mortars.  The  whole  eff"ective  force  was  about  2,700  men  under 
General  St.  John  Liddell.  The  gallant  General  Cockrell  of  Mis- 
souri was  next  in  command. 

During  Sunday,  the  day  after  the  evacuation  of  Spanish  Fort, 
the  enemy  was  continually  moving  troops  from  below  towards 
Blakely,  and  Sunday  evening  about  five  o'clock  he  assaulted  the 
centre  of  the  line  with  a  heavy  column  of  eleven  brigades  (about 
22,000  men  in  three  lines  of  battle)  and  carried  the  position, 
capturing  all  of  the  material  and  of  the  troops,  except  about  150 
men,  who  escaped  over  the  marshes  and  river  by  swimming.  On 
the  loss  of  Blakely  I  resolved  to  evacuate  Mobile.  My  effective 
force  was  now  reduced  to  less  than  5,000  men,  and  the  supply  of 
ammunition  had  been  nearly  exhausted  in  the  siege  of  the  two 
position  which  the  enemy  had  taken  from  me.  Mobile  contained 
nearly  forty  thousand  non-combatants.  The  city  and  its  population 
were  entirely  exposed  to  the  fire  which  would  be  directed  against 
its  defences.  With  the  means  now  left  me  an  obstinate  or  pro- 
tracted defence  would  have  been  impossible,  while  the  consequences 
of  its  being  stormed  by  a  combined  force  of  Federal  and  negro 
troops  would  have  been  shocking — my  orders  were  to  save  my 
troops,  after  having  made  as  much  time  as  possible — therefore  I 
decided  to  evacuate  Mobile  at  once.  BlakeJy  was  carried  on  Sunday 
evening  at  5  o'clock;  I  completed  the  evacuation  of  Mobile  on 
Wednesday  morning,  having  dismantled  the  works,  removed  the 
stores  best  suited  for  troops  in  the  field,  transferred  the  commissary 
stores  to  the  Mayor  for  the  use  of  the  people,  and  marched  out 
with  4,500  infantry  and  artillery,  twenty-seven  light  cannon,  and 
brought  off  all  the  land  and  water  transportation. 

During  the  night  of  Tuesday  I  remained  in  the  city  with  the 
rear  guard  of  300  Louisiana  infantry,  commanded  by  Colonel  Robert 
Lindsey,  and  marched  out  on  Wednesday  morning  with  them  at 
sunrise.  I  left  General  Gibson  to  see  to  the  withdrawrl  of  the 
cavalry  pickets  and  the  burning  of  the  cotton.      At  11  o'clock, 

Defence  of  Mobile.  '  $ 

the  whole  business  of  evacuation  being  completed,  General  Gibson 
sent  a  white  flag  to  the  fleet  to  inform  the  enemy  that  he  might 
take  quiet  possession  of  Mobile,  since  there  was"  no  Confederate 
force  to  oppose  him.  Soon  after  midday  Canby  marched  in.  Six 
thousand  cavalry  had  been  sent  up  the  country  from  Pensacola  to 
prevent  my  escape;  but  they  could  not  get  across  the  Alabama 
and  Tombigbee  rivers,  which  with  their  bottoms  were  flooded,  and 
I  reached  Meridian  with  my  army  unopposed.  No  active  pursuit 
was  made.  By  General  Taylor's  orders  I  moved  the  troops  to  Cuba 
station,  refitted  the  transportation  and  field  batteries,  and  made 
ready  to  march  across  and  join  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  in 
Carolina.  The  tidings  of  Lee's  surrender  soon  came,  then  of  the 
capture  of  the  President  of  the  Confederacy.  But  under  all  these 
sad  and  depressing  trials,  the  little  army  of  Mobile  remained 
steadfastly  together,  and  in  perfect  order  and  discipline  awaited 
the  final  issue  of  events. 

On  the  8th  of  May  we  marched  back  to  Meridian  to  surrender, 
and  on  the  13th  of  May  we  had  completed  the  turning  in  of  arms 
(to  our  own  ordnance  officers),  and  the  last  of  us  departed  for  his 
home  a  paroled  prisoner  of  war. 

Nothing  in  the  history  of  those  anxious  days  appears  to  me 
more  touching  and  devoted  than  the  conduct  of  the  garrison  of 
Mobile.  Representatives  of  every  State  in  the  Southern  Confede- 
racy, veterans  of  every  army  and  of  scores  of  battles,  they  resisted 
an  army  of  ten-fold  their  numbers,  until  near  half  their  force  was 
destroyed,  and  then  made  good  their  retreat  in  good  order.  After 
reaching  their  encampment  near  Cuba,  they  preserved  the  dignity 
of  brave  and  devoted  men  who  had  staked  all  and  lost  all  save 
honor.  Every  night  they  assembled  around  the  camp-fires  of  their 
generals  and  called  for  tidings  from  the  army  of  the  Conl'ederacy 
and  from  their  President.  After  receiving  ail  of  the  information 
we  could  impart,  they  would  give  us  "three  cheers''  and  return  to 
their  bivouacs.  I  think  there  was  no  day  on  which  they  would 
not  have  attacked  and  beaten  a  superior  force  of  the  enemy. 

During  the  fourteen  days  of  siege  of  Spanish  Fort,  the  daily  loss 
of  the  garrison  in  killed  and  wounded  ranged  from  fifteen  to  twenty. 
During  the  eight  days  of  the  siege  of  Blakely,  the  losses  were  from 
twenty  to  twenty-five  daily.  The  only  officer  of  rank  killed  was 
my  Chief  of  Artillery,  Colonel  W.  E.  Burnett,  son  of  the  venerable 
ex-President  of  Texas.  He  was  a  man  of  rare  attainments,  of 
extraordinary  military  capacity,  of  unshrinking  courage,  and  pure 
character.  On  the  morning  of  April  4th  I  took  him  with  me  to 
Spanish  Fort  to  establish  a  new  battery:  a  sharpshooter  shot  him 
in  the  forehead,  and  he  died  in  a  few  hours. 

There  were  many  instances  of  fine  conduct  during  these  opera- 
tions. You  may  remember  there  were  two  little  batteries  con- 
structed on  the  right  bank  of  the  Apalachie  river,  several  miles 
below  Blakely,  called  "Huger"and  "Tracey";  they  were  to  defend 
that  river,     they  had  but  little  over  two  hundred  rounds  ot  am- 


10  Southern  Histcrlcal  Society  Papers. 

munition  to  each  gun;  therefore  I  made  them  hold  their  fire  during 
the  whole  siege.  The  garrisons  of  these  batteries  were  300  men  of 
the  Twenty-second  Louisiana,  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
Patton,  of  Virginia.  Early  in  the  action  the  enemy  opened  some 
Parrott  batteries  on  these  forts,  and  for  more  than  ten  days  they 
silently  received  the  fire  which  they  might  not  reply  to.  After 
Blakely  fell,  these  two  little  outposts  remained  close  to  the  centre 
of  the  army  of  the  enemy  (50,000  men),  who  were  continually 
opening  new  guns  upon  them  and  incrensing  their  fire;  still  they 
replied  not.  On  their  right  lay  the  great  Federal  fleet;  ten  miles 
to  their  rear  was  their  nearest  support — in  Mobile — and  a  waste  of 
marshes  and  water  lay  between.  At  last  came  to  them  the  long 
looked  for  order:  "Open  all  your  guns  upon  the  enemy,  keep  up 
an  active  fire,  and  hold  your  position  until  you  receive  orders  to 
retire."  And  so  they  did,  until  late  on  Tuesday  night  I  sent  Major 
Cummins,  of  my  staff,  to  inform  them  the  evacuation  of  Mobile 
was  complete,  their  whole  duty  was  performed,  and  they  might 
retire.  The  first  steamer  I  sent  for  them  grounded,  and  I  had 
(about  2  A.  M.)  to  dispatch  another.  Every  man  was  brought 
safely  off,  with  his  small  arms  and  ammunition — they  dismantled 
their  batteries  before  they  abandoned  them — and  it  was  nine  o'clock 
Wednesday  morning  before  they  left  the  wharf  of  Mobile  for 

These  garrisons  fired  the  last  cannon  in  the  last  great  battle  of 
the  war  for  the  freedom  of  the  Southern  States.  I  believe  the 
enemy's  loss  during  all  these  operations  was  not  less  than  7,000 
killed  and  wounded.  Two  of  his  ironclads  were  sunk  on  Apalachie 
bar  by  torpedoes;  four  other  armed  vessels  and  five  transports  were 
sunk  during  and  after  the  siege — making,  with  the  Tecumseh,  twelve 
hostile  vessels  destroyed  in  Mobile  bay  by  the  torpedoes. 

Our  own  little  fleet  did  all  they  could  to  aid  the  defence,  but 
there  Avas  little  opportunity  for  them.  On  the  morning  of  the 
evacuation,  the  two  floating  batteries  were  sunk  in  the  river  by 
their  own  crews.  The  other  vessels  were  moved  up  the  Tombigbee 
river  to  Demopolis,  in  convoy  of  the  fleet  of  transports. 

I  reflect  with  satisfaction  that  it  was  my  privilege  to  command 
Confederate  troops  in  our  last  great  battle,  and  that  those  troops 
behaved  to  the  last  with  so  much  courage  and  dignity. 
With  highest  respect,  I  remain  truly  yours, 

Dabney  H.  Maury, 

Major-General  late  Confer! er ate  Army^ 
Frisoner  of  War  on  Parole. 

Remarks,  Etc. 

During  the  siege  of  Spanish  Fort  the  expenditure  of  small-arm 
ammunition  was  very  great.  The  garrison  at  first  fired  36,000 
rounds  per  day ;  the  young  reserves  spent  it  freely.  The  old  Texans 
and  veterans  from  North  Carolina  and  Alabama,  who  replaced  the 

Defence  of  Mobile.  H 

brigade  of  boys,  were  more  deliberate  and  careful  of  their  ammu- 
nition, and  we  reduced  its  expenditure  to  12,000  rounds  per  day. 

Tiie  torpedoes  were  the  most  striking  and  effective  of  the  new 
contrivance  for  defence  which  were  used  during  these  operations. 
Every  avenue  of  approach  to  the  outwnrl<s  or  to  the  city  of  Mobile 
was  guarded  by  submarine  torpedoes,  so  that  it  was  impossible  for 
any  vessel  draAving  three  feet  of  water  to  get  within  effective  cannon 
range  of  any  part  of  our  defences.  Two  ironclads  attempted  to  get 
near  enough  to  Spanish  Fort  to  take  part  in  the  bombardment. 
They  both  suddenly  struck  the  bottom  on  Apalachie  bar,  and 
thenceforward  the  fleet  made  no  further  attempt  to  encounter  the 
almost  certain  destruction  which  they  saw  awaited  any  vessel  which 
might  attempt  to  enter  our  torpedo-guarded  waters.  But  many 
were  sunk  when  least  expecting  it.  Some  went  down  long  after 
the  Confederate  forces  had  evacuated  Mobile.  The  Tecumseh  was 
probably  sunk  on  her  own  torpedo.  While  steaming  in  lead  of 
Farragut's  fleet  she  carried  a  torpedo  affixed  to  a  spar  which  pro- 
jected some  twenty  feet  from  her  bows;  she  proposed  to  use  this 
torpedo  against  the  Tennessee,  our  only  formidable  ship;  but  while 
passing  Fort  Morgan  a  shot  from  that  fort  cut  away  the  stays  by 
which  the  lecuwseK's  torpedo  was  secured;  it  then  doubled  under 
her,  and  exploding  fair]}'-  under  the  bottom  of  the  ill-fated  ship, 
she  careened  and  sunk  instantly  in  ten  fathoms  of  water.  Only 
six  or  eight  of  her  crew  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  officers  and  men 
were  saved — the  others  still  lie  in  their  iron  coffin  at  the  bottom  of 
the  bay.  Besides  the  Tecumseh,  eleven  other  Federal  vessels,  men- 
of-war  and  transports,  were  sunk  by  torpedoes  in  Mobile  bay;  and 
their  effectiveness  as  a  means  of  defence  of  harbors  was  clearly 
established  by  the  results  of  this  siege.  Had  we  understood  their 
power  in  the  beginning  of  the  war  as  we  came  to  do  before  its  end, 
we  could  have  effectually  defended  every  harbor,  channel  or  river 
throughout  the  Confederate  States  against  all  sorts  of  naval  attacks. 
It  is  noteworthy  that  the  Confederate  ironclad  Virginia,  by  her 
fearful  destruction  of  the  Federal  war-ships  in  Hampton  Roads 
early  in  the  war,  caused  all  the  maritime  powers  of  the  world  to 
remodel  their  navies  and  build  ironclads  at  enormous  expense, 
only  to  learn  by  the  Confederate  lessons  of  Mobile  that  ironclads 
cannot  avail  against  torpedoes;  for,  as  the  Federal  naval  captain 
who  had  been  engaged  in  clearing  Mobile  bay  of  the  torpedoes  and 
of  the  wrecks  they  had  made,  after  the  close  of  the  war  remarked 
to  the  writer:  "It  makes  no  difference  whether  a  ship  is  of  wood, 
or  is  tin  clad,  or  is  iron-clad,  if  she  gets  over  a  torpedo  it  blows  the 
same  size  hole  in  the  bottom  of  all  alike,  which  I  found  on  an 
average  to  be  just  twelve  feet  by  eight  square."  He  furthermore 
stated  that  he-  had  ascertained  that  in  every  instance  but  one  of 
the  wrecks  in  Mobile  bay,  the  vessel  had  been  sunk  while  backmg— 
only  one  exploded  a  torpedo  while  going  ahead. 

During  the  fight  in  Spanish  Fort  our  cannoniers  found  effectual 
protection  from  the  extraordinarily  heavy  fire  of  sharpshooters  m 

12  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

mantlets  or  screens,  made  by  plates  of  steel  about  two  feet  by  three 
square,  and  about  half-inch  thick;  they  were  so  secured  to  the 
inner  faces  of  the  embrasures  that  thoy  were  quickly  lowered  and 
raised  as  the  gun  ran  into  battery  or  recoiled.  General  Beauregard, 
before  the  battle  began,  gave  me  the  model  of  a  capital  sort  of 
wooden  embrasure,  to  be  used  by  our  own  sharpshooters;  they  were 
to  be  covered  over  by  sand-bags  as  soon  as  the  rifleman  should 
establish  himself  in  his  pit.  The  old  veterans  of  the  Army  of 
Tennessee  at  once  acknowledged  their  superiority  over  "  head  logs,*' 
or  any  other  contrivance  for  covering  sharpshooters,  and  the  demand 
for  them  was  soon  greater  than  I  could  supply. 

The  Brooke  guns,  of  which  I  had  a  large  number,  of  calibres 
ranging  from  six  and  four-tenths  up  to  eleven  inches,  were  more 
formidable  and  serviceable  than  any  which  the  Federals  used 
against  me.  These  guns  were  cast  at  Selma  of  the  iron  about 
Briarfield  in  North  Alabama.  It  must  be  the  best  gun-metal  in 
the  world.  Some  of  our  Brooke  guns  were  subjected  to  extraordi- 
narily severe  tests,  yet  not  one  of  them  burst  or  was  in  any  degree 
injured:  nt  the  same  time  they  outranged  the  enemy's  best  and 
heaviest  Parrotts,  which  not  unlrequently  burst  by  overcharging 
and  over-elevation. 

By  a  capital  invention  of  Colonel  William  E.  Burnett,  of  Texas, 
our  gun-carriages  were  much  simplified;  we  were  enabled  to  dis- 
pense with  eccentrics  entirely,  and  our  heaviest  cannon  could  be 
run  into  battery  with  one  hand. 

In  every  })art  of  this  narrative  I  have  been  thinking  of  the  staff 
officers  who  were  with  me  throughout  the  whole  of  those  trying 
tinjes — friends  who  have  always  been  true  and  soldiers  who  were 
tried  by  every  test.  Whatever  efficiency  attended  the  operations  en- 
trusted to  my  conduct  throughout  the  war,  was  due  to  their  intelli- 
gence, courage  and  devotion.  Three  of  them  sleep  in  their  soldier's 
graves,  and  were  in  mercy  spared  the  miseries  of  the  subjugation 
against  which  they  fought  so  nobly.  John  Maury,  m}^  Aidede- 
Camp,  gave  up  his  young  life  at  Vicksburg,  in  1863;  Columbus 
Jackson,  Inspector  General,  soon  followed  him,  and  William  E. 
Burnett,  Chief  of  Artillery,  fell  in  Spanish  Fort,  and  was  almost 
the  last  officer  killed  during  the  war. 

D.  W.  Flowewee,  Adjutant-General ;  John  Gillespie,  Ordnance 
Officer;  Edmund  Cummings,  Inspector-General;  Sylvester  Nideleh, 
Surgeon;  Dick  Holland  and  John  Mason,  Aides-de-Camp, survived 
the  dangers  of  those  arduous  campaigns,  and  are  still  manfully 
combatting  the  evils  we  fought  togetlier  to  avert  from  our  people. 
They  were  gallant  soldiers  in  war,  and  have  shown  themselves 
good  citizens  in  the  "peace"  vouchsafed  to  us. 

D.  H.  M. 

Detailed  Minutise  of  Soldier  Life.  13 

The  following  farewell  order  was  published  to  the  troops  who 
remained  with  me  after  the  battle  of  Mobile: 

Headquarteks  Maury's  Division, 
Camp  six  miles  east  of  Meridian,  Mississippi,  May  7,  1865. 

Soldiers— Our  last  march  is  almost  ended.  To-morrow  we  shall 
lay  down  the  arms  we  have  borne  for  four  years  to  defend  our  rights, 
to  win  our  liberties. 

We  know  that  we  have  borne  them  with  honor;  and  we  only 
now  surrender  to  the  overwhelming  power  of  the  enemy,  which 
has  rendered  further  resistance  hopeless  and  mischievous  lo  our 
own  people  and  cause.  But  we  shall  never  forget  the  noble  com- 
rades who  have  stood  shoulder  to  shoulder  with  us  until  now;  the 
noble  dead  who  have  been  martyred;  the  noble  Southern  women 
who  have  been  wronged  and  are  unavenged;  or  the  noble  princi- 
ples for  which  we  have  fought.  Conscious  that  we  have  phiyed 
our  part  like  men,  confident  of  the  righteousness  of  our  cause, 
without  regret  for  our  past  action,  and  without  despair  of  the 
future,  let  us  to-morrow,  with  the  dignity  of  the  veterans  who  are 
the  last  to  surrender,  perform  the  sad  duty  which  has  been  assigned 
to  us. 

Your  friend  and  comrade, 

Dabney  H.  Maury, 
Major-General  Confederate  Army. 

Detailed  Minntiee  of  Soldier  Life  in  the  Army  of  Nortliern  Tirgrinia. 

By  Caklton  McCarthy, 
Private  Second  Company  Blchmond  Howitzers,  Cutshaw's  Battalion. 

Paper  No.  3 — On  the  March. 

It  is  a  common  mistake  of  those  who  write  on  subjects  familiar 
to  themselves,  to  omit  that  particularity  of  description  and  detailed 
mention  which,  to  one  not  so  conversant  with  the  matters  discussed, 
is  necessary  to  a  clear  appreciation  of  the  meaning  of  the  writer. 
This  mistake  is  all  the  more  fatal  when  the  writer  lives  and  writes 
in  one  age  and  his  readers  live  in  another. 

And  so  a  soldier,  writing  for  the  information  of  the  citizen,  should 
forget  his  familiarity  with  the  every-day  scenes  of  soldier  life  and 
strive  to  record  even  those  things  which  seem  to  him  too  common 
to  mention.  Who  does  not  know  all  about  the  marching  of  sol- 
diers? Those  who  have  never  marched  with  them  and  some  who 
have.  The  varied  experience  of  thousands  would  not  tell  the 
whole  story  of  the  march.     Every  man  must  be  heard  before  the 

14  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

story  is  told,  and  even  then  the  part  of  those  who  fell  by  the  way 
is  wanting. 

Orders  to  move!  Where?  when?  what  for? — are  the  eager  ques- 
tions of  the  men  as  they  begin  their  preparations  to  march.  Gen- 
erally nobody  can  answer,  and  the  journey  is  commenced  in  utter 
ignorance  of  where  it  is  to  end.  But  shrewd  guesses  are  made,  and 
scraps  of  information  will  be  picked  up  on  the  way.  The  main 
thought  must  be  to  "get  ready  to  move."  The  orderly  sergeant  is 
shouting  "fall  in,"  and  there  is  no  time  to  lose.  The  probability  is 
that  before  you  get  your  blanket  rolled  up,  find  your  frying  pan, 
haversack,  axe,  &c.,  and  "fall  in,"  the  roll-call  will  be  over,  and 
some  "  extra  duty  "  provided. 

No  wonder  there  is  bustle  in  the  camp.  Rapid  decisions  are  to 
be  made  between  the  various  conveniences  which  have  accumu- 
lated, for  some  must  be  left.  One  fellow  picks  up  the  skillet,  holds 
it  awhile,  mentally  determining  how  much  it  weighs,  and  what 
will  be  the  weight  of  it  after  carrying  it  five  miles,  and  reluctantly, 
with  a  half-ashamed,  sly  look,  drops  it  and  takes  his  place  in  ranks. 
Another  having  added  to  his  store  of  blankets  too  freely,  now  has 
to  decide  which  of  the  two  or  three  he  will  leave.  The  old  water- 
bucket  looks  large  and  heavy,  but  one  stout-hearted,  strong-armed 
man  has  taken  it  affectionately  to  his  care. 

This  is  the  time  to  say  farewell  to  the  bread-tray,  farewell  to  the 
little  piles  of  clean  straw  laid  between  two  logs,  where  it  was  so 
easy  to  sleep;  farewell  to  those  piles  of  wood,  cut  with  so  much 
labor;  farewell  to  the  girls  in  the  neighborhood;  farewell  to  the 
spring,  farewell  to  "our  tree"  and  "our  fire,"  good-bye  to  the  fel- 
lows who  are  not  going,  and  a  general  good-bye  to  the  very  hills 
and  valleys. 

Soldiers  commonly  threw  away  the  most  valuable  articles  they 
possessed.  Bhmkets,  overcoats,  shoes,  bread  and  meat, — all  gave 
way  to  the  necessities  of  the  march;  and  what  one  man  threw  away 
would  frequently  be  the  very  article  another  wanted  and  would 
immediately  pick  up.     So  there  was  not  much  lost  after  all. 

The  first  hour  or  so  of  the  march  was  generally  quite  orderly — 
the  men  preserving  their  places  in  ranks  and  marching  with  a  good 
show  of  order;  but  soon  some  lively  fellow  whistles  an  air,  some- 
body else  starts  a  song,  the  whole  column  breaks  out  with  roars  of 
laughter,  ''route  step"  takes  the  place  of  order,  and  the  jolly  sing- 
ing, laughing,  talking  and  joking  that  follows  none  could  describe. 

Now  let  any  young  officer  dare  to  pass  along  who  sports  a  new 

Detailed  Minutiae  of  Soldier  Life.  15 

hat,  coat,  saddle,  or  anything  new,  or  odd,  or  fine,  and  how  nicely 
he  is  attended  to. 

The  expressions  of  good-natured  fun,  or  contempt,  which  one 
regiment  of  inftmtry  was  capable  of  uttering  in  a  day  for  the  bene- 
fit of  passers  by,  would  fill  a  volume.  As  one  thing  or  another 
in  the  dress  of  the  "subject"  of  their  remarks  attracted  attention, 
they  would  shout,  "Come  out  of  that  hat!! — you  can't  hide  in 
thar!"  "Come  out  of  that  coat,  come  out — there's  a  man  in  it!!" 
"  Come  out  of  them  boots!!"  The  infantry  seemed  to  know  ex- 
actly what  to  say  to  torment  cavalry  and  artillery. 

If  any  one  on  the  roadside  was  simple  enough  to  recognize  and 
address  by  name  a  man  in  the  ranks,  the  whole  column  would 
kindly  respond,  and  add  all  sorts  of  pleasant  remarks,  such  as, 
"Halloa,  John,  here's  your  brother!"  "Bill!!  oh  Bill!!!  hers's 
your  ma ! "  "  Glad  to  see  you  ! — How's  your  grandma?  "  "  How- 
dey  do!"     "Come  out  of  that  'biled  shirt'!" 

Troops  on  the  march  were  generally  so  cheerful  and  gay  that  an 
outsider  looking  on  them  as  they  marched  would  hardly  imagine 
how  they  suffered.  In  summer  time,  the  dust,  combined  with  the 
heat,  caused  great  suffering.  The  nostrils  of  the  men,  filled  with 
dust,  became  dry  and  feverish,  and  even  the  throat  did  not  escape. 
The  "grit"  was  felt  between  the  teeth,  and  the  eyes  were  rendered 
almost  useless.  There  was  dust  in  eyes,  mouth,  ears  and  hair.  The 
shoes  were  full  of  sand,  and  penetrating  the  clothes,  and  getting  in 
at  the  neck,  wrists,  and  ankles,  the  dust,  mixed  with  perspiration, 
produced  an  irritant  almost  as  active  as  cantharides.  The  heat 
was  at  times. terrific,  but  the  men  become  greatly  accustomed  to  it, 
and  endured  it  with  wonderful  ease.  Their  heavy  woollen  clothes 
were  a  great  annoyance.  Tough  linen  or  cotton  clothes  would 
have  been  a  great  relief;  indeed,  there  are  many  objections  to 
woollen  clothing  for  soldiers  even  in  winter.  The  sun  produced 
great  changes  in  the  appearance  of  the  men.  Their  skins  were 
tanned  to  a  dark  brown  or  red,  their  hands  black  almost,  and, 
added  to  this  the  long,  uncut  beard  and  hair,  they  too  burned  to  a 
strange  color,  made  them  barely  recognizable  to  the  homefolks. 

If  the  dust  and  the  heat  were  not  on  hand  to  annoy,  their  very 
able  substitutes  were.  Mud,  cold,  rain,  snow,  hail  and  wind  took 
their  places.  Rain  was  the  greatest  discomfort  a  soldier  could  have. 
It  was  more  uncomfortable  than  the  severest  cold  with  clear 
weather.  Wet  clothes,  shoes  and  blankets;  wet  meat  and  bread ; 
wet  feet  and  wet  ground;  wet  wood  to  burn,  or,  rather,  not  to  burn; 

16  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

wet  arms  and  ammunition;  wet  ground  to  sleep  on,  mud  to 
wade  through,  swollen  creeks  to  ford,  muddy  springs,  and  a  thou- 
sand other  discomforts  attended  the  rain.  There  was  no  comfort 
on  a  rainy  day  or  night  except  in  "bed"— that  is,  under  your 
blanket  and  oilcloth.  Cold  winds,  blowing  the  rain  in  the  faces 
of  the  men,  increased  the  discomfort.  Mud  was  often  so  deep  as 
to  submerge  the  horses  and  mules,  and  at  times  it  was  necessary  for 
one  man  or  more  to  extricate  another  from  the  mud  holes  in  the 

Marching  at  night,  when  very  dark,  was  attended  with  additional 
discomforts  and  dangers,  such  as  falling  ofif  bridges,  stumbling  into 
ditches,  tearing  the  face  and  injuring  the  eyes  against  the  bushes 
and  projecting  limbs  of  trees,  and  getting  separated  from  your  own 
company  and  hopelessly  lost  in  the  multitude. 

Of  course,  a  man  lost  had  no  sympathy.  If  he  dared  to  ask  a 
question,  every  man  in  hearing  would  answer,  each  differently,  and 
then  the  whole  multitude  would  roar  with  laughter  at  the  lost  man, 
and  ask  him  "if  his  mother  knew  he  was  out?" 

Very  few  men  had  comfortable  or  fitting  shoes,  and  less  had 
socks,  and,  as  a  consequence,  the  suffering  from  bruised  and  in- 
flamed feet  was  terrible.  It  was  a  common  practice,  on  long 
marches,  for  the  men  to  take  ofif  their  shoes  and  carry  them  in 
their  hands  or  swung  over  their  shoulder. 

When  large  bodies  of  troops  were  moving  on  the  same  road 
the  alternate  "halt"  and  "forward"  was  very  harassing.  Every 
obstacle  produced  a  halt  and  caused  the  men  at  once  to  sit  and  lie 
down  on  the  road-side  where  shade  or  grass  tempted  them,  and 
about  the  time  they  got  fixed  they  would  hear  the  word  "for- 
ward!" and  then  have  to  move  at  increased  speed  to  close  up  the 
gap  in  the  column. 

Sitting  down  for  a  few  minutes  on  a  long  march  is  pleasant,  but 
it  does  not  always  pa3^  When  the  march  is  resumed  the  limbs 
are  stiff  and  sore,  and  the  man  rather  worsted  by  the  rest. 

About  noon  on  a  hot  day,  some  fellow  with  the  water  instinct 
would  determine  in  his  own  mind  that  a  well  was  not  far  ahead, 
and  start  ofif  in  a  trot  to  reach  it  before  the  column.  Of  course 
another  followed  and  another,  till  a  stream  of  men  were  hurrying 
to  the  well,  which  was  soon  completely  surrounded  by  a  thirsty  mob, 
yelling  and  pushing  and  pulling  to  get  to  the  bucket  as  the  wind- 
lass brought  it  again  and  again  to  the  surface.  Impatience  and 
haste  soon  overturn  the  windlass,  spatter  the  water  all  around  the 

Detailed  Minutix  of  Soldier  Life.  17 

well  till  the  whole  crowd  is  wading  in  mud,  and  now  the  rope  is 
broken  and  the  bucket  falls  to  the  bottom.  But  there  is  a  substi- 
tute for  rope  and  bucket.  The  men  hasten  away  and  get  long, 
slim  poles,  and  on  them  tie,  by  their  straps,  a  number  of  canteens, 
which  they  lower  into  the  well  and  fill,  and  unless,  as  was  fre- 
quently the  case,  the  whole  lot  slipped  off  and  fell  to  the  bottom, 
drew  them  to  the  top  and  distributed  them  to  their  owners,  who 
at  once  threw  their  heads  back,  inserted  the  nozzles  in  their  mouths 
and  drank  the  last  drop,  hastening  at  once  to  rejoin  the  marching 
column,  leaving  behind  them  a  dismantled  and  dry  well.  It  was 
in  vain  the  officers  tried  to  stop  the  stream  making  for  the  water, 
and  equally  vain  to  attempt  to  move  the  crowd  while  a  drop  re- 
mained accessible.  Many  who  were  thoughtful  carried  full  can- 
teens to  comrades  in  the  column  who  had  not  been  able  to  get  to 
the  well,  and  no  one  who  has  not  had  experience  of  it  knows  the 
thrill  of  gratification  and  delight  which  those  fellows  knew  when 
the  cool  stream  gurgled  from  the  battered  canteen  down  their 
parched  throats. 

In  very  hot  weather,  when  the  necessities  of  the  service  allowed  it, 
there  was  a  halt  about  noon,  of  an  hour  or  so,  to  rest  the  men  and 
give  them  a  chance  to  cool  oflf  and  get  the  sand  and  gravel  out  of 
their  shoes.  This  time  was  spent  by  some  in  absolute  repose — 
but  the  lively  "boys  told  many  a  yarn,  cracked  many  a  joke,  and 
sung  many  a  song  between  "  halt "  and  "  column  forward ! "  Some 
took  the  opportunity,  if  water  was  near,  to  bathe  their  feet,  hands 
and  face,  and  nothing  could  be  more  enjoyable. 

The  passage  of  a  cider  cart  (a  barrel  on  wheels)  was  a  rare  and 
exciting  occurrence.  The  rapidity  with  which  a  barrel  of  sweet 
cider  was  consumed  would  astonish  any  one  who  saw  it  for  the  first 
time,  and  generally  the  owner  had  cause  to  wonder  at  the  small 
return  in  cash.  Sometimes  a  desperately  enterprising  darkey  would 
approach  the  column  with  a  cart  load  of  pies  "so  called."  It 
would  be  impossible  to  describe  accurately  the  taste  or  appearance 
of  these  pies.  They  were  generally  similar  in  appearance,  size 
and  thickness  to  a  pale  specimen  of  "Old  Virginia"  buckwheat 
cakes,  and  had  a  taste  which  resembled  a  combination  of  rancid 
lard  and  crab  apples.  It  was  generally  supposed  that  they  con- 
tained dried  apples,  and  the  sellers  were  careful  to  state  that  they 
had  "sugar  in  'em"  and  "was  mighty  nice."  It  was  rarely  the 
case  that  any  "trace"  of  sugar  was  found,  but  they  filled  up  a 
hungry  man  wonderfully. 

18  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Men  of  sense,  and  there  were  many  such  in  the  ranks,  were  neces- 
sarily desious  of  knowing  where  or  how  far  they  were  to  march,  and 
suffered  greatly  from  a  feeling  of  helpless  ignorance  of  where  they 
were  and  whither  bound — whether  to  battle  or  camp.  Frequently, 
when  anticipating  the  quiet  and  rest  of  an  ideal  camp,  they  were 
thrown,  weary  and  exhausted,  into  the  face  of  a  waiting  enemy; 
and  at  times,  after  anticipating  a  sharp  fight,  having  formed  line  of 
battle  and  braced  themselves  for  the  coming  danger,  suffered  all 
the  apprehension  and  gotten  themselves  in  good  fighting  trim^ 
they  would  be  marched  off  in  the  dryest  and  prosiest  sort  of  style 
and  ordered  into  camp,  where,  in  all  probability,  they  had  to  "wait 
for  the  wagon,"  and  for  the  bread  and  meat  therein,  until  the  pro- 
verb, "Patient  waiting  is  no  loss,"  lost  all  its  force  and  beauty. 

Occasionally,  when  the  column  extended  for  a  mile  or  more,  and 
the  road  was  one  dense  moving  mass  of  men,  a  cheer  would  be 
heard  away  ahead  and  increasing  in  volume  as  it  approached  until 
there  was  one  universal  shout.  Then  some  general  favorite  officer 
would  dash  by,  followed  by  his  staff,  and  explain  the  cause. 

At  other  times,  the  same  cheering  and  enthusiasm  would  result 
from  the  passage  down  the  column  of  some  obscure  and  despised 
officer,  who  knew  it  was  all  a  joke,  and  looked  mean  and  sheepish 

The  men  would  generally  help  each  other  in  real  distress,  but 
their  delight  was  to  torment  any  one  who  was  unfortunate  in  a 
ridiculous  way.  If,  for  instance,  a  piece  of  artillery  was  fast  in  the 
mud,  the  infantry  and  cavalry  passing  around  the  obstruction 
would  rack  their  brains  for  words  and  phrases  applicable  to  the 
situation  and  most  calculated  to  worry  the  cannoniers  who,  waist 
deep  in  the  mud,  are  tugging  at  the  wheels. 

Brass  bands,  at  first  quite  numerous  and  good,  became  very  rare 
and  the  music  very  poor  in  the  latter  years  of  the  war.  It  was  a 
fine  thing  to  see  the  fellows  trying  to  keep  the  music  going  as  they 
waded  through  the  mud.  But  poor  as  the  music  was,  it  helped  the 
footsore  and  weary  to  make  another  mile,  and  encouraged  a  cheer 
and  a  brisker  step  from  the  lagging  and  tired  column. 

As  the  men  became  tired,  there  was  less  and  less  talking,  until 
the  whole  mass  became  quiet  and  serious.  Each  man  was  occupied 
with  his  own  thoughts.  For  miles  nothing  could  be  heard  but  the 
steady  tramp  of  the  men,  the  rattling  and  jingling  of  canteens  and 
accoutrements,  and  the  occasional  "close  up,  men, — close  up!"  of 
the  officers. 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  jg 

As  evening  came  on,  questioning  of  the  officers  was  in  order,  and 
for  an  hour  it  would  be,  "Captain,  when  are  we  going  into  camp?" 

"I  say,  lieutenant!   are  we  going  to or  to  blank?"    "Seen 

anything  of  our  wagon?"  "How  long  are  we  to  stay  here?"— 
"Where's  the  spring?"  Sometimes  these  questions  were  meant 
simply  to  tease,  but  generally  they  betrayed  anxiety  of  some  sort, 
and  a  close  observer  would  easily  detect  the  seriousness  of  the  man 
who  asked  after  "our  wagon,"  because  bespoke  feelingly  as  one 
who  wanted  his  supper  and  was  in  doubt  as  to  whether' or  not  he 
would  get  it. 

Many  a  poor  fellow  dropped  in  the  road  and  breathed  his  last  in 
the  corner  of  a  fence,  with  no  one  to  hear  his  last  fond  mention  of 
his  loved  ones.  And  many  whose  ambition  it  was  to  share  every 
danger 'and  discomfort  with  their  comradrs,  overcome  by  the  heat 
or  worn  out  with  disease,  were  compelled  to  leave  the  ranks,  and 
while  friend  and  brother  marched  to  battle,  drag  their  weak  and 
staggering  frames  to  the  rear,  perhaps  to  die,  pitiably  alone,  in 
some  hospital,  and  be  buried  as  one  more  "Unknown." 

An  accomplished  straggler  could  assume  more  misery,  look  more 
horribly  emaciated,  tell  more  dismal  stories  of  distress,  eat  more 
and  march  further  (to  the  rear),  than  any  ten  ordinary  men 
Most  stragglers  were  real  sufferers,  but  many  of  them  were  inge- 
nious liars,  energetic  foragers,  plunder  hunters  and  gormandizers.  * 
Thousands  who  kept  their  place  in  ranks  to  the  very  end  were 
equally  as  tired,  as  sick,  as  hungry  and  as  hopeless  as  these  scampp, 
but  too  proud  to  tell  it  or  use  it  as  a  means  of  escape  from  hard- 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg. 

[The  heroic  defence  of  Fort  Gregg  showed  the  spirit  of  the  remnant  of  onr 
grand  old  army,  and  illumines  the  sad  page  of  its  history  which  tells  of  the 
closing  scenes  of  the  '•'•Defence  of  Petersburg.''''  We  have  never  seen  in 
print  ony  official  account  of  the  brilliant  aft'air,  and  are  glad  to  be  able  to 
present  the  following  from  the  original  MS.  report  kindly  furnislied  us  by 
General  James  H.  Lane.] 


Appomattox  Courthouse,  April  10, 1865. 
Major  : 

I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  on  the  night  of  the  1st  of 
April,  four  regiments  of  my  brigade,  with  intervals  between  the 
men  varying  from  six  to  ten  paces,  were  stretched  along  the  works 

20  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

between  Battery  Gregg  and  Hatchers'  run,  in  the  following  order 
from  right  to  left:  Twenty-eighth,  Thirty-seventh,  Eighteenth, 
Thirty-third — the  right  of  the  Twenty-eighth  resting  near  the  brown 
house  in  front  of  General  McRae's  winterquarters,  and  the  left  of 
the  Thirty-third  on  the  branch  near  Mrs.  Banks'. 

The  enemy  commenced  shelling  my  line  from  several  batteries 
about  nine  o'clock  that  night,  and  the  picket  lines  in  my  front 
opened  fire  at  a  quarter  to  two  o'clock  the  following  morning.  The 
skirmishers  from  McGowan's  brigade,  who  covered  the  works  held 
by  my  command,  were  driven  in  at  a  quarter  to  five  o'clock,  and 
my  line  was  pierced  by  the  enemy  in  strong  force  at  the  ravine  in 
front  of  the  right  of  the  Thirty-seventh  near  General  McGowan's 
headquarters.  The  Twenty-eighth,  enfiladed  on  the  left  by  this 
force,  and  on  the  right  by  the  force  that  had  previously  broken  the 
troops  to  our  right,  was  forced  to  fall  back  to  the  Plank  road.  The 
enemy  on  its  left  took  possession  of  this  road  and  forced  it  to  fall 
still  further  back  to  the  Cox  road,  where  it  skirmished  with  the 
enemy  and  supported  a  battery  of  artillery,  by  order  of  Brigadier- 
General  Pendleton.  The  other  regiments  fought  the  enemy  between 
McGowan's  winterquarters  and  these  occupied  by  my  brigade,  and 
were  driven  back.  They  then  made  a  stand  in  the  winterquarters 
of  the  right  regiment  of  my  command,  but  were  again  broken,  a 
part  retreating  along  the  works  to  the  left,  and  the  remainder  going 
to  the  rear.  These  last,  under  Colonel  Cowan,  made  a  stand  on 
the  hill  to  the  right  of  Mrs.  Banks ',  but  were  forced  back  to  the 
Plank  road,  along  which  they  skirmished  for  some  time,  and  then 
fell  back  to  the  Cox'  road,  where  they  supported  a  battery  of 
artillery,  by  order  of  Lieutenant- General  Longstreet.  That  portion 
of  my  command  which  retreated  along  the  works  to  the  left,  made 
two  more  unsuccessful  attempts  to  resist  the  enemy,  the  last  stand 
being  made  in  the  Church  road  leading  to  the  Jones  House.  It 
then  fell  back  to  Battery  Gregg  and  the  battery  to  its  left;  but 
udder  Major  Wooten,  and  assisted  by  a  part  of  Thomas'  brigade, 
it  soon  after  charged  the  enemy,  by  order  of  Major-General  Wilcox, 
and  cleared  the  works  as  far  as  the  branch  on  which  the  left  of  the 
Thirty-third  rested  the  night  previous.  Here  we  were  rejoined  by 
Colonel  Cowan,  and  we  deployed  as  skirmishes  to  the  left  of  the 
Church  road  and  perpendicular  to  the  works,  but  did  not  hold  this 
position  long,  as  we  were  attacked  by  a  strong  line  of  skirmishers, 
supported  by  two  strong  lines  of  battle.     A  part  of  us  retreated  tq 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  21 

Battery  Gregg,  and  the  rest  to  the  new  line  of  works  near  the 
"  Dam."  Battery  Gregg  was  subsequently  attacked  by  an  immense 
force,  and  fell  after  the  most  gallant  and  desperate  defence.  Our 
men  bayonetted  many  of  the  enemy  as  they  mounted  the  parapet. 
After  the  fall  of  this  battery,  the  rest  of  my  command  along  the 
new  line  was  attacked  in  front  and  flank  and  driven  back  to  the 
old  line  of  works  running  northwest  from  Battery  45,  where  it 
remained  until  the  evacuation  of  Petersburg.  We  were  here  re- 
joined by  the  Twenty-eighth,  under  Captain  Linebarger. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  3d,  we  crossed  the  Appomattox  at 
Goode's  bridge,  bivouacked  at  Amelia  Courthouse  on  the  4th,  and 
on  the  5th  formed  line  of  battle  between  Amelia  Courthouse  and 
Jetersville,  where  our  sharpshooters,  under  Major  Wooten,  became 
engaged.  Next  day,  while  resting  in  Farmville,  we  were  ordered 
back  to  a  fortified  hill  to  support  our  cavalry,  which  was  hard 
pressed,  but  before  reaching  the  hill  the  order  was  countermanded. 
We  moved  rapidly  through  Farmville,  and  sustained  some  loss 
from  the  artillery  fire  while  crossing  the  river  near  that  place. 
That  afternoon  we  formed  line  of  battle,  facing  to  the  rear,  between 
one  and  two  miles  from  Farmville,  and  my  sharpshooters  were 
attacked  by  the  enemy.  During  the  night  we  resumed  our  march, 
and  on  the  9th,  while  forming  line  of  battle,  we  were  ordered  back 
and  directed  to  stack  our  arms,  as  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia 
had  been  surrendered. 

By  officers  and  men  behaved  well  throughout  this  trying  cam- 
paign, and  superiority  of  numbers  alone  enabled  the  enemy  to 
drive  us  from  the  works  near  Petersburg.  Colonel  Cowan,  though 
indisposed,  was  constantly  with  his  command,  and  displayed  his 
usual  gallantry,  while  Major  Woolen  nobly  sustained  his  enviable 
reputation  as  an  officer. 

We  have  to  mourn  the  loss  of  Captains  Nicholson,  Faine, 
McAulay  and  Long,  and  other  gallant  officers. 

Captain  E.  J.  Hale,  Jr.,  A.  A.  G.,  and  First  Lieutenant  E.  B. 
Meade,  A.  D.  C,  were  constantly  at  their  posts,  displaying  great 
bravery  and  giving  additional  evidence  of  their  efficiency  as  staff" 

I  am  unable  to  give  our  exact  loss  at  Petersburg.  I  surrendered 
at  this  point  fifty-six  (56)  officers  and  four  hundred  and  eighty- 
four  (484)  men— many  of  the  latter  being  detailed,  non-arms-bear- 
ing men,  who  were  sent  back  to  be  surrendered  with  their  brigade. 

22  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

The  Seventh,  the  other  regiment  of  my  command,  is  absent  in 
North  Carolina  on  detached  service. 

I  am.  Major,  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

James  H.  Lane, 

»  Brigadier-General, 

Major  Joseph  A.  Engelhard, 

A.  A.   General. 

Extract  from  a  letter  written  hy  General  Lane  to  General   Wilcox. 

Concord,  X.  C,  May  20, 1867, 
Dear  General  : 

I  received  a  letter  from  Major  Engelhard  not  long  since,  in 
which  be  says  you  wish  me  to  furnish  you,  as  far  as  I  can,  the 
names  of  officers  killed  and  wounded  in  my  brigade,  and  the 
number  of  men  killed  and  wounded  in  the  different  battles  from 
the  Wilderness  to  the  surrender,  as  General  Lee  had  desired  a 
report  of  you. 

I  beg  also  to  call  your  special  attention  to  the  defence  of  Fort 
Gregg,  as  you  may  not  be  aware  that  Harris'  brigade  has  been  given 
in  print  all  the  credit  of  that  gallant  affair.  Relative  to  that,  I  send 
you  a  letter  recently  received  from  Lieutenant  George  H.  Snow,  of 
the  Thirty-third  North  Carolina  regiment,  who  commanded  the 
detachment  from  my  brigade  which  was  in  the  fort  at  the  time  of 
its  fall.  Harris'  brigade  formed  on  our  right  after  Thomas  and  I 
had  cleared  the  works  of  the  enemy  as  far  as  Mrs.  Banks ',  and 
when  we  were  driven  back  that  brigade  retired  to  the  fort  above 
Fort  Gregg — I  think  it  was  called  Fort  Anderson — while  mine  re- 
tired along  the  new  line  of  works  to  the  "  Dam,"  a  sufficient  number, 
however,  being  sent  to  Fort  Gregg  (with  the  supernumeraries  of 
Walker's  artillery  armed  as  infantry)  to  man  the  entire  work.  You 
may  perhaps  recollect  my  calling  your  attention  to  this,  and  that 
after  looking  into  the  fort,  you  approved  of  my  turning  back  other 
men  of  my  command,  though  you  had  previously  ordered  my 
whole  brigade  into  that  fort.  There  were,  I  think,  eight  or  nine 
commissioned  officers  of  my  command  in  the  same  fort. 

The  honor  of  the  gallant  defence  of  Fort  Gregg  is  due  to  my 
brigade,  Chew's  battery  and  Walker's  supernumerary  artillerists, 
armed  as  infantry,  and  not  to  Harris"  brigade,  which  abandoned 
Fort  Anderson  and  retired  to  the  old  or  inner  line  of  works  before 
Fort  Gregg  was  attacked  in  force.     Unsupported,  I  saw  our  noble 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  23 

fellows  repulse  three  assults  in  force  in  front  and  one  from  the 
rear;  and  the  enemy  did  not  succeed  in  mounting  the  work  until 
the  fire  of  the  fort  had  ceased,  which,  as  Lieutenant  Snow  says, 
was  due  to  want  of  ammunition.  The  enemy,  after  crowding  the 
parapet,  amid  the  wildest  cheering  and  waving  of  numerous  flags, 
fired  down  upon  our  men  inside  the  works. 

Chew's  battery  behaved  splendidly;  even  before  I  left  the  work 
two  or  three  men  were  shot  down  in  rapid  succession  while  at- 
tempting to  discharge  a  single  gun.  My  men  were  on  the  right  and 
centre,  the  supernumerary  artillerists  on  the  left,  and  Chew's  bat- 
tery was  in  the  centre,  so  as  to  give  the  pieces  the  widest  possible 
range  of  fire. 

Yours,  very  respectfully, 

James  H.  Lane. 

Letter  from  Lieutenant  George  H.  Snow,  Thirty-third  North  Carolina 


Raleigh,  May  13th,  1867. 
General  James  H.  Lane  : 

Dear  sir — Your  letter  I  received  some  time  ago,  and  would 
have  answered  it  earlier,  but  was  prevented  by  unforeseen  circum- 

You  desire  to  know  the  details  of  the  fight  at  Fort  Gregg.  I 
think  it  due  to  the  men  of  that  noble  old  brigade,  which  stood  the 
contest  from  Newberne  to  the  surrender,  that  some  true  lover  of 
patriotism  and  valor  should  espouse  their  cause,  and  place  them 
second  to  none  among  the  true  defenders  of  that  memorable  fort. 
History  does  not  reveal  names  more  deserving  of  honor  and  praise 
than  those  of  that  detachment  which  I  had  the  honor  to  command, 
and  my  mind  painfully  reverts  to  the  agonizing  adieu  of  each  hero 
as  he  closed  his  eyes  in  death. 

I  cannot  speak  positively  when  I  attempt  to  give  the  number  of 
men  belonging  to  your  brigade  or  the  miscellaneous  commands  in 
the  fort,  but  I  speak  confidently  when  I  say  that  at  least  three- 
fourths  were  of  your  brigade.  I  think  I  had  between  seventy-five 
and  eighty  men  all  told,  with  Lieutenants  Craige  and  Howard,  and 
two  or  three  other  officers  whose  names  I  do  not  recollect.  I  saw 
only  two  officers  of  Harris'  brigade  in  the  fort  fighting  bravely,  but 
the  number  of  their  command  I  cannot  exactly  give,  but  think 
that  ten  will  cover  the  whole.  The  artillerists  fought  bravely,  re- 
sorting to  small  arms  after  being  unable  to  use  their  cannon,  and 

24  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

appeared  to  me  as  if  commanding  themselves:  they  were  of  Cap- 
tain Chew's  battery.  Our  stubborn  resistance  is  due  to  your  fore- 
sight in  supplying  the  fort  with  cartridges. 

The  enemy  charged  us  three  times,  and  after  having  expended 
all  our  ammunition,  rocks  were  used  successfully  for  over  half  an 
hour  in  resisting  their  repeated  attempts  to  rush  over  us.  While 
I  would  most  willingly  accord  to  each  man  within  the  fort  his  just 
and  proper  credit,  yet  I  do  not  think  that  Harris'  brigade  should  be 
mentioned  in  connection  with  its  defence.  I  cannot  point  out  a  single 
instance  where  one  of  Lane's  brigade  failed  to  perform  his  duty  on 
that  day.  The  position  we  occupied  (the  right  wing  and  centre) 
were  the  only  parts  attacked  without  one  moment's  interval  of 
peace,  and  we  repulsed  with  great  loss  an  attack  in  the  rear  which 
would  have  otherwise  necessitated  our  surrender.  The  credit  of 
that  bloody  fight  is  dae  to  your  men,  and  I  sincerely  hope  you  may 
correct  so  foul  a  statement  as  that  which  appears  as  history. 

With  m}--  best  wishes  for  your  welfare  and  success, 

I  remain  as  ever,  yours  most  sincerely, 

George  H.  Snow, 

Letter  from    Lieutenant    F.  B.    Oraige,    Thirty-third  North    Crrolina 


WiLLIAMSPORT,  TENNESSEE,  Juiie  4th,  1867. 

General  James  H.  Lane  : 

Dear  sir — Yours  of  the  27th  ultimo  was  remailed  to  me  at 
Salisbury,  and  received  to-day.  I  am  happy  to  know  that  you 
intend  making  an  effort  to  give  our  old  brigade  some  of  the  honor 
due  her,  which  has  more  than  once  been  given  others  to  whom  it 
does  not  belong. 

I  will  give  you  as  correct  an  account  of  the  defence  of  Fort  Gregg 
as  my  recollection  will  permit.  There  were  but  two  six-pound 
guns  in  the  fort,  conducted  by  a  few  Marylanders  or  Virginians 
under  command  of  Captain  Chew,  and  a  few  Louisianians  from  the 
Washington  artillery,  under  Lieutenant  Mackelroy.  The  whole 
number  of  artillerists  did  not  exceed  twenty-five.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Duncan  and  his  adjutant,  of  Harris'  brigade,  both  of  whom 
were  wounded  in  the  head  and  acted  with  conspicuous  gallantry, 
had  with  them  not  more  than  twenty  men.  The  remainder  of  the 
troops  in  the  fort  belonged  to  your  brigade,  numbering  between 
one  hundred  and  fifty,  and  one  hundred  and  seventy-five.    The 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  25 

only  other  officer  present  of  our  brigade,  whose  name  you  did  not 
mention  in  your  letter,  was  Lieutenant  Rigler,  of  the  Thirty-seventh 
regiment.  I  do  not  know  whether  there  were  any  of  General 
Thomas'  command  with  us  or  not.  Captain  Norwood,  of  Thomas' 
staff,  was  captured  the  same  morning  that  I  was,  but  I  don't  remember 
whether  on  the  skirmish  line  or  in  the  fort.  We  repulsed  the 
enemy  three  times  in  front  and  once  from  the  rear.  After  our 
ammunition  was  exhausted,  the  men  used  their  bayonets  and 
clubbed  their  guns  until  the  whole  wall  was  covered  with  blue- 
coats,  who  continued  a  heavy  fire  upon  us  for  several  moments  after 
they  had  entered. 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

F.  B.  Craige. 

Letter  from  Lieutenant  A.  B.  TTowtrd,  Thirty- third  North   Carolina 


Statesville,  X.  C  Jane  3(1,  1SG7. 
General  Lane  : 

Dear  Sir — Yours  of  the  27th  instant  is  at  hand,  and  contents 
duly  noticed.  I  take  pleasure  in  giving  you  all  the  information  I 
can  in  reference  to  the  gallant  defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  I  am  fully 
confident  that  three-fourths  of  the  men  in  the  fort,  if  not  more, 
were  from  your  brigade. 

I  am  glad,  indeed,  to  know  that  you  will  give  a  full  and  true  state- 
ment of  the  affair  to  General  Lee,  and  that  the  gallant  men  of  the  Old 
North  State,  and  e-speciaUy  those  of  Lane's  brigade,  may  have  all  the 
honor  and  credit  that  they  so  nobly  won. 

I  fully  concur  with  Lieutenant  Snoiv  in  his  statement  concerning 
the  number  of  men  from  Harris'  brigade.  I  am  pretty  certain  that 
there  was  only  one  ofiicer  instead  of  two  from  that  brigade:  bis 
name  was  Duncan.  He  said  he  was  lieutenant-colonel,  but  there 
were  no  stars  or  bars  about  him  to  designate  his  rank. 

The  three  pieces  of  artillery  belonged  to  Chew's  battery.  He 
was  captured  and  taken  with  us  to  Johnson's  island.  I  am  sorry 
that  I  am  not  able  to  recall  the  names  of  the  officers  from  your 
command.  I  don't  remember  the  name.'^  of  any  except  those 
mentioned  by  yourself  I  know  there  were  others  besides  from  our 
brigade  in  the  Thirty-seventh  regiment,  etc.,  but  as  I  was  not  well 
acquainted  with  them,  their  names  have  escaped  my  recollection. 

We  kept  the  enemy  back  for  some  time  after  our  ammunition 

26  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

was  exhausted  with  bayonets  and  brickbats.  'Tis  true,  that  when 
they  rushed  into  the  fort  upon  us,  they  were  yelling,  cursing  and 
shooting  with  all  the  frenzy  and  rage  of  a  horde  of  merciless  bar- 

I  could  give  you  a  full  account  of  the  whole  engagement  from 
beginning  to  end,  hut  I  suppose  you  have  all  the  particulars  from 
Captain  Hale  and  Lieutenant  Snow. 

I  remain  yours,  very  truly,  &c., 

A.  B.  HOWAED. 

Letter  from  Lieutenant  D.  M.  Rigler,  Thirty-seventh  North  Carolina 


Charlotte,  N.  C,  June  17tli,  1867. 
General  James  H.  Lane  : 

Dear  Sir — Yours  of  the  14th  instant  is  received,  and  I  hasten 
to  reply.  You  wish  me  to  give  all  the  information  I  can  in  regard 
to  the  defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  As  it  has  been  so  long  since  it 
occurred,  I  do  not  know  that  I  can  give  all  the  particulars,  but  as 
far  as  I  can  I  will. 

After  the  enemy  drove  us  from  the  works,  a  portion  of  the  bri- 
gade fell  back  in  rear  of  General  Mahone's  quarters,  and  was  there 
until  you  ordered  us  to  the  fort.  'Tvvas  near  Mahone's  quarters 
that  General  A.  P.  Hill  was  killed.  When  we  came  to  the  fort  you 
were  there  with  some  of  the  brigade.  You  then  ordered  all  of  us 
to  charge  the  enemy.  We  held  the  Jones  road  about  fifteen  min- 
utes. Harris'  Mississippi  brigade  came  up;  the  ^nemy  fired  on 
them,  and  they  retreated.  Captain  Hale  then  ordered  us  up  to  the 
fort.  General  Wilcox  and  some  of  his  staff  were  there:  he  re- 
mained there  until  they  opened  on  the  fort  with  artillery.  Captain 
Hale  called  myself.  Snow  and  Craige  out  in  the  rear  of  the  fort 
and  asked  how  many  men  we  had  of  the  brigade  and  how  much 
ammunition.  He  then  told  us  to  send  some  reliable  man  after 
ammunition.  By  this  time  the  Yanks  had  got  the  range  of  the 
fort,  and  were  doing  some  damage. 

Captain  Hale  then  asked  who  was  the  senior  officer,  and  as  Snow 
was,  he  put  him  in  command  and  told  him  to  hold  the  fort.  We 
formed  the  men  around,  and  had  about  fifty  or  sixty.  Harris'  men 
came  in  with  a  lieutenant-colonel,  and  about  fifteen  men  more  of 
our  brigade  came  in,  and  made  in  all  about  seventy-five  of  our 

Defence  of  Fort  Gregg.  27 

About  ten  o'clock  the  enemy  commenced  charging  with  four  or 
five  lines.  We  did  not  fire  until  they  were  within  forty  yards,  and 
then  we  gave  them  one  volley;  they  wavered,  and  the  first  line 
gave  way;  the  second  came  forward,  and  came  within  thirty  yards 
of  the  fort.  We  yelled  and  fired — they  stood  a  few  seconds  and 
then  broke.  The  third  retreated  also,  but  the  fourth  and  fifth  came 
to  the  ditch  around  the  fort.  While  this  fighting  was  in  the  front, 
one  line  came  in  the  rear  and  almost  got  inside  the  fort  through 
the  door.  About  twenty  men  charged  them,  and  drove  them  back. 
About  eleven  o'clock  they  scaled  the  walls  of  the  fort,  and  for  sev- 
eral minutes  we  had  a  hand  to  hand  fight.  We  used  the  bayonet, 
and  killed  almost  all  of  them  that  came  on  the  top. 

About  half-past  eleven  they  attempted  to  scale  the  walls  again. 
We  met  them  with  the  bayonet,  and  for  several  minutes  it  was  the 
most  desperate  struggle  1  ever  witnessed;  but  it  did  not  last  long. 
Soon  they  were  all  killed  or  knocked  back,  and  then  a  deafening 
shout  arose  from  our  boys.  Near  twelve,  they  tried  to  force  their 
way  through  the  door  in  rear  of  the  fort,  and  succeeded  in  getting 
almost  in,  but  we  met  them  with  the  bayonet  and  drove  them  back. 
By  this  time  the  ammunition  w^as  almost  out,  and  our  men  threw 
bats  and  rocks  at  them  in  the  ditch.  No  ammunition  could  we 
get,  and  after  a  short  struggle,  they  took  the  fort,  and  some  few  did 
fire  on  us  after  they  got  possession,  but  their  officers  tried  to  stop 

I  think  there  were  twenty -five  of  Harris'  Mississippi  brigade, 
with  a  lieutenant-colonel:  do  not  think  there  were  any  more.  The 
lieutenant-colonel  was  wounded. 

There  were  only  two  pieces  of  artillery,  and  I  think  they  were 
six-pound  rifle  pieces,  and  they  did  not  have  more  than  twenty-five 
rounds  of  ammunition.  Most  of  the  men  were  wounded  and  killed 
while  the  enemy  were  charging.  They  fought  bravely.  I  do  not 
know  whose  battery  it  was. 

There  were  about  seventy-five  or  eighty  men  of  our  brigade,  and 
five  officers,  namely :  Lieutenants  Snow,  Craige  and  Howard,  of  the 
Thirty-third  North  Carolina  regiment:  Orman  and  myself,  of  the 
Thirty-seventh  regiment.  There  were  about  twenty  of  Thomas' 
Georgia  brigade,  with  Thomas'  adjutant-general,  or  a  captain  acting 
as  such,  and  two  lieutenants. 

I  think  there  were  in  the  fort,  including  all,  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty,  or  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  men— about  seventy- 
five  or  eighty  of  our  brigade,  about  twenty-five  of  Harris'  and  about 

28  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

twenty  of  Thomas',  and  twenty-five  or  thirty  of  the  artillery.   Out  of 
that  number  at  least  one-half  were  killed  and  wounded. 

The  adjutant-general  or  captain  of  Thomas'  brigade  was  near 
me  when  the  fighting  commenced,  and  he  said  it  was  ten  o'clock, 
and  that  it  was  twelve  when  they  got  the  fort. 

The  above.  General,  I  think  is  nearly  correct.  It  is  certain  our 
brigade  did  the  most  of  the  fighting,  and  I  think  they  deserve  the 
praise.     I  am  glad  that  you  are  going  to  defend  it. 

Wishing  you  success,  I  am  very  respectfully,  yours. 

D.  M.  RiGLER. 

Extract  from  a  letter  from  Colonel  Cowan,  of  Thirty-third  North  Carolina 


Statesville,  N.  C,  June  22,  1S76. 
Dear  General: 

*  *  *  *  Lieutenant  Howard  has  doubtless  given 
you  all  the  particulars  more  fully  than  I  can,  as  most  of  my  in- 
formation was  obtained  from  him. 

Color  Bearer  James  Atkinson  made  his  escape  from  Fort  Gregg 
after  the  enemy  had  entered  it,  and  brought  the  colors  away  safely. 

With  much  respect,  your  friend, 

C.  V.  Cowan. 

I  was  an  eye  witness  to  the  above.  Atkinson  ran  from  the  fort 
when  the  enemy  mounted  the  pMrnpet,  and  with  the  colors  of  the 
Thirty-third  North  Carolina  regiment  flying,  he  made  his  escape 
without  being  struck,  though  he  was  a  marked  tai"get  for  the  enemy. 
His  exploit  was  greeted  with  cheers  upon  cheers  from  the  men  in 
the  main  line  of  works. 

James  H.  Lane. 

Address  on  the  Character  of  General  R.  E.  Lee, 

Dkliveked  in  Richmond  on  Wednksdat,  Januaky  19Tn,lS76,  the  Anniversary  of  General 
Lee'8  Birth,  by  Captain  John  Hampden  Chamberlayne. 

[We  were  urged  at  the  time  of  iti  (Vliverj'  by  a  number  of  gentlemen  who 
heard  it  to  publish  this  admmibla  atl(lre>.<,  and  have  always  imrpose-l  doing 
so.    It  may  be  well,  however,  that  it  lias  been  postponed,  so  as  to  appear  on 
the  eve  of  another  anniversary  of  the  birili  of  our  great  cliieftain.] 
Fellow  Citizens  : 

I  shall  not  obtrude  upon  you  apologies  or  explanations,  as 
if  I  had  the  orator'g  established  fame  to  lose,  or  looked  that  future 

Address  on  the  Character  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.  29 

fame  to  win.  You  are  not  come  to  hear  of  my  small  hopes  or  fears. 
Yet,  to  you  and  to  the  gravity  of  the  occasion,  it  is  due  to  say 
that  I  appear  before  you  on  sudden  order,  to  my  sense  of  duty 
hardly  less  imperative  than  those  famous  commands  under  which 
we  have  so  often  marched  at  "early  dawn." 

By  telegraph,  on  last  Saturday  night,  this  duty  was  laid  upon 
me,  and  I  come  with  little  of  preparation,  and  less  of  ability,  to 
attempt  a  theme  that  might  task  the  powers  of  Bossuet  or  exhaust 
an  Everett's  rhetoric. 

It  can  scarcely  be  needful  to  rehearse  before  you  the  facts  of  our 
commander's  life.  They  have  become,  from  least  to  greatest,  parts 
of  history,  and  an  ever-growing  number  of  books  record  that  he 
was  born  in  1807,  at  Stratford,  in  Westmoreland  county,  of  a 
family  ancient  and  honorable  in  the  mother  country,  in  the  Old 
Dominion,  and  in  the  State  of  Virginia;  that  he  was  appointed  a 
cadet  at  the  United  States  Military  Academy  in  1825,  and  was 
graduated  first  in  his  class,  and  commissioned  lieutenant  of  engi- 
neers; that  he  served  upon  the  staff  of  General  Scott  through  the 
brilliant  campaign  from  Vera  Cruz  to  the  City  of  Mexico,  was 
thrice  brevetted  for  gallant  and  meritorious  conduct,  and  was  de- 
clared by  General  Scott  to  have  borne  a  chief  part  in  the  counsels 
and  the  battles  which  ended  with  the  triumph  of  our  arms;  that 
he  was  promoted  lieutenant-colonel  of  cavalry,  and  served  for 
years  upon  the  Southwestern  frontier;  that  he  was  in  1861  called 
to  Washington  as  one  of  the  board  to  revise  the  army  regulations, 
and  that  on  the  20th  day  of  April,  1861,  four  days  after  the  with- 
drawal of  Virginia  from  the  Union,  he  resigned  his  commission  in 
the  United  States  army,  and  that  he  became  commander-in-chief 
of  Virginia's  forces,  and  thereafter  accepted  the  commission  of 
General  in  the  army  of  the  Confederate  States. 

Still  more  familiar  to  you  than  these  facts  are  the  events  of  which 
you  and  I  had  personal  knowledge:  how  Lee  organized,  patiently  and 
skilfully,  the  raw  resources  of  Virginia;  how  he  directed  the  coast 
defences  of  the  South  Atlantic  States,  and  how  he  labored  against 
a  thousand  difficulties  in  the  mountains  of  West  Virginia,  serenely 
accepting  without  a  murmur  the  popular  verdict  on  what  ignorant 
presumption  adjudged  a  failure.  In  June  of  1862  he  was  at  length 
■placed  in  command  to  meet  whose  vast  responsibility  his  life  had 
been  the  preparation,  and  at  once  his  name  became  forever  linked 
with  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  which  met  and  mastered 
army  after  army,  baffled  McClellan,  and  destroyed  successively  • 

30  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Pope,  Burnside  and  Hooker;  which  twice  invaded  the  enemy's 
country,  and  which,  when  at  last  against  it  was  thrown  all  the  re- 
sources of  the  United  States,  Grant  in  its  front  and  Sherman  in  its 
rear,  Europe  for  their  recruiting  ground,  and  a  boundless  credit 
for  their  military  chest,  still  stood  for  eleven  months  defiantly  at 
bay,  concentrated  on  itself  the  whole  resources  of  the  United 
States,  and  surrendered  at  Appomattox  eight  thousand  starving 
men  to  the  combined  force  of  two  great  armies  whose  chiefs  had 
long  despaired  to  conquer  it  by  skill  or  daring,  and  had  worn  it 
away  by  weight  of  numbers  and  brutal  exchange  of  many  lives 
for  one.  We  all  know,  too,  how'  the  famous  soldier  sheathed  his 
sword,  and  without  a  word  of  repining,  without  a  look  to  show  the 
grief  that  was  breaking  his  heart  and  sapping  the  springs  of  his 
noble;  life,  accepted  the  duty  that  came  to  him,  and  bent  to  his  new 
task,  as  guide  and  teacher  of  boys,  the  powers  which  had  wielded 
the  strength  of  armies  and  almost  redressed  the  balances  of 
unequal  fate. 


Such  are  the  leading  facts,  in  barest  outline,  of  the  great  life  that 
began  sixty-nine  years  ago  to-day.  Well  known  as  they  are,  it  is 
wise  to  recall  them  when  we  gather  as  we  have  gathered  here.  In 
these  hurrying  days  men  pass  swiftly  away  from  human  sight,  the 
multitude  of  smaller  figures  vanishing  behind  the  curtain  of  for- 
getfulness,  the  few  mighty  ones  soon  wrapt  in  the  hazy  atmosphere 
of  the  heroic  heights,  enlarged,  it  may  be,  but  oft-times  dim  and 
distorted,  always  afar  ofif,  unfamiliar,  not  human,  but  superhuman, 
demigods  rather  than  men;  our  wonder  and  our  despair,  who 
should  be  our  reverence  and  our  inspiration. 

Thus  has  it  always  been  with  him  who  lies  at  Mount  Vernon. 
Let  it  be  our  care,  men  of  this  generation,  that  it  be  not  so  in  our 
day  with  him  who  lies  at  Lexington ;  let  it  be  our  care  to  show  him 
often  to  those  who  rise  around  us  to  take  our  place,  to  show  him 
not  only  in  his  great  deeds  and  his  famous  victories,  but  also  as 
citizen  and  as  man. 

The  task  is  hard  to  divide  what  is  essentially  one,  and  Lee  so 
bore  himself  in  his  great  office  as  that  the  man  was  never  lost  in 
the  soldier.  Never  of  him  could  it  be  said  that  he  was  like  the 
dyer's  hand,  subdued  to  what  he  worked  in:  always  the  sweet 
human  quality  tempered  his  stoic  virtue,  always  beneath  the 
soldier's  breast  beat  the  tender,  loving  heart. 

Address  on  the  Character  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.  31 

Most  of  us  here  have  seen  and  known  him,  if  not  in  his  splendid 
youth,  fit  at  once  to  charm  the  eye  of  the  Athenian  multitude  and  to 
awe  a  Roman  Senate,  yet  in  his  maturer  years,  when  time  and  care 
had  worn  his  body  but  to  show  more  glorious  the  lofty  soul  with- 
in. Amongst  us  and  ours  his  life  was  led,  so  blameless  as  mio-ht 
become  a  Saint,  so  tender  as  might  become  a  woman,  so  simple  as 
might  become  the  little  children  "of  whom  is  the  kingdom  of 
Heaven."  So  consistent  was  that  life,  so  devoted  to  duty,  without 
a  glance  to  right  or  left,  so  fixed  on  the  golden  rule,  adopted  once 
and  forever,  that  his  biographer,  even  now  in  a  time  of  passion 
and  distorted  truth,  hesitates  what  to  choose  for  his  highest  praise — 
lingering  in  turn  over  Lee  the  son,  Lee  the  husband,  Lee  the 
father,  Lee  the  friend.  Idle  then  it  were  for  me  to  picture  him  in 
all  the  relations  he  bore  to  those  around  him,  and  worse  than  idle 
were  I  to  follow  what  is  much  the  fashion  nowadays  and  make  a 
study  of  Lee  the  Christian,  pry  with  curious  glance  into  the  saured 
chamber  wherein  man  kneels  to  his  God,  or  dare  to  touch  the  awful 
veil  whish  fools  are  swift  to  rend. 

But,  says  the  critic,  private  virtue  is  not  for  public  use;  a  Tor- 
quemada  may  be  gentle  in  his  home,  and  a  Stuart  seek  to  enslave 
his  people,  yet  lead  a  life  of  chastity. 

'Tis  true,  but  still  our  great  commander  shines  flawless  and  per- 
fect, at  once  in  the  quiet  beams  of  the  household  heartli  and  in 
the  fierce  light  that  beats  upon  the  throne  of  him  born  to  be  king 
of  men. 

Let  one  great  example  show  it.  None  but  those  who  know  the 
power  of  lofty  ambition  can  tell  what  vast  temptation  beset  our 
leaders;  none  can  know  the  heroism  of  the  decision  in  the  dark 
days  of  1861.  He  was  the  favorite  soldier  of  all  who  followed 
Scott;  he  was  the  picked  and  chosen  man  for  high  command  in 
the  armies  of  the  United  States.  He  was  besought  almost  with 
tears  by  him  he  reverenced  as  a  second  father;  to  him  was  tendered 
the  baton  of  general-in-chief  Who  can  tell  what  visions  trooped 
upon  his  sight:  of  power,  that  dearest  boon  to  the  powerful,  of 
fame  world  wide,  of  triumphs,  not  easy  but  certain.  And  who  can 
tell  but  fairer  dreams  than  these  assailed  him ;  hope,  nay  almost  be- 
lief, that  he  and  he  alone  might  play  the  noble  part  of^)acifi'ator 
and  redintegrator  patrix,  that  he  might  heal  the  wounds  of  civil 
strife,  and  be  hailed  by  North  and  South  as  worthy  of  the  oaktn 

He  had  been  more  or  less  than  human,  had  not  these  thoughts, 

32  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

or  such  as  these,  arisen  when  he  strove  through  days  and  bitter 
nights  to  find  his  diit}'. 

He,  we  must  remember,  was  wedded  to  no  theory;  his  mind 
grasped  concrete  truth  rather  than  abstractions.  His  horizon  was 
bounded  by  no  lines  of  neighborhood  or  of  States.  He  knew  the 
men  of  the  North,  as  well  as  of  the  South;  he  had  maturely 
weighed  the  wealth  of  the  one  and  the  poverty  of  the  other.  Few 
knew  so  well  as  he,  none  better,  the  devotion  we  could  offer  to  any 
cause,  but  he  knew,  likewise,  the  stubborn,  deep-resting  strength  of 
the  Northern  will  that  we  took  for  a  passing  whim.  He  had  all 
his  life  obeyed  and  respected  the  organized,  concentrated  form  of 
the  Union,  and  he,  the  pupil  of  Scott,  the  follower  of  Washington, 
the  son  of  Light  Horse  Harry,  might  and  should  and  did  jDause 
long.  Paused  long,  to  decide  forever — to  decide  with  never  a  look 
backward,  with  never  a  regret,  even  when  the  end  had  come,  darker 
than  his  fears  had  pictured. 

Cast  away  all,  to  obey  the  voice  of  Virginia,  his  country;  to  de- 
fend Virginia,  his  mother.  Scarcely  twice  since  the  world  began 
has  mortal  man  been  called  to  make  such  choice. 

Will  not  history  consent,  will  not  mankind  applaud  when  we 
still  uphold  our  principles  as  right,  our  cause  as  just,  our  country 
to  be  honored,  when  those  principles  had  for  disciple,  that  cause 
for  defender,  that  country  for  son,  Robert  Lee? 

The  day  has  by  no  means  come  to  fix  with  absolute  precision 
the  rank  of  Lee  among  the  world's  great  soldiers.  But  the  day 
will  come,  and  it  is  ours  to  gather  and  preserve  and  certify  the 
facts  to  be  the  record  before  the  dread  tribunal  of  time. 

Turning,  then,  to  the  soldiership  of  Lee;  from  first  to  last,  we 
see  his  labor  and  exactness,  giving  always  the  power  to  gain  from 
every  means  its  utmost  result.  Thus,  he  so  pursued  the  sciences 
which  underlie  the  soldier's  art,  that  he  entered  the  army  fully 
equipped  with  all  that  theory  could  teach,  and  whilst  yet  a  subal-' 
tern  was  more  than  once  entrusted  with  tasks  of  the  engineers' 
bureau  which  had  baffled  the  skill  of  men  far  older  and  more  ex- 
perienced. The  same  qualities  were  shown  when  he  first  saw  actual 
war.  To  us  who  look  back  across  the  field  of  a  gigantic  strife,  of 
a  struggle  «vhere  not  brigades  nor  divisions  but  great  armies  were 
the  units,  where  States  were  fortified  camps  and  a  continent  the 
battle-ground;  to  us  that  march  on  Mexico  seems  as  small  as  it  is, 
in  fact,  far  off  in  time  and  space.  But  small  and  great  are  relative, 
and  the  little  army  of  Scott  which  gathered  on  the  sands  of  Vera 

Address  on  the  Character  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.  33 

Cruz  was  little  in  much  the  same  sense  as  that  other  arm,y,  of 
Cortez,  whose  footsteps  it  followed,  and  whose  prowess  it  rivaled. 
In  that  campaign 

lee's  soldiership 

first  found  fit  field.  It  was  he  whose  skill  gave  us  the  quick  foot- 
hold of  Vera  Cruz.  At  Cerro  Gordo  and  Contreras  his  was  no 
mean  part  of  the  plan  and  its  accomplisliraent".  At  the  City  of 
Mexico  it  was  his  soldier's  eye  and  soldier's  heart  which  saw  and 
dared  what  Cortez  had  seen  and  dared  before,  to  turn  the  enemy's 
strongest  position,  and  assault  as  well  by  the  San  Cosme  as  by  the 
Belen  gateway,  a  movement  greatly  hazardous,  but,  once  executed, 
decisive.  In  the  endless  roll  of  wars  that  campaign  of  Mexico 
must  always  remain  to  the  judicious  critic  masterly  in  conception 
and  puperb  in  execution.  But  to  us  it  is  memorable  chiefly  as  the 
training  school  whose  pupils  were  to  ])ly  their  art  on  a  wider  scale 
to  ends  more  terrible,  and  Winfield  Scott  selected  from  them  all 
Robert  E.  Lee  as  the  chosen  soldier. 

The  time  was  soon  to  come  when  he  should  try  conclusions  with 
many  of  that  brilliant  band,  and  prove  himself  the  master  of  each 
in  turn,  of  McClellan,  of  Burnside,  of  Hooker,  of  Pope,  of  Meade, 
of  Grant,  of  whomsoever  could  be  found  to  lead  them  by  the  mil- 
lions he  confronted.  When  the  war  of  secession  began,  you  all 
remember  how  for  a  time  Lee  held  subordinate  place,  and  how, 
when  what  seemed  chance  gave  him  command  of  the  forces  defend- 
ing Richmond  from  the  hundred  thousand  men  who  could  hear,  if 
they  would,  the  bells  of  our  churches  and  almost  the  hum  of  our 
streets — you  all  remember  how  the  home-staying  critic  found  fault 
with  him,  how  he  was  described  as  a  closet-soldier  and  a  handler 
of  spade  and  mattock,  rather  than  of  gun  and  bayonet.  Sudden 
and  swilt  was  the  surprise  when  the  great  plan  disclosed  itself,  and 
the  guns  at  the  Meadow  Bridges  of  the  Chickahominy  cleared  the 
way  for  the  first  of  those  mighty  blows  which  sent  McClellan 
in  hopeless  rout  to  the  shelter  of  his  shipping,  thence  to  hurry  as 
he  might  to  the  rescue  of  Pope's  bewildered  divisions,  and  to 
organize  home  guards  in  the  defences  of  Washington.    That  single 


is  itself  fame.     To  amuse  an  army  outnumbering  his  own  by  fifty 
thousand;  to  watch  with  a  large  detachment  lest  that  army  should 
make  a  junction  with  the  divisions  at  Fredericksburg;  to  bring 

34  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Jackson's  skill  and  Jackson's  devoted  men  to  his  aid;  to  cross  a 
marshy  and  often  impracticable  stream;  to  attack  McClellan  on 
his  flank  and  to  roll  up  his  army  like  a  scroll,  whilst,  at  each  step 
gained,  his  enemy  should  be  weaker  and  himself  be  stronger  and 
in  stronger  position,  yet  at  the  same  time  to  guard  lest  his  enemy 
should  break  his  centre  as  Napoleon  pierced  the  Russians  on 
Austerlitz  field — such  was  the  problem.  You  know,  all  the  world 
knows,  its  execution.  Despite  the  errors  of  subordinates;  despite 
the  skill  of  his  opponent,  a  soldier  truly  great  in  defence;  despite 
the  rawness  of  many  of  his  troops;  despite  the  lack  in  the  general 
officers  of  the  skill  necessary  to  movements  so  delicate,  and  despite 
the  inferiority  of  his  force,  Lee  succeeded  fully  in  his  main  object, 
relieved  Richmond,  inflicted  on  his  enemy  losses  materially  im- 
mence  and  morally  infinite;  in  seven  days  absolutely  undid  what 
McClellan  took  six  months  to  do,  and  by  a  single  combination 
threw  back  his  enemy  from  the  hills  in  sight  of  Richmond  to  a 
defensive  line  in  Washington's  suburbs.  This  campaign,  for  its 
audacity,  its  wide  combination,  its  insight  into  the  opponent's 
character,  its  self-reliance,  its  vigor  of  execution,  and  its  astonishing 
results,  may  be  safely  compared  with  the  best  campaigns  of  the 
greatest  masters  in  the  art  of  war — with  Frederick's  Leuthen,  to 
which  it  bears  as  much  likeness  as  a  campaign  of  days  can  bear 
to  a  battle  of  hours,  or  with  that  greater  feat,  the  amazing  concen- 
tration by  Washington  of  contingents  from  New  York  and  from 
North  Carolina,  of  new  levies  from  the  Virginia  Valley,  and  of  a 
French  fleet  from  the  West  Indies  to  besiege  and  to  capture  the 
army  of  Cornwallis. 

It  is  argued  that  Lee  was  strong  only  in  defence,  and  was  averse 
to  taking  the  off'ensive.  Nothing  could  be  more  false.  He  was  to 
prove  in  the  last  year  of  the  war  his  fertility  of  defensive  resource 
and  his  unrivaled  tenacity  of  resistance.  But  his  genius  was 
aggressive.  Witness  the  bold  transfer  of  his  army  from  Richmond 
to  the  Rapidan,  whilst  McClellan's  troops  still  rested  on  the  James 
river.  Witness  the  audacity  of  detaching  Jackson  from  the  Rap- 
pahannock line  to  seize  Manassas  Junction  and  the  road  to  Wash- 
ington in  Pope's  rear.  Witness  the  magnificent  swoop  on  Harper's 
Ferry,  of  which  accident  gave  to  McClellan  the  knowledge  and  by 
which  timidity  forbade  him  to  profit.  Witness  that  crowning  glory 
of  his  audacity,  the  change  of  front  to  attack  Hooker,  and  that 
march  around  what  Hooker  called  "the  best  position  in  America, 
held  by  the  best  army  on  the  planet."    Witness  his  invasion  of 

Address  on  the  Character  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.  35 

Pennsylvania,  a  campaign  whose  only  fault  was  the  generous  fault 
of  over  confidence  in  an  army  whose  great  deeds  might,  if  any- 
thing, excuse  it;  an  over  confidence,  as  we  ourselves  know,  felt  by 
every  man  he  led,  and  which  made  us  reckless  of  all  difficulties, 
ready  to  think  that  to  us  nothing  was  impossible.  He  was  a  com- 
mander who  had  met  no  equal;  we  were  an  army  who  saw  in  half 
the  guns  of  our  train  the  spoil  of  the  enemy,  who  bore  upon  our 
flags  the  blazon  of  consistent  victory.  If  he  and  we  confided  in 
our  daring  and  trusted  to  downright  fighting  for  what  strategy 
might  have  safely  won,  who  shall  blame  us  and  which  shall  blame 
the  other?  It  was  a  fault,  if  fault  there  were,  such  as  in  a  soldier 
leans  to  virtue's  side;  it  was  the  fault  of  Marlbrook  at  Malplaquet 
of  Great  Frederic  at  Torgau,  of  Napoleon  at  Borodino.  It  is  the 
famous  fault  of  the  column  of  Fontenoy,  and  the  generous  haste 
that  led  Hampden  to  his  death.  1  i 32-3 3 5 

Lee  chose  no  defensive  of  his  own  will.  None  knew  better 
than  he  that  axiom  of  the  military  art  which  finds  the  logical  end 
of  defence  in  surrender.  None  knew  better  than  he  that  Fabius 
had  never  earned  his  fame  by  the  policy  some  attribute  to  him, 
nor  saved  his  country  by  retreats,  however  regular,  or  the  skill, 
however  great,  to  choose  positions  only  to  abandon  them.  The 
defensive  was  not  his  chosen  field,  but  he  was  fated  to  conduct  a 
defensive  campaign  rivaled  by  few,  and  surpassed  by  none  in  his- 
tory. Of  that  wonderful  work  the  details  are  yet  to  be  gathered, 
but  the  outlines  are  known  the  world  over.  The  tremendous  onset 
of  Lee  in  the  tangled  wilderness  upon  an  enemy  three  times  his 
force,  who  fancied  him  retreating;  the  grim  wrestle  of  Spotsylvania; 
the  terrible  repulse  of  Cold  Harbor,  from  which  the  veteran  com- 
manders of  Grant  shrank  back  aghast.  These  great  actions  will 
be  known  so  long  as  war  shall  be  studied,  and  future  generations 
will  read  with  admiration  of  that  battlefield  of  seventy  miles, 
where  Lee  with  51,000  men  confronted  Grant  with  his  190,000— 
attacked  him  wherever  he  showed  uncovered  front,  killed,  wounded 
and  captured  more  men  than  his  own  army  numbered,  and  in  a 
campaign  of  thirty-five  days,  forced  the  most  tenacious  soldier  of 
the  Union  armies  to  abandon  utterly  his  line  of  attack,  to  take  a 
new  position  always  open  to  him  but  never  chosen,  and  to  ex- 
change the  warfare  of  the  open  field  for  the  slow  and  safe  approach 
of  the  earthworks  and  the  siege. 

They  will  read,  too,  that  in  the  midst  of  this  campaign,  Lee  was 
bold  to  spare  from  his  little  army  force  enough  to  take  once  more 

36  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  offensive,  to  traverse  once  more  the  familiar  Valley,  to  break 
once  more  through  the  gate  of  the  Potomac,  and  to  insult  with  the 
fires  of  his  bivouacs  the  capital  city  of  his  enemy.  Reading  these 
things,  they  will  refuse  to  believe,  what  we  know,  that  men  were 
found  here  and  now  to  call  this  marvelous  campaign  a  retreat. 
The  truth  is  that  Lee  took  a  real  defensive,  if  at  all,  only  in  the 


was  driven  to  that  defensive  not  by  one  army  nor  by  many  armies 
in  succession,  but  by  the  combined  force  of  the  armies  in  his  front 
and  in  his  rear.  Vicksburg  it  was,  not  Cemetery  Hill,  which  baffled 
the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia;  at  Nashville  and  Atlanta,  not  from 
the  lines  of  Petersburg  came  the  deadly  blows;  and  the  ragged 
remnant  of  Appomattox  surrendered  not  to  the  valor  or  skill  of 
the  men  they  had  so  often  met  and  overcome,  but  to  the  men  they 
had  never  seen,  and  yielded  neither  to  stubborn  Grant  nor  braggart 
Sheridan,  but  to  the  triumphant  hosts  of  Rosecrans,  of  Thomas 
and  of  Sherman. 

It  is  not  hard,  then,  my  friends,  to  see  that  history  will  hold  Lee 
to  be  a  great  soldier,  wise  in  counsel,  patient  in  preparation,  swift 
in  decision,  terrible  in  onset,  tenacious  of  hold,  sullen  in  retreat,  a 
true  son  of  that  Berserker  race  that  rushed  from  the  bosom  of 
Europe's  darkest  age,  furious  to  fight,  lovers  of  battle,  destined  to 
sweep  away  the  old  world  and  to  mould  the  modern. 

Rightly  to  estimate  his  power  as  commander  is  not  and  may 
never  be  possible.  There  is  no  second  term  of  comparison.  He 
was  in  a  position  as  novel  as  were  the  conditions  of  a  war  where 
the  railroad  existed,  but  the  highway  was  not;  where  telegraphs 
conveyed  orders,  yet  primeval  forests  still  stood  to  conceal  armies; 
where  concentration  was  possible  at  a  speed  unknown  to  war 
before,  but  where  concentration  might  easily  starve  itself  before  it 
could  strike  its  enemy. 

Strange  as  the  material,  were  the  moral  conditions  of  Lee's  com- 
mand. He  was  hampered  by  political  considerations;  he  was 
trammelled  by  the  supreme  importance  of  one  city;  and,  above 
all,  on  him  was  complete  responsibility,  but  never  commensurate 
power.  To  the  integrity  of  his  army — to  the  morale  of  half  his 
force — the  successful  defence  of  the  South  and  Southwest  was 
essential,  and  on  operations  in  which  he  had  no  voice  turned  the 
issue  of  his  campaigns. 

Of  these  things  account  will  yet  be  taken,  let  us  be  sure  of  that; 

Defence  of  Fort  Morgan,  37 

for  though  in  barbarous  ages  conquered  peoples  write  no  histories, 
yet,  as  the  world  grows  older,  history  grows  more  and  more  a  judge, 
less  and  less  a  witness  and  advocate;  more  and  more  to  every 
cause  that  appeal  lies  open,  which  Francis  Bacon,  of  Verulam, 
made  "to  future  ages  and  other  countries." 

Fit  is  it  that  we  trust  to  that  great  verdict,  seeing  that  nothing 
less  than  the  tribunal  of  mankind  can  judge  this  man,  who  was 
born  not  for  a  period,  but  for  all  time;  not  for  a  country,  but  for 
the  world;  not  for  a  people,  but  for  the  human  race. 

Not  for  him  shall  the  Arch  of  Triumph  rise;  not  for  him 
Columns  of  Victory,  telling  through  monumental  bronze  the  hideous 
tale  of  tears  and  blood  that  grins  from  the  skull  pyramids  of 
Dahomey.  Not  to  his  honor  shall  extorted  tributes  carve  the  shaft 
or  mould  the  statue;  but  this  day  a  grateful  people  give  of  their 
poverty  gladly,  that  in  pure  marble,  or  time-defying  bronze,  future 
generations  may  see  the  counterfeit  presentment  of  this  man — the 
ideal  and  bright  consummate  flower  of  our  civilization;  not  an 
Alexander,  it  may  be;  nor  Napoleon,  nor  Timour,  nor  Churchill — 
greater  far  than  they,  thank  heaven — the  brother  and  the  equal  of 
Sidney  and  of  Falkland,  of  Hampden  and  of  Washington. 

Defence  of  Fort  Morgan— Reports  of  General  R.  L.  Page. 

[We  arc  glad  to  be  able  to  present  the  following  original  MS.  reports  of 
General  li.  L.  Page,  which  have  never  been  in  print,  and  whicli  givu  a  clear 
statement  of  the  galUint  defence  of  Fort  Morgan.  Tliey  wonld  iiave  appeared 
most  appropriately  in  immediate  connection  witli  General  Maury'd  report  of 
the  defence  of  Mobile,  but  as  ihey  were  not  received  in  lime  for  that,  they 
are  given  here.] 

IIeadquakters  Third  Brioade.  D.  G., 

Fort  MoRtiAN,  August  Cth,  1SG4. 

General  D.  II.  Maury,  Commanding^  Sfc,  Mobile: 

General — I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  at  6  o'clock  yester- 
day morning  the  enemy's  fleet,  consisting  of  twenty-three  men-of- 
war,  of  which  four  were  irionitors,  moved  up  in  line  to  pass  this 
fort— the  monitors  leading,  the  wooden  vessels,  lashed  together  in 
twos,  following;  the  sloops  of-war  and  larger  craft  on  the  inshore 
side  protecting  their  consorts,  which  could  convey  them  in  should 
they  be  seriously  damnged. 
The  fir^it  monitor,  "Tecumseh,"  single  turreted,  was  sunk  under 

38  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

our  guns,  immediately  abreast  the  fort.  Slie  went  down  rapidly ; 
only  a  few,  who  were  picked  up  by  a  boat  from  the  enemy,  and 
four  who  swam  ashore  and  are  now  in  our  hands,  were  saved  from 
her  crew. 

The  wooden  gunboat  "  Phillippi,"  attempting  to  pass  the  fort 
alone  after  the  fleet,  was  sunk  by  the  second  shot,  and  being  run 
ashore  was  deserted  by  her  crew,  and  afterwards  burnt  by  a  boat 
from  the  Confederate  States  gunboat  "Morgan."  One  man  was 
found  on  her  whose  legs  had  been  so  shattered  that  he  died  while 
the  officer  was  on  board.     He  was  thrown  overboard. 

The  spirit  displayed  by  this  garrison  was  fine,  the  guns  admirably 
served,  and  all  did  their  duty  nobly;  and  though  subjected  to  a 
fire  which  for  the  time  was  probably  as  severe  as  any  known  in 
the  annals  of  this  war,  our  casualties  were  slight.     I  enclose  a  list. 

Four  of  the  enemy's  fleet  turned  from  the  fire  they  would  have 
to  encounter  in  passing,  and  assisted  other  vessels  in  an  enfilading 
fire  from  the  Gulf  side  during  the  action.  As  to  the  damage  in- 
flicted on  those  which  succeeded  in  passing,  I  cannot  speak  defi- 
nitely; shot  after  shot  was  distinctly  seen  to  enter  the  wooden 
ships,  but,  as  was  evident,  their  machinery  being  protected  by 
chains  no  vital  blow  could  be  given  them  there.  Their  loss  in 
men,  I  am  assured,  was  very  great. 

Four  hundred  and  ninety-one  projectiles  were  delivered  from 
this  fort  during  the  passage  of  the  fleet. 

Our  naval  forces  under  Admiral  Buchanan  fought  most  gallantly, 

against  odds  before  unknown  to  history. 

Very  respectfully  your  obedient  servant, 

R.  L.  Page, 
Brigadier^General  Commanding. 

Kew  Orleans,  La.,  30th  August,  1864. 
Major-General  D.  H.  Maury,  Commanding  Mobile^  Alabama : 

General — The  report  of  the  evacuation  of  Fort  Powell  and 
the  surrender  of  Fort  Gaines  I  had  the  honor  of  addressing  you 
from  Fort  Morgan,  on  the  8th  instant.  It  embraced  the  military 
operations  to  that  date. 

After  the  reduction  of  Gaines,  I  felt  confident  that  the  whole 
naval  and  land  force  of  the  enemy  would  be  brought  against 
Morgan,  and  was  assiduous  in  preparing  my  fort  for  as  good  a 
defence  as  possible.    For  the  state  of  the  work  I  beg  leave  to  refer 

Defence  of  Fort  Morgan.  39 

you  to  Chief  Engineer  Sheliha's  letter  to  Headquarters'  Department, 
of  July  9th,  from  which  time  no  material  change  or  addition  was 
made;  and  further  to  state,  that  it  had  been  demonstrated  by  the 
fire  from  the  enemy  that  the  enceinte  of  the  fort  (in  which  was  its 
main  strength)  protected  the  scarp  of  the  main  wall  only  about 
one-half  its  height  from  curbated  shot;  that  it  was  now  in  the 
power  of  the  enemy  to  open  fire  from  every  point  of  the  compass, 
and  consequently  none  of  the  casemates,  without  heavy  traverses 
in  their  front,  would  be  safe;  that  it  was  manifest,  by  this  concen- 
tration of  fire,  my  heavy  guns  could  soon  be  dismounted ;  and  my 
making  a  protracted  resistance  depended  on  my  ability  to  protect 
my  men  from  the  heavy  fire,  and  hold  the  fort  from  the  flank 
casemates  against  an  assault.  With  these  views,  I  employed  my 
men  day  and  night,  most  of  the  time  under  fire,  in  erecting  traverses 
to  protect  my  guns  on  the  main  wall  as  long  as  possible,  to  render 
the  casemate  selected  for  the  sick  and  wounded  secure,  and  to 
provide  safe  quarters  for  themselves  in  their  rest  from  the  arduous 
duties  they  would  have  to  endure.  It  was  necessary  also  to  put  a 
large  traverse  at  the  Sally  Port,  which  was  entirely  exposed. 

Thus  absolutely  to  prevent  the  probability  of  Fort  Morgan's 
being  reduced  at  the  first  test  and  onset  by  the  heavy  batteries  of 
the  enemy,  it  was  necessary  for  my  limited  garrison  (of  some 
400  efi'ective)  to  labor  to  effect  a  work  equal  almost  in  extent  to 
building  a  new  fort. 

On  early  morning  of  the  9th  the  enemy  proceeded  with  monitors 
and  transports,  and  disembarked  troops  at  navy  cove,  commencing 
at  once  their  first  work  of  investment  by  land. 

The  "new  redoubt"  (2,700  yards  from  the  fort)  from  which  the 
guns  had  been  withdrawn,  and  the  work  formerly  known  as 
"Battery  Bragg,"  were  destroyed  as  far  as  possible  by  burning  the 
wood  work.  The  buildings  around  the  fort,  hospitals,  quarters, 
stables,  &c.,  were  also  at  the  same  time  fired  and  cleared  away  as 
much  as  possible. 

Two  monitors,  three  sloops- of- war  and  several  gunboats  engaged 
the  fort  for  two  or  three  hours — the  wooden  vessels  at  rather  long 
range — with  no  material  damage  apparent  to  either  side.  Soon 
thereafter  a  flag  of  truce  was  reported  from  the  fleet,  and  com- 
municated to  this  effect: 

Brigadier-General  R.  L.  Page,  Commanding  Fort  Morgan  : 

Sir — To   prevent  the  unnecessary  sacrifice  of  human  life 

40  Souihe)-n  Historical  Society  Papers. 

which  must  follow  the  openinor  of  our  batteries,  we  demand  the. 
unconditional  surrender  of  Fort  Morgan  and  its  dependencies. 
We  are  very  respecfully,  your  obedient  servants, 

I).  G.  Farragut,  Rear  Admiral 
Gordon  Granger,  Mujur-General. 
To  which  my  reply  said: 

Roar  Admiral  D.  G.  Farragut, 
Gordon  Granger,  M'lyjr-General : 

Sirs — I  am  prepared  to  sacrifice  life,  and  will  only  surrender 
when  I  have  no  means  of  defence.  I  do  not  understand  that  while 
being  communicated  with  under  fl;ig  of  truce,  the  "Tennessee" 
should  be  towed  wilhin  range  of  njy  guns. 

Rtspectfully,  ttc, 

R.  L.  Page, 

Brigadier-General  C  S.  A. 

From  this  time  to  the  15th,  day  and  night,  we  were  engaged  by 
the  fleet,  sometimes  in  a  brisk  fight  of  several  hours'  duration,  at 
other  in  a  desultory  firing — without  any  very  effective  aamaga 
being  done  to  our  fort,  save  a  demonstration  of  the  fact  that  our 
brick  walls  were  easily  penetrable  to  the  heavy  missiles  of  the 
enemy,  and  that  a  systfematic,  concentrated  fire  would  soon  breach 

On  the  15th,  three  of  the  15-inch  shells  striking  the  right-flank 
face  of  Bastion  No.  4  breached  the  wall,  and  disabled  the  howitzers 

During  this  time  a  pretty  continuous  fire  was  kept  up  on  the 
fort  from  the  Parrottguns  in  several  batteries  erected  by  the  enemy  ; 
and  in  the  intervals  of  serving  the  gims  my  men  were  engaged  in 
the  work  before  mentioned,  for  their  protection,  in  the  anticipation 
of  a  vigorous  bombardment. 

The  sharpshooters  in  our  front  had  become  very  numerous  and 
active,  and  with  these  encircling  us  on  the  land,  and  the  fire  de- 
livered from  the  fleet  on  the  flanks,  our  guns  had  to  be  served  with 
much  care  and  under  great  difficulty. 

The  land  forces  of  the  enemy  completed  their  first  approach  (see 
accompanying  sketch)  on  the  9th  and  10th  across  the  peninsula; 
the  second  through  the  11th  and  12th;  the  third,  a  bayou,  near  and 
parallel  to  Gulf  shore,  13th  and  14th;  their  first  parallel  500  and 
700  yards  distant,  15th,  16th,  17th,  I8th,  19th;  approaches  on  20th 
and  21st  to  within  200  yards  of  our  glacis. 

Such  guns  as  I  could  use  on  this  force  I  annoyed  them  with, 
especially  at  night,  and  to  the  extent  possible  retarded  their  work ; 

Defence  qf  Fort  Morgan.  41 

though  nothing  very  eflfective  could  be  accomplished  in  this  way, 
as  their  working  parties  were  well  concealed  in  the  sand  hills,  and 
when  our  fire  was  concentrated  on  any  one  point  they  would 
merely,  unseen,  remove  to' some  other. 

To  the  morning  of  the  22d,  our  efforts  were  with  the  heavy  guns 
that  bore  on  them  to  interfere  with  the  investing  approaches  of  the 
enemy.  The  topography  of  our  front,  however,  was  to  their  ad- 
vantage, and  they  made  a  steady  advance,  covering  it  somewhat 
with  an  irregular  fire  from  the  batteries  already  in  position,  and 
lining  their  works  already  completed  with  sharpshooters  to  pick 
off  our  gunners. 

At  daylight  the  fleet  was  reported  moving  up  to  encircle  us,  and 
shortly  its  batteries  (in  conjunction  with  those  on  land,  which 
numbered  thirty-six  (36)  guns  and  mortars)  opened  a  furious  fire, 
which  came  from  almost  every  point  of  the  compass,  and  continued 
unabated  throughout  the  day,  culminating  in  increased  force  at 
sundown;  after  which  the  heavy  calibres  and  mortars  kept  it  up 
during  the  night. 

This  fire  disabled  all  the  heavy  guns,  save  two,  which  did  not 
bear  on  the  land  approach,  partially  breached  the  walls  in  several 
places,  and  cut  up  the  fort  to  such  extent  as  to  make  the  whole 
work  a  mere  mass  of  debris.     Their  mortar  practice  was  accurate. 

Apprehensive  from  the  great  effect  already  had  on  the  walls, 
that  my  magazines,  containing  now  80,000  pounds,  were  in  danger 
in  continuation  of  the  bombardment  in  the  night,  with  great  care 
and  under  continuous  fire  I  had  the  powder  brought  out  and 

The  guns  in  the  '"Water"  and  "Lunette"  batteries,  now  un- 
serviceable and  in  jeopardy  from  the  enemy,  I  ordered  spiked  and 
otherwise  effectually  damaged ;  and  all  the  guns  on  the  main  ram- 
part dismounted  by  tlie  fire  from  the  enemy  were  likewise  destroyed 
as  of  no  further  avail  in  defence.  Early  in  the  night  the  wood- 
work of  the  citadel  was  fired  by  the  mortar  shells,  and  burned 
furiously  for  some  hours— the  enemy  during  the  conflagration 
pouring  in  his  missiles  with  increased  vigor.  With  great  eflbrts 
the  fire  was  arrested,  and  prevented  extending  around  near  the 
magazines,  which  would  have  been  in  imminent  danger  of  explo- 
sion. In  the  gallant  endeavor  to  prevent  this  disaster,  I  would 
especially  mention  Privates  Murphy,  Bembough  and  Stevens,  First 
Tennessee  regiment,  for  great  courage  and  daring  displayed. 

At  daylight  on  the  23d  (all  my  powder  had  then  been  destroyed). 

42  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  citadel  was  again  set  on  fire  in  several  places  by  shells,  and 
burned  until  it  was  consumed. 

The  report  made  to  me  now  was  that  the  casemates  which  had 
been  rendered  as  safe  as  possible  for  the  men,  some  had  been 
breached,  others  partially  (Captains  Johnston,  Fisher  and  Hughes 
informed  me  that  another  shot  on  them  would  bring  down  the 
walls  of  their  company  quarters),  so  that  a  resumption  of  the  severe 
fire  from  the  enemy  would  in  all  likelihood  inflict  great  loss  of 
life, there  being  no  bombproof  in  the  fort.  The  enemy's  approach 
was  very  near  the  glacis.  My  guns  and  powder  had  all  been  de- 
stroyed ;  my  "  means  of  defence  gone  " ;  the  citadel,  nearly  the  entire 
quartermaster  store  and  a  portion  of  the  commissariat  burnt  by 
the  enemy's  shells.  It  was  evident  the  fort  could  hold  out  but  a 
few  hours  longer  under  a  renewed  bombardment.  The  only  ques- 
tion was,  hold  it  for  this  time,  gain  the  eclat  and  sustain  the  loss  of 
life  from  the  falling  of  the  walls,  or  save  life  and  capitulate? 

I  capitulated  to  the  enemy  at  2  o'clock  P.  M.,  and  though  they 
refused  to  insert  it  in  the  terms  there  was  a  full  understanding,  and 
I  was  assured  that  my  sick  and  wounded  should  be  sent  at  once  to 
Mobile  by  a  flag  of  truce.  This  was  not  done.  Considering  the 
great  exposure  to  which  the  men  were  subjected,  and  the  fact  that 
shells  frequently  burst  among  them  when  in  the  casemates,  the 
casualties  were  unusually  small.     I  enclose  a  list. 

The  garrison  in  this  severe  test  behaved  well,  and  I  would  make 
little  distinction. 

Captain  J.  GaUimard,  engineer  in  charge,  performed  his  duties 
to  my  satisfaction.  To  the  officers  of  the  First  Alabama  battalion 
artillery.  Major  J.  T.  Gee  commanding,  and  of  Captain  Cothran's 
company.  Twenty-first  Alabama,  I  give  my  thanks  for  their  prompt- 
ness and  alacrity  in  every  duty;  and  to  Colonel  A.  J.  Jackson, 
commanding  First  Tennessee,  and  Captains  Johnston  and  Fisher 
and  their  brave  companies  of  that  regiment,  for  very  efficient  ser- 

To  Captain  C.  H.  Smith,  A.  A.  G.,  and  Captain  R.  T.  Thorn,  A. 
I.  G.,  for  prompt  performance  of  all  their  duties,  I  am  under  obli- 
gations; and  to  my  aid-de-camp.  Lieutenant  J.  C.  Ta3'lor,  I  owe 
much  for  his  promptness  and  energy,  and  for  his  active  and  gallant 
assistance  throughout  the  operations. 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

R.  L.  Pagk,  Brigadier- General 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  43 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park,  Twelftli  Alabama  Regiment. 

[Continued  from  December  No.] 

February  5th,  1865  (Sunday) — My  sleep  was  a  very  cold  and 
uncomfortable  one  last  night,  and  I  rose  early  to  warm  myself  by 
the  single  stove  in  the  "division."  The  "pen,"  as  our  quarters  are 
called,  embraces  an  area  of  near  two  acres.  The  building,  a  mere 
shell,  unceiled  and  unplastered,  is  on  three  sides,  with  a  high,  close 
plank  fence  on  the  fourth  side,  separating  us  from  the  privates' 
barracks.  The  long  side  of  the  building  (barracks,  as  it  is  called), 
parallel  with  the  fence,  is  about  300  feet  in  length,  running  east 
and  west,  and  the  other  two  sides  or  ends  are  each  about  150  feet 
long.  The  campus  or  exercise  ground  is  low  and  flat,  wet  and 
muddy.  There  are  narrow  plank  walks,  intersecting  each  other 
and  near  the  building,  which  are  thronged  with  passing  crowds 
this  wet  weather.  The  bunks  or  berths  in  each  division  are  six  feet 
long  and  about  four  feet  apart,  extending  entirely  across  the  room. 
Each  division  is  heated  by  one  large  upright  stove,  which  the 
prisoners  keep  very  hot  when  sufficient  coal  can  be  obtained.  The 
room  is  so  open  and  cold,  however,  that  a  half-do"en  or  more  stoves 
would  be  required  to  heat  it.  Several  poor  fellows,  who  have  no 
bunk-mates  and  a  scarcity  of  covering,  sit  up  around  the  stoves 
and  nod  all  night.  The  mess-room  is  next  to  "22"  and  near  "  the 
rear."  It  is  a  long,  dark  room,  having  a  long  pine  table,  on  which 
the  food  is  placed  in  separate  piles,  either  on  a  tin  plate  or  on  the 
uncovered,  greasy  table,  at  meal  hours,  twice  a  day.  No  knives 
nor  forks,  nor  spoons  are  furnished.  Captain  Browne  kindly 
brought  my  meals  to  me.  The  fare  consists  of  a  slice  of  baker's 
bread,  very  often  stale,  with  weak  coffee,  for  breakfast,  and  a  slice 
of  bread  and  piece  of  salt  pork  or  salt  beef,  sometimes  alternating 
with  boiled  fresh  beef  and  bean  soup,  for  dinner.  The  beef  is 
often  tough  and  hard  to  masticate.  It  is  said  to  be  thrown,  bloody 
and  unwashed,  in  huge  pots,  filled  with  water  of  doubtful  clean- 
liness, and  boiled.  Many  prisoners  club  together  and  form  messes, 
and  with  such  money  as  they  receive  from  Northern  friends,  or  as 
they  can  make  by  their  own  ingenious  work,  buy  such  eatables  as 
can  be  obtained  from  the  sutler.  The  prison  allowance  is  poor 
and  scant  indeed,  and  I  eagerly  consume  all  I  receive.  Being  on 
crutches  I  am  unable  to  run  and  scuffle  for  a  place  at  the  mess- 
room  table,  where  all  stand  to  eat,  after  pushing  and  crowding  in. 

44  Southern  Historicnl  Society  Papers. 

Many  bring  their  rations  to  their  bunks,  and  eat  there.  All  eat  as 
if  hungry  and  ill-fed.  Tubs,  made  of  barrels,  are  placed  at  night 
in  front  of  the  doors,  and  used  as  urinals.  These  are  emptied  by 
details  of  prisoners  early  every  morning.  Each  division  has  its 
daily  details  to  make  fires,  sweep  up,  etc.  I  spent  much  of  the 
day  writing  to  friends,  informing  them  of  my  "change  of  base" 
from  the  Old  Capitol  to  Fort  Delaware. 

February  Qth  and  7</i— Captain  W.  M.  Dwight,  A.  A.  G.,  of  South 
Carolina,  is  "chief"  of  22.     His  duties  are  to  keep  a  roll  of  the 
inmates,  make  all  the  details,  look  after  the  sweeping  and  cleaning 
the  room,  report  names  of  the«sick,  preserve  order  in  the  division, 
preside  over  meetings,  etc.     Captain  D.  is  an  active,  gentlemanly 
officer,  and  quite  popular.    I  have  met  Captain  E.  J.  Dean,  Colonel 
P.  A.  McMichael,  Lieutenant  James  Campell  and  Adjutant  G.  E. 
Manigault,  of  South  Carolina;  Adjutant  John  Law,  of  Tennessee; 
Colonel  Isaac  Hardeman,  Captain  W.  H.  Bennett,  Captain  E.  W. 
Crocker,  Captain  C.  S.  Virgin,  Adjutant  G.  C.  Conner,  of  Georgia, 
and  others,  but  saw  them  only  a  few  minutes.     They  are  polite 
and   intelligent  gentlemen,  excellent  representatives  of  their  re- 
spective States.    The  majority  of  the  prisoners  are  worn  and  feeble 
by  sickness,  want  of  necessary  food,  wounds,  scurvy,  personal  care, 
anxiety  and  privation.     Many  are  sadly  depressed  on  account  of 
long  confinement  and  cruel  delay  in  exchanges.      Some  are  in 
complete  despair.     Others  make  Dixie  and  home  themes  of  con- 
stant thought  and  conversation.     They  dream  and  sigh,  and  talk 
and  long  for  home  and  its  loved  ones.    A  few  constitutional  cowards, 
who  have  a  mortal  horror  of  the  battlefield,  seem  contented  here. 
They  prefer  to  risk  the  annoyances,  inconveniences,  hunger,  insults 
and  deseases  of  prison  to  the  lesser  but  more  dreaded  dangers  of 
the  field  of  battle.     This  class  of  persons  is  very  limited.     Over 
2,000  officers  and  7,000  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  are 
in  the  two  prison  pens.     Brigadier-General  A.  Schoeff",  a  Hungarian, 
is  in  command,  and  has  two  very  unpopular  and  insolent  officers, 
Captain  G.  W.  Ahl  and  Lieutenant  Woolf,  as  his  adjutants.    These 
uniformed  plebeians  delight    in   exercising  petty    tyranny  over 
their  superiors  in  the  prison.     They  are  rude,  coarse  men,  with  no 
conception  of  sentiments  of  generosity  and  magnanimity.     Woolf 
is  generally  drunk,  boastful  and  boisterous.    Ahl  is  more  genteel 
in  speech  and  manner,  but  less  obliging  and  more  deceitful  and 
cruel.     General  Schoeff  is  disposed  to  be  lenient  and  kind,  but  is 
terribly  afraid  of  his  superior  officers,  especially  Secretary  Stanton. 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  45 

He  is  a  moral  coward,  and  as  false  and  faithless  as  the  notorious 
French  liar  and  revolutionist,  Barere.  General  Schoeff,  the  Hun- 
garian, and  General  Meagher,  the  Irishman,  surely  forget  the  op- 
pressions they  pretend  to  lament  in  their  native  lands,  while  assisting 
our  enemies  to  enslave  and  destroy  ours.  "Consistency  is  a  jewel" 
they  do  not  prize.     Mercenary  motives  control  them. 

February  8th — With  Captain  Browne  and  Lieutenant  Arrington, 
I  left  22,  and  found  somewhat  better  quarters  in  division  28.  Here 
we  have  to  climb  over  two  bunks  to  the  uppermost  one.  Puttino- 
my  crutches  on  the  bunks  above  as  I  ascend,  I  climb  with  difficulty, 
by  means  of  my  hands  and  knees  to  my  bunk,  leaving  it  as  seldom 
as  possible.  This  division  is  called  "The  Gambling  Hell,"  and 
games  of  faro,  keno,  poker,  euchre,  vingt  et  vn,  seven-up,  chuck-a- 
luck,  etc.,  are  played  incessantly,  day  and  night.  Gamblers  from 
all  the  divisions  resort  to  "  28."  The  fascination  for  games  of  chance 
is  wonderful,  and  the  utter  recklessness  with  which  some  men  will 
venture  their  last  "check"  is  really  painful  to  behold.  Many  pen- 
niless fellows,  "dead  broke"  from  repeated  fights  with  the  "tiger," 
stand  near  and  eagerly  watch  the  games  for  hours  in  succession. 
The  "  faro-bankers,"  two  officers  from  West  Virginia,  seem  to  be 
flourishing,  have  plenty  of  money,  and  live  well  from  the  sutler's. 
Lieutenant  C,  C.  Carr,  of  Uniontown,  Alabama,  bunks  next  to  me. 
He  is  in  the  Fourty-fourth  Virginia  regiment.  Carr  is  an  Alabamian 
in  a  Virginia  command,  while  I  am  a  Georgian  in  an  Alabama 
regiment.  Lieutenant  George  R.  Waldraan,  also  of  the  Forty- 
fourth  Virginia,  from  Baltimore,  Maryland,  is  the  popular  and 
accommodating  postmaster  of  the  division.  He  carries  off  our 
letters  for  inspection  and  mailing,  and  delivers  those  received,  after 
the  authorities  have  opened  and  read  them.  He  also  attends 
"  money  calls,"  and  brings  sutler's  checks  in  lieu  of  the  greenbacks 
sent  to  prisoners.  It  is  an  interesting  sight  to  see  the  crowds  gather 
around  him,  as  he  calls  out  the  names  of  those  receiving  letters. 
The  eyes  of  the  fortunate  recipients  sparkle  with  pleasure,  and 
smiles  light  up  their  countenances,  while  the  disappointed  turn 
reluctantly  and  sadly  away,  with  sighs  of  regret,  when  the  roll  has 
been  finished,  and  their  names  not  called.  Some  poor  fellows 
never  join  these  expectant  crowds,  as  they  have  no  acquaintances 
North,  and  never  receive  any  letters;  they  are  to  be  pitied.  It  is 
a  great  consolation  to  know  you  are  not  forgotten,  though  a  prisoner. 
We  find  it  difficult  to  sleep  at  night  in  our  new  quarters;  so  many 
noisy  men  remain  awake,  gambling,  talking,  swearing  and  walking 

46  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

about.  Loud  bursts  of  laughter  and  horried  oaths  sometimes 
arouse  and  startle  us.  Such  confusion  should  be  stopped  after  10 
o'clock.  Prayers  are  held  by  some  of  the  officers  in  each  division 
at  9  o'clock  at  night.  Wicked  28  is  not  neglected,  and  its  occupants 
are  usually  very  quiet  and  respectful  during  the  exercises,  but 
gambling  is  actively  resumed  as  soon  as  "amen"  is  pronounced. 
Captain  E.  A.  Jeffress,  Twenty-first  Virginia  regiment,  from  Clarkes- 
ville,  Virginia,  is  one  of  the  few  inmates  of  our  room  who  will 
lead  in  prayer.     Officers  from  other  divisions  assist  him. 

February  9th — A  few  officers  were  paroled  to-day  for  exchange. 
Why  am  I  not  among  the  number?  Very  few  here  are  more 
helpless  than  I,  and  the  fortunate  parties  are  strong  and  well.  It 
is  difficult  to  be  patient  and  calm  under  such  treatment.  The 
paroled  officers  are  buoyant  and  happy,  while  those  who  have  to 
remain  are  correspondingly  depressed  and  wretched.  The  anxious, 
increasing  desire  to  be  exchanged  is  positively  painful.  Nostalgia 
or  homesickness  is  alarmingly  prevalent,  and  its  effects,  combined 
with  poor  food  and  rough  treatment,  are  often  fatal.  Sometimes  a 
paragraph  from  an  eagerly  scanned  newspaper,  or  a  "grape  vine" 
telegram,  having  no  foundation  whatever,  makes  all  hopeful  and 
jubilant,  but  soon  a  counter  report  fills  them  with  gloom  and 
despair.  Many  declare  they  would  prefer  to  fight  in  battle  every 
day  to  remaining  longer  in  their  wretched  quarters.  Gaming 
occupies  the  minds  of  many.  Some  read  novels  and  histories, 
others  study  ancient  and  modern  languages  and  mathematics,  and 
thus  divert,  for  the  time,  their  minds  from  the  painful,  desperate, 
hopeless  surroundings.  A  few  are  actually  losing  their  memories 
and  are  in  danger  of  either  becoming  gibbering  idiots  or  dangerous 
madmen.  A  speedy  change  to  home  life  is  the  only  salvation  for 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  47 

Editarial  Ifai^agrapbe. 

As  WE  enter  with  this  issue  upon  the  second  year  of  the  publication  of 
our  Fapers,  we  warmly  congratulare  the  Society  on  ihe  success  of  the  past 
year  and  the  prospects  for  the  future. 

Despite  "hard  times"  our  enterprise  has  met  with  a  success  which  en- 
courages us  to  hope  that  we  shall  be  able  to  increase  our  circulation  duriii"- 
the  coming  year,  and  advance  all  of  the  interests  of  the  Society. 

But  we  beg  our  friends  to  remember  that  we  need  their  continued  sym- 
pathy and  active  help,  in  order  that  our  expectations  may  be  realized. 

Renewals  have  been  coming  in  with  some  degree  of  briskness;  but 
many  have  yet  failed  to  renew,  and  we  beg  that  they  will  do  so  at  once.  We 
send  this  number  to  all  old  subscribers  who  have  not  notified  us  to  discon- 
tinue their  subscriptions,  in  the  hope  that  they  will  find  it  convenient  to 
renew.  But  we  again  call  attention  to  our  terms,  which  are  strictly  cash  in 

Lists  of  Names  and  the  postoflice  address  of  those  who  might  probably 
subscribe  to  our  Papers  would  be  very  useful.  Some  of  our  friends  have 
sent  us  such  lists,  and  we  beg  that  others  will  do  so ;  but  a  still  better  list,  of 
course,  would  be  lists  of  subscribers  with  money.  A  little  effort  on  the  part 
of  our  friends  would  swell  our  list  and  increase  our  power  to  be  useful  in  the 
erreat  work  in  which  we  are  engaged. 

Any  Failures  to  receive  our  Papers  by  our  subscribers  will  be  promptly 
corrected,  so  far  as  we  are  able  to  do  so,  when  reported  to  this  office.  The 
Secretary  is  accustomed  to  give  his  personal  attention  to  the  making  up  of 
our  mail,  and  is  satisfied  that  few  failures  have  occurred  through  any  fault 
of  onr  oflice.  But  we  beg  that  if  subscribers  fail  to  receive  their  numbers 
they  will  report  to  us  promptly,  that  we  may  seek  to  rectify  it,  and  not  wait 
until  the  close  of  the  year  to  make  their  complaints. 

Back  Numbers  for  187G  we  can  furnish  only  in  tAvo  bound  volumes, 
which  we  mail  at  $2.00,  $2.2.5  or  $2.50  per  volume,  according  to  style  of  bind- 

"A  Confederate  View  op  the  Treatment  of  Prisoners"  (being 
our  numbers  for  March  and  April,  1S7G,  neatly  bound)  we  can  still  mail  for 
$1.2.5,  $1..50  or  $1.75,  according  to  binding.  And  we  again  suggest  that  our 
friends  Avould  do  a  valuable  work  by  placing  this  little  volume  (as  well  as  our 
oiher  publications)  on  the  shelves  of  every  public  library  in  the  land. 

48  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Contributions  to  our  Archives  are  as  acceptable  as  ever,  and  con- 
tinue to  come  in  from  time  to  time.  Since  our  last  acknowledgment  we 
have  received  among  others  the  following: 

Fro7n  W.  H.  H.  Terrell,  Adjutant-General  of  Indiana  (the  author) — "In- 
diana in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  being  the  otiicial  report  of  the  part 
borne  b}^  Indiana  in  the  "war  between  the  States."  Life  and  Public  Ser- 
vices of  Oliver  P.  Morton,  of  Indiana. 

From  H.  C.  Wall  (the  author)— "The  Pee  Dee  Guards"  (Company  D, 
Twenty-third  North  Carolina  regiment),  from  1S61  to  1865. 

From  the  Vermont  Historical  Society — "History  of  the  Saint  Albans  Raid," 
by  Hon.  Edward  A.  Sowlcs. 

From  the  author  {Napier  £flr^Ze«)—"  Military  Annals  of  Louisiana"  during 
the  late  war. 

From  the  author  {Dr.  R.  Randolph  Stevenson)— '•'■  The  Southern  Side,  or 
Andersonville  Prison." 

From  the  author  {Rev.  Joseph  H.  Martin,  of  Atlanta,  Georgia)— '■^  The  De- 
claration of  Independence — A  Centennial  Poem." 

From  Robert  Clarke  8c  Co.,  Cincinnati— "C.  W.  Moulton's  reply  to  Boyn- 
ton's  Review  of  Sherman's  Memoirs." 

From  John  McCrae,  Esq.,  Camden,  South  Carolina — A  complete  tile  of 
Charleston  Daily  Mercury,  from  the  8th  of  July,  1859,  to  the  10th  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1865,  and  from  the  19th  of  November,  1866,  to  the  16th  of  November, 
1868.  The  Charleston  Daily  Neios,  from  June,  1866,  to  5th  of  April,  1873. 
Charleston  News  and  Courier,  from  April  7th,  1873,  to  November  27th,  1875. 
Daily  South  Carolinian,  from  1855  to  October,  1864,  and  Daily  Columbia 
Guardian,  from  November  14th,  1864,  to  February  15th,  1865.  The  Southern 
Presbyterian,  from  September  11th,  1858,  to  December  29th,  1865,  and  from 
May  7th,  186'1,  to  December  30th,  1875. 

Tliese,  added  to  the  valuable  files  received  from  Mr.  McCrae  some  months 
ao-o,  constitute  a  most  important  addition  to  our  collection,  and  place  the 
Society  under  obligations  to  Mr.  McCrae,  which  are  only  increased  by  the 
courteous  manner  in  which  he  has  made  the  donations,  and  the  real  pleasure 
which  it  seems  to  have  afforded  him. 

From  Mrs.  C.  A.  Hamilton,  Beaufort,  South  Carolina — A  large  collection  of 
war  issues  of  the  Charleston  and  other  papers.  (The  Society  is  anxious  to 
secure  even  odd  numbers  of  papers  published  during  the  war,  as  they  help  to 
complete  our  files,  and  are  valuable  as  duplicates.) 

From  Major  H.  B.  McClellan,  Lexington,  Kentucky  (formerly  of  General 
Stuart's  staff)- A  package  of  MSS.  containing  the  following:  General  J.  E. 
B.  Stuart's  report  of  operations  of  his  cavalry,  from  October  30th,  1862,  to 
November  Gth,  1862.  An  original  letter  from  Major-General  John  Pope  to 
Major-General  Banks,  dated  July  21  st,  1862,  enclosing  dispatch  from  Brigadier- 
General  Rufus  King,  at  Falmouth  (giving  account  of  his  raid  on  Beaver  Dam 
depot),  and  oKdering  Banks  to  send  Gimeral  Hatch  at  once  to  make  cavalry 
raid  on  Gordonsvllle,  Charlottesville,  &c.  (This  letter  was  probably  found 
when  Stuart  captured  Pope's  headquarters). 

iTira  Himm  iim  pims 

Tol.  III. 

Riclimond,  Ya.,  February,  1877. 

No.  2. 

General  R.  H.  Anderson's  Report  of  the  Battle  of  Gettysburg. 

[Carrying  out  our  purpose  of  giving  preference  in  our  publications  to 
original  MSS.  reports,  wliich  have  never  been  published,  we  have  the  pleas- 
ure of  adding  to  the  reports  of  the  battle  of  Gettj^sburg,  which  we  have  al- 
ready published,  that  of  General  R.  H.  Anderson,  who  commanded  a  divi- 
sion in  Hill's  corps.] 

Headquarters  Anderson's  Division, 
Third  Army  Corps, 
Orange  Courthouse,  Fa.,  August  7th,  1863. 

Major — I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  of  the 
operations  of  my  division  from  its  departure  from  Fredericksburg 
to  its  return  to  Culpeper  Courthouse,  Virginia,  during  the  months 
of  June  and  July,  1863: 

Pursuant  to  instructions  received  from  Lieutenant-General  A. 
P.  Hill,  commanding  the  Third  Army  corps,  my  command,  com- 
posed of  Wilcox's,  Mahone's,  Wright's,  Perry's  and  Posey's  bri- 
gades, and  Lane's  battalion  of  artillery,  moved  on  the  afternoon  of 
the  14th  of  June  from  the  position  which  it  had  been  occupying 
in  line  of  battle  near  Fredericksburg  for  ten  days  previously,  and 
followed  the  march  of  the  First  and  Second  corps  towards  Cul- 
peper Courthouse.  The  night  of  the  fourteenth  it  lay  near  Chan- 
cellorsville.  On  the  fifteenth  it  moved  to  within  four  miles  of 
Stevensburg,  having  been  detained  two  hours  at  the  Rapidan,  clear- 
ing away  obstructions  from  the  road  approaching  the  ford. 

On  the  sixteenth  it  arrived  at  Culpeper  Courthouse.  On  the 
seventeenth  it  moved  to  Hazel  river,  forded  it  and  encamped  on 
its  left  bank.  On  the  eighteenth  to  Flint  Hill,  and  on  the  nine- 
teenth to  Front  Royal,  at  which  place  it  halted  early  in  the  day 
and  encamped,  in  obedience  to  the  directions  of  the  Lieutenant- 
General  commanding.  At  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  orders 
were  received  to  resume  the  march,  and  during  that  night  the 
troops  and  part  of  the  wagon  train  crossed  the  two  branches  of 

50  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  Shenandoah — rain  and  darkness  preventing  the  greater  part  ot 
the  wagons  from  crossing  until  the  following  morning.  As  soon  as 
all  the  wagons  had  crossed  on  the  morning  of  the  twentieth,  the 
march  was  continued,  and  in  the  afternoon  the  command  halted 
two  miles  beyond  White  Post.  Moved  on  the  twenty-first  to  Berry- 
ville,  on  the  twenty-second  to  Roper's  farm,  on  the  road  to  Charles- 
town,  and  on  the  twenty-third  to  Shepherdstown. 

On  the  twenty-fourth  it  crossed  the  Potomac,  and  moved  to 
Boonshoro',  on  the  twenty-fifth  to  Hagerstown,  on  the  twenty-sixth 
two  miles  beyond  Greencastle,  and  on  the  twent3^-seventh  through 
Chambersburg  to  Fayetteville,  at  which  place  it  halted  until  the 
first  of  July. 

Soon  after  daylight  on  the  first  of  July,  in  accordance  with  the 
commands  of  the  Lieutenant-General,  the  division  moved  from 
Fayetteville  in  the  direction  of  Cashtown — arrived  at  the  latter 
place  early  in  the  afternoon,  and  halted  for  further  orders. 

Shortly  before  our  arrival  at  Cashtown,  the  sound  of  brisk  can- 
nonading near  Gettysburg  announced  an  engagement  in  our  front. 
After  waiting  about  an  hour  at  Cashtown,  orders  were  received 
from  General  Hill  to  move  forward  to  Gettysburg.  Upon  ap- 
proaching Gettysburg,  I  was  directed  to  occupy  the  position  in 
line  of  battle  which  had  just  been  vacated  by  Pender's  division, 
and  to  place  one  brigade  and  a  battery  of  artillery  a  mile  or  more 
on  the  right  of  the  line,  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  with  it  and 
facing  to  the  right.  Wilcox's  brigade  and  Captain  Ross'  battery  of 
Lane's  battalion  were  posted  in  the  detached  position,  whilst  the 
other  brigades  occupied  the  ground  from  which  Pender's  division 
had  just  been  moved.  W^e  continued  in  this  position  until  the 
morning  of  the  second,  when  I  received  orders  to  take  up  a  new 
line  of  battle,  on  the  right  of  Pender's  division,  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  farther  forward. 

Lane's  battalion  of  artillery  was  detached  from  my  command 
this  morning  and  did  not  rejoin  it. 

In  taking  the  new  position,  the  Tenth  Alabama  regiment,  Wil- 
cox's brigade,  had  a  sharp  skirmish  with  a  bod}''  of  the  enemy, 
who  had  occupied  a  wooded  hill  on  the  extreme  right  of  my  line. 
The  enemy  was  soon  driven  from  the  wood,  and  the  line  of  battle 
was  formed  with  the  brigades  in  the  following  order:  Wilcox's, 
Perry's  (commanded  by  Colonel  David  Lang),  Wright's,  Posey's 
and  Mahone's. 

The  enemy's  line  was  plainly  in  view,  about  twelve  hundred 


General  Anderson's  Report  of  the  Battle  of  Gcttyshimj.  51 

yards  in  our  front,  extending  along  an  opposite  ridge  somewhat 
more  elevated  than  that  which  we  occupied,  the  intervening  ground 
being  slightly  undulating,  enclosed  by  rail  and  plank  fences  and 
under  cultivation. 

Our  skirmishers  soon  became  engaged  with  those  of  the  enemy, 
and  kept  up  an  irregular  fire  upon  one  another.  Shortly  after  the 
line  had  been  formed,  I  received  notice  that  Lieutenaiit-General 
Longstreet  would  occupy  the  ground  on  the  right— that  his  line 
would  be  in  a  direction  nearly  at  right  angles  with  mine— that  he 
would  assault  the  extreme  left  of  the  enemy  and  drive  him  towards 
Gettysburg,  and  I  was  at  the  same  time  ordered  to  put  the  troops 
of  my  division  into  action  by  brigades,  as  soon  as  those  of  General 
Longstreet's  corps  had  progressed  so  far  in  their  assault  as  to  be 
connected  with  my  right  flank.  About  two  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon the  engagement  between  the  artillery  of  the  enemy  and  that 
of  the  First  Army  corps  commenced,  and  was  soon  followed  by  fu- 
rious and  sustained  musketry,  but  it  was  not  until  half-past  five 
o'clock  in  the  evening  that  McLaw's  division  (by  which  the  move- 
ment of  my  division  was  to  be  regulated)  had  advanced  so  far  as 
to  call  for  the  movement  of  m)^  troops. 

The  advance  of  McLaw's  division  was  immediately  followed  in 
the  manner  directed  by  the  brigades  of  mine. 

Never  did  troops  go  into  action  with  greater  spirit  or  more  de- 
termined courage.  The  ground  afforded  them  but  little  shelter, 
and  for  nearly  three-quarters  of  a  mile  they  were  compelled  to 
face  a  storm  of  shot  and  shell  and  bullets,  but  there  was  no  hesitation 
nor  faltering.  They  drove  the  enemy  from  his  first  line  and  pos- 
sessed themselves  of  the  ridge  and  of  much  of  the  artiller}'-  with 
which  it  had  been  crowned,  but  the  situation  discovered  the  enemy 
in  possession  of  a  second  line,  with  artillery  bearing  upon  both  our 
front  and  flanks.  From  this  position  he  poured  a  destructive  fire 
of  grape  upon  our  troops — strong  reinforcements  pressed  upon  our 
right  flank,  which  had  become  detached  from  McLaw's  left,  and 
the  ridge  was  untenable.  The  brigades  were  compelled  to  retire. 
They  fell  back  in  the  same  succession  in  which  they  had  advanced — 
Wilcox's,  Perry's,  Wright's  and  Posey's.  They  regained  their  po- 
sition in  the  line  of  battle.  The  enemy  did  not  follow.  Pickets 
were  again  thrown  to  the  front,  and  the  troops  lay  upon  their  arms. 

In  Wilcox's,  Perry's  and  Wright's  brigades  the  loss  was  very 

On  the  third  of  July  nothing  of  consequence  occurred  along  that 

52  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

portion  of  the  line  occupied  by  my  division  until  the  afternoon,  when 
at  half-past  three  o'clock  a  great  number  of  pieces  of  our  artillery, 
massed  against  the  enemy's  centre,  opened  upon  it  and  were  replied 
to  with  equal  force  and  fury. 

After  about  an  hour's  continuance  of  this  conflict,  the  enemy's 
fire  seemed  to  subside,  and  troops  of  General  Longstreet's  corps 
were  advanced  to  the  assault  of  the  enemy's  centre.  I  received 
orders  to  hold  my  division  in  readiness  to  move  up  in  support  if 
it  should  become  necessary.  The  same  success  at  first  and  the 
same  repulse  attended  this  assault  as  that  made  by  my  division  on 
the  preceding  evening.  The  troops  advanced  gallantly,  under  a 
galling  and  destructive  storm  of  missies  of  every  description, 
gained  the  first  ridge,  were  unable  to  hold  it,  gave  way  and  fell 
back — their  support  giving  way  at  the  same  time. 

Wilcox's  and  Perry's  brigades  had  been  moved  forward  so  as  to 
be  in  position  to  render  assistance  or  to  take  advantage  of  any  suc- 
cess gained  by  the  assaulting  column,  and  at  what  I  supposed  to 
be  the  proper  time,  I  was  about  to  move  forward  Wright's  and 
Posey's  brigades,  when  General  Longstreet  directed  me  to  stop  the 
movement,  adding  that  it  was  useless  and  would  only  involve  un- 
necessary loss,  the  assault  having  failed. 

I  then  caused  the  troops  to  resume  their  places  in  line,  to  afford 
a  rallying  point  to  those  retiring,  and  to  oppose  the  enemy  should 
he  follow  our  retreating  forces.  No  attempt  at  pursuit  was  made, 
and  our  troops  resumed  their  line  of  battle. 

Some  loss  was  sustained  by  each  of  the  brigades  of  the  division 
from  the  cannonading — Wilcox's,  which  was  supporting  Alexan- 
der's artillery,  suffering  the  most  seriously. 

There  was  nothing  done  on  the  fourth  of  July,  Late  in  the 
evening  I  received  orders  to  draw  off  the  division  as  soon  as  it  be- 
came dark,  and  take  the  road  towards  Fairfield.  On  the  fifth  I 
was  directed  to  hold  the  gap  in  the  mountains  between  Fairfield 
and  Waynesborough.  In  the  evening  I  moved  to  a  place  called 
Frogtown,  at  the  base  of  the  mountain. 

At  six  o'clock  P.  M.  on  the  sixth  moved  towards  Hagerstown — 
halted  on  the  morning  of  the  seventh  about  two  miles  from  the 
town,  and  remained  in  camp  until  the  tenth  of  July. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  tenth  moved  about  three  miles  beyond 
Hagerstown,  in  the  direction  of  Williamsport,  and  on  the  morning 
of  the  eleventh  moved  two  miles  and  took  a  position  in  line  of 
battle  with  the  right  resting  on  the  Boonsboro'  and  Williamsport 

General  Anderson'' s  Report  of  the  Battle  of  Getty ahurg.  53 

turnpike— the  general  direction  of  the  line  being  at  right  angles  to 
that  road. 

The  enemy  was  in  view  on  the  hills  in  our  front— skirmishers 
were  advanced  at  once,  and  the  troops  were  diligently  employed  in 
strengthening  the  position. 

We  lay  in  this  line  until  the  night  of  the  thirteenth,  when  we 
marched  just  after  dark  towards  the  Potomac,  which  we  crossed 
the  following  day  (the  fourteenth)  at  Falling  Waters.  On  the  fif- 
teenth moved  to  Bunker  Hill,  at  which  place  we  remained  until 
the  twenty-first,  when  the  march  was  resumed,  and  the  division 
encamped  on  that  night  two  miles  south  of  Winchester. 

On  the  twenty-second  crossed  the  Shenandoah  and  halted  for  the 
night  at  Front  Koyal.  On  the  twenty-third  the  division  marched 
at  daylight — Wright's  brigade,  under  command  of  Colonel  Walker, 
being  detached  to  relieve  a  brigade  of  the  First  corps  on  duty  at 
Manassas  Gap. 

This  brigade  had  a  very  sharp  encounter  with  a  greatly  superior 
force  of  the  enemy  at  Manassas  Gap,  and  behaved  with  its  accus- 
tomed gallantry. 

Colonel  Walker  was  severely  but  not  dangerously  wounded  in 
the  beginning  of  the  fight,  when  the  command  devolved  upon 
Captain  McCurry,  who,  being  incapacitated  by  ill  health  and  fee- 
bleness, subsequently  relinquished  it  to  Captain  Andrews. 

The  division  encamped  on  the  night  of  the  twenty-third  at  Flint 
Hill.  On  the  twenty-fourth,  whilst  pursuing  the  march,  and  when 
near  Thornton  river,  some  skirmishing  occurred  between  the  lead- 
ing division  (Heth's)  and  the  enemy.  Mahone's  brigade  relieved 
Walker's  (Heth's  division),  which  had  been  posted  to  support  the 
artillery  and  cover  the  road,  and  continued  in  that  position  until 
the  rear  of  the  corps  had  passed,  when  he  followed  and  rejoined 
the  division  on  the  south  of  Hazel  river.  On  the  twenty-fifth  of 
July  the  command  arrived  at  Culpeper  Courthouse. 

The  total  loss  sustained  by  the  division  in  the  battle  of  Gettys- 
burg, the  fight  at  Manassas  Gap  and  in  minor  affairs,  is  two  thou- 
sand two  hundred  and  sixty-six. 

The  reports  of  the  commanders  of  brigades,  including  Captain 
Andrews'  report  of  the  fight  at  Manassas  Gap,  are  herewith  sub- 
mitted. The  members  of  my  staff".  Majors  T.  S.  Mills  and  R.  P. 
Duncan,  Assistant  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General,  Lieutenants 
Wm.  McWillie  and  S.  D.  Shannon,  Aides-de-Camp,  and  Messrs.  R. 
D.  Spann  and  J.  G.  Spann,  volunteer  Aides-de-Camp,  by  their  active 

54  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

and  zealous  attention  to  their  duties,  rendered  valuable  service  at 
all  times  and  upon  all  occasions.  The  conduct  of  the  troops  under 
my  command  was  in  the  highest  degree  praiseworthy  and  com- 
mendable throughout  the  campaign.  Obedient  to  the  orders  of 
the  Commanding  General  they  refrained  from  taking  into  their  own 
hands  retaliation  upon  the  enemy  for  the  inhuman  wrongs  and 
outrages  inflicted  upon  them  in  the  wanton  destruction  of  their 
property  and  homes.  Peaceable  inhabitants  sufifered  no  molesta- 
tion. In  a  land  of  plenty  they  often  suffered  hunger  and  want. 
One-fourth  of  their  number  marched  ragged  and  barefooted  through 
towns  in  which  it  was  well  ascertained  that  the  merchants  had 
concealed  supplies  of  clothing.  In  battle  they  lacked  none  of  that 
courage  and  spirit  which  has  ever  distinguished  the  soldiers  of  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia;  and  if  complete  success  did  not  at- 
tend their  efforts,  their  failure  cannot  be  laid  upon  their  shortcom- 
ing, but  must  be  recognized  and  accepted  as  the  will  and  decree  of 
the  Almighty  Disposer  of  human  affairs. 

I  am,  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

R.  H.  Anderson, 

Major- General  Commanding  Division. 

Major  W.  H.  Palmer,  Assistant  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General 
and  Chief  of  Staff  Third  Armij  Corps. 


Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  55 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park,  Twelfth  Alabama  Regiment. 

[Continued  from  January  No.] 

February  10th,  11th  and  12th,  1865 — There  is  a  tent  of  sutler's  sup- 
plies near  the  mess  hall,  kept  by  an  avaricious  Yankee,  named  Em- 
ery, who  is  believed  to  be  a  partner  of  General  SchoefF.  Tobacco, 
matches,  oil  for  cooking  lamps,  stationery,  baker's  bread,  pies, 
cakes,  apples,  onions,  etc.,  all  of  very  poor  quality,  are  kept  for 
sale,  and  from  500  per  cent,  to  1,000  per  cent,  profit  is  charged. 
Emery's  position  is  a  paying,  if  not  a  very  dignified  one.  Jolly 
Sam  Brewer,  the  clever  Twelfth  Alabama  sutler,  would  have  rejoiced 
at  a  quarter  of  Emery's  huge  profits.  There  is  very  often  an  eager, 
clamorous  throng  crowded  around  his  tent,  checks  in  hand,  and 
held  aloft,  eager  to  buy  the  inferior  articles,  sold  at  prices  so  far 
above  their  value.  Emery  and  his  clerks  are  vulgar,  impertinent, 
grasping  Yankees,  and  elegant  Southern  gentlemen  are  frequently 
comi^elled  to  submit  to  disagreeable  familiarties  from  these  ill  bred 
men.  The  extortioners  are  openly  denounced  and  unsparingly 
criticised  and  ridiculed  by  the  impatient,  hungry  and  poverty- 
stricken  Rebels,  as  they  anxiously  await  their  time  to  be  served. 
The  enormous  prices  for  very  poor  articles  on  sale  are  very  can- 
didly and  freely  complained  of  and  objected  to  by  the  needy  cus- 
tomers. But  while  they  grumble,  stern  necessity  forces  them  to 
buy.  In  clear  weather  the  prisoners  promenade  in  the  open  area  and 
exercise  by  running,  jumping,  pitching  quoits,  etc. 

February  loth,  l-lth,  15th  and  16th— The  privy  is  on  the  beach, 
where  the  tide  comes  in,  150  feet  or  more  distant  from  the  nearest 
division.  It  is  open  and  exposed  in  front,  and  is  in  sight  of  Dela- 
ware city.  The  seats  are  very  filthy,  and  cannot  be  occupied  with- 
out being  defiled.  The  sea  water  proves  no  disinfectant,  and  the 
constant  frequenters  of  the  place  are  sickened  by  the  offensive 
odors  which  are  wafted  to  their  sensitive  olfactories.  Diarrhoea  and 
dysentery  are  so  prevalent,  and  the  pen  is  so  crowded,  that  parties 
are  very  often  compelled  to  wait  an  hour  or  longer  before  they 
can  be  relieved.  The  floor  and  seats  are  too  filthy  and  nauseating 
for  description;  yet  very  many  who  suffer  from  the  diseases  men- 
tioned visit  the  foul  place  dozens  of  times,  day  and  night,  in 
rain,  wind,  hail,  sleet  and  snow,  and  in  spite  of  the  most  intense 
oold  and  blackest,  most  impenetrable  darkness,  pollution  is  scarcely 
avoidable  on  such  occasions. 

56  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

February  17th,  ISth  and  19th — Plenty  of  "grape,"  i.  c,  rumors 
afloat  of  a  speedy  general  exchange.  I  have  written  home  by  my 
old  college-mate,  Capt.  Zeke  Crocker,  who  is  on  the  exchange  list. 
Much  of  my  time  is  spent  writing  to  my  lady  friends  in  the  Valley 
of  Virginia  and  Baltimore,  and  to  relatives  South.  No  letters  from 
home,  however,  reached  me  by  flag  of  truce  boat,  though  I  know 
they  have  been  written.  The  authorities  are  intentionally  negli- 
gent about  forwarding  and  delivering  our  letters  from  Dixie  to  us. 
Have  read  "Macaria,"  by  Miss  Evans;  "The  Caxtons,"  by  Bulwer, 
and  am  reviewing  arithmetic  and  algebra.  A  number  of  valuable 
books  have  been  sent  us  by  the  ever  thoughtful  and  attentive  Bal- 
timore ladies.  They  will  never  know  how  much  they  have  done, 
in  various  kindly  ways,  to  ameliorate  our  unhappy  condition  and 
relieve  the  dull  tedium  of  our  monotonous  life.  God  bless  the 
noble  women  of  Baltimore!  They  are  angels  of  mercy  to  us. 
The  supply  of  drinking  water  has  been  scarce  and  insuflicient 
lately,  and  those  who  have  been  too  nice  to  use  the  filthy  ditch 
water,  so  unpleasant  to  sight  and  smell,  for  bathing  purposes,  have 
been  forbidden  to  use  the  fresh  water  in  the  hogsheads.  The 
drinking  water  is  brought  over  from  Brandywine  creek,  and  is 
dipped  out  of  the  hogsheads  by  means  of  tin  cups,  coffee  pots, 
buckets,  etc.  It  cannot  be  clean,  but  is  greatly  to  be  preferred  to 
the  brackish  ditch  water.  It  is  to  be  hoped  we  will  not  have  a 
water  famine.  Many  pleasant  acquaintances  have  been  formed 

February  20th — Mr.  Bennett,  of  Baltimore,  sent  me  one  dollar 
and  a  supply  of  paper,  envelopes  and  stamps.  Ahl  and  Wolf  are, 
like  many  other  civilians,  "clothed  in  a  little  brief  authority  "  over 
their  fellow  men,  very  arrogant  and  offensive.  They  seem  to  de- 
light in  harassing  and  annoying  the  defenceless  victims  under 
their  care  and  control.  They  evidently  regret  the  prospect  of  re- 
sumption of  exchange.  When  we  leave,  their  occupation  as  turn- 
keys will  be  gone,  and  the  dreaded  "front"  stares  them  in  the  face. 
Their  coward  hearts  quail  at  the  thought.  Wolf  gave  up  watches 
and  Confederate  money  to  most  of  the  prisoners.  This  is  a  good 
indication  of  approaching  exchange.  I  am  satisfied  that  President 
Davis  and  the  Confederate  Government  have  been  ready  for  it  at 
any  time.  No  blame  is  attached  to  our  leaders.  Colonel  Robert 
Ould  has  labored  zealously  in  our  behalf.  My  hopes  of  release 
have  revived. 

February  21st,  22d,  2Zd  and  2ith — A  movement  has  been  on  foot 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  57 

to  stop  the  gambling  and  noise  after  ten  o'clock,  and  many  of  the 
leading  gamblers  have  approved  the  idea.  Colonel  Wm.  J.  Clark, 
Twenty -fourth  North  Carolina  troops,  has  been  elected  chief  of  the 
division,  and  made  a  short  speech,  announcing  that,  by  vote,  it  was 
agreed  that  all  lights  should  be  put  out  and  quiet  observed  after 
the  usual  nine  o'clock  prayers.  My  friends  Arrington  and  Browne 
aided  me  actively  in  canvassing  in  favor  of  this  excellent  change. 
Colonel  Clark  is  an  old  army  officer.  Midshipman  Howell,  a  rela- 
tive of  Mr.  Davis,  is  an  inmate  of  28.  Lieutenant  E.  H.  Crawley, 
Twenty-sixth  Georgia;  Captain  J.  H.  Field,  Eighth  Georgia;  Lieu- 
tenant Q.  D.  Finley,  Eighteenth  Mississippi,  and  Adjutant  Alex.  S. 
Webb,  of  Forty-fourth  North  Carolina  troops,  are  among  the  in- 
mates also. 

The   newspaper   accounts   of  Sherman's   march   from   Georgia 
through  South  Carolina  are  heartrending.     An  extract  from  one  of 
them  says:  "Sherman  burnt  Columbia  on  the  seventeenth  instant. 
He  had  burnt  six  out  of  seven  farm  houses  on  the  route  of  his 
march.     Before  he  reached  Columbia,  he  had  burned  Blackville, 
Graham,  Bamburg,  Buford's  bridge  and  Lexington,  and  had  not 
spared  the  humblest  hamlet.     After  he  left  Columbia,  he  gave  to 
the  flames  the  villages  of  Allston,  Pomaria,  Winnsboro',  Black- 
stock,   Society   Hill,   and   the   towns   of   Camden   and   Cheraw." 
Would  that  the  prisoners  at  Fort  Delaware  could  be  exchanged 
and  sent  to  confront  this  ruthless,  heartless  destroyer  of  the  homes 
and  subsistence  of  helpless  women  and  children.     We  would  teach- 
him  a  wholesome  lesson.     The  paragraph  quoted  reminds  me  of  a 
letter  written  by  General  Sheridan.    After  the  battle  of  Fisher's 
Hill,  he  wrote  from  Strasburg  as  follows :  "  Lieutenant  J.  R.  Meigs,, 
my  engineer  officer,  was  murdered  beyond  Harrisburg,  near  Day- 
ton.    For  this  atrocious  act,  all  the  houses  within  an  area  of  five 
m_   miles   were  burned.     In  moving  back  to  this  point,  the  whole 
mk  country,  from  the  Blue  Badge  to  the  North  Mountain,  has  been 
Bmade  entirely  untenable  for  a  rebel  army.    I  have  destroyed  over 
H  2,000  barns,  filled  with  wheat,  hay  and  farming  implements,  over 
^70  mills,  filled  with  flour  and  wheat;  have  driven  in  front  of  the 
I        army  over  4,000  head  of  stock,  and  have  killed  and  issued  to  the 
troops  not  less  than  3,000  sheep.     This  destruction  embraces  the 
Luray  Valley  and  the  Little  Fort  Valley,  as  well  as  the  Main  Val- 
I        ley."    These  two  vandals  fight  with  the  torch  better  than  the  sword, 
and  seem  to  glory  in  their  own  infamy.     The  South  Carolina  pris- 

58  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

oners  are  greatly  troubled  b}'-  the  terrible  accounts   of  Sherman's 
destructive  march  through  their  native  State. 

February  25th  and  2Qth — The  terrible  reports  of  Sherman's  cru- 
elty during  the  burning  of  Columbia,  and  of  his  subsequent  march 
into  North  Carolina,  are  appalling  and  disheartening  to  us  all. 
The  Carolinians  are  specially  grieved  and  indignant.  Sherman's 
whole  course  in  the  South  is  in  bold  and  dishonorable  contrast 
with  the  gentle  and  generous  conduct  of  Lee  and  his  veterans  in 
Maryland  and  Pennsylvania.  I  well  remember  that  memorable 
march  into  the  enemy's  territory,  far  more  daring  and  heroic  than 
the  unapposed  marches  of  the  brutal  Sherman  through  Georgia 
and  Carolina.  I  was  with  Lee  when  he  invaded  Pennsylvania, 
and  was  wounded  at  Gettysburg,  just  before  our  brigade  entered 
the  town,  July  first,  1863.  General  Lee's  famous  order,  dated  June 
27th,  1863,  at  Chambersburg,  Pennsylvania,  is  brought  forcibly  to 
my  mind.  The  following  immortal  words,  extracted  from  that  re- 
nowned order,  ought  to  be  repeated  daily  in  the  ears  of  the  inhu- 
iman  Sherman : 

"The  Commanding  General  considers  that  no  greater  disgrace 
-could  befall  the  army,  and  through  it  our  whole  people,  than  the 
perpetration  of  the  barbarous  outrages  upon  the  innocent  and  de- 
fenceless, and  the  wanton  destruction  of  private  property,  that  have 
marked  the  course  of  the  enemy  in  our  own  country.  Such  pro- 
ceedings not  only  disgrace  the  perpetrators  and  all  connected  with 
them,  but  are  subversive  of  the  discipline  and  efficiency  of  our 
army.  The  yet  unsullied  reputation  of  our  army,  and  the  duties 
exacted  of  us  by  civilization  and  Christianity,  are  not  less  obliga- 
tory in  the  country  of  the  enemy  than  in  our  own.  It  must  be 
remembered  that  we  make  war  only  upon  armed  men,  and  that  we 
cannot  take  vengeance  for  the  wrongs  our  people  have  suflered, 
without  lowering  ourselves  in  the  eyes  of  all  whose  abborrence  has 
been  excited  by  the  atrocities  of  our  enemj^,  and  offending  against 
Him  to  whom  vengeance  belongeth,  and  without  whose  favor  and 
support  our  efforts  must  all  prove  in  vain.  The  Commanding 
General,  therefore,  earnestly  exhorts  the  troops  to  abstain,  with 
most  scrupulous  care,  from  unnecessary  or  wanton  injury  to  pri- 
vate property;  and  he  enjoins  upon  all  officers  to  arrest  and  bring 
to  summary  punishment  all  who  shall,  in  any  way,  ofi'end  against 
the  orders  on  this  subject. 

"R.  E.  Lee,  General 

This  Christian  and  humane  effort  to  mitigate  the  horrors  of  war 
confers  greater  glory  on  Lee  than  all  the  villages,  towns,  cities  and 
private  residences  burnt  by  Sherman  and  his  cruel  followers  can 
ever  reflect  upon  his  dishonored  name.     Man}!-  of  Lee's  soldiers 

Diary  of  Gainain  Robert  E.  Park.  59 

had  suffered  great  mental  anguish  and  immense  pecuniary  losses 
by  the  cruel  devastation  and  cowardly  atrocities  of  their  enemies, 
but  when  they,  exultant  and  victorious,  invaded  the  country  of 
their  inhuman  enemy,  they  nobly  restrained  their  angry  passions 
and  kept  pure  and  bright  their  unsullied  reputations.  They  hero- 
ically resisted  the  alluring  temptation  to  inflict  merited  retaliation, 
and  like  brave.  Christian  soldiers  and  gallant  gentlemen,  scrupu- 
lously obeyed  the  humane  orders  of  their  beloved  chieftain.  But 
tins  sublime  lesson  of  generosity  and  magnanimity  was  lost  upon 
tlie  vandal  enemy.  In  base  return  for  Lee's  noble.  Christian  con- 
duct they  despoiled  and  desecrated  his  own  home  at  Arlington, 
and  the  cherished  homes  of  his  brave  followers  in  Virginia,  Geor- 
gia and  South  Carolina.  Sherman's  base  course,  his  wicked  crimes, 
have  forever  stained  his  name  and  cause,  dishonored  his  country 
and  disgraced  his  triumph.  The  grand,  glorious  and  humane  Lee 
and  his  chivalrous  officers  and  brave  men  disdained  to  retaliate  by 
imitating  the  cruel  deeds  of  the  malignant  Sherman,  Sheridan  and 
Grant  and  their  hordes  of  reckless  ruffians.  We  have  just  reason 
to  be  proud  of  the  magnanimous  conduct  of  our  peerless  leader, 
while  the  Yankees  must  hang  their  heads  in  shame  at  the  evil 
deeds  perpetrated  by  their  chosen  commanders.  In  Southern  par- 
lance, the  terms  soldier  and  gentleman  are  synonymous,  and  our 
officers  and  men  pride  themselves  upon  that  "chastity  of  honor," 
which,  as  Edmund  Burke  expressed  it,  "feels  a  stain  like  a 

February  27th — A  part}^  of  ninety  or  one  hundred  officers  and  a 
few  hundred  privates  were  paroled  and  left  for  Richmond.  Some 
of  the  officers  bribed  Ahl  and  Wolf  with  gold  watches  and  green- 
backs to  put  their  names  on  the  paroled  list.  Influential  Northern 
friends  aided  others,  and  a  few  sold  their  places  and  remained  be- 

February  2Sth — One  hundred  and  three  officers,  of  those  earliest 
captured,  were  paroled  to-day  for  exchange.  We  are  growing  hope- 
ful of  a  speedy  return  to  our  homes  and  all  are  in  fine  spirits. 
The  despondent  are  becoming  chSSrful  and  happy  at  the  exhila- 
rating prospect  of  release  from  durance  vile. 

March  1st  and  2(i— Lieutenant  Waldman,  our  division  post- 
master, surprised  and  delighted  me  by  handing  me  the  following 
letter  this  morninor  after  " letter  call'' : 

60  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

BAliTmoRE,  February  22d,  1865. 
Captain  K.  E.  Park  : 

Dear  sir — I  have  lately  learned  that  j'ou  are  a  prisoner  at  the 
Old  Capitol,  and  too  delicate  to  make  known  your  wants.  Now 
let  me  beg,  as  a  great  favor,  that  you  will  write  me  immediately, 
and  call  on  me  for  whatever  you  may  need.  I  shall  attend 
promptly  and  with  the  greatest  pleasure  to  your  commands.  You 
don't  know  how  highly  we  ladies  feel  ourselves  honored  to  be  able 
to  add  in  any  way  to  your  comfort.  The  longer  your  list  the  bet- 
ter I'll  be  pleased. 

Very  respectfully, 

Miss  Eliza  Jamison, 
43  Calvert  street,  Baltimore,  Md. 

This  charming,  elegantly  expressed  letter  had  been  reforwarded 
from  Washington,  and  its  kind,  cordial  words  gave  me  unqualified 
pleasure.  The  generous  writer  is  one  of  those  earthly  angels  from 
that  glorious  city  of  angelic  women,  Baltimore.  My  astonishment 
was  profound,  for  I  had  never  heard  of  Miss  Eliza  Jamison  before, 
and  could  not  divine  how  she  had  heard  of  me.  I  promptly  and 
gratefully  responded  to  her  highly  valued  note,  telling  her  candidly 
that  my  greatest  want  was  a  few  greenbacks,  adding  that  a  cheer- 
ful young  lady  correspondent,  who  would  help  to  revive  my  spir- 
its and  drive  away  unwelcome  thoughts  of  my  depressing  sur- 
roundings, would  prove  very  acceptable. 

March  od  to  6th — The  parapet  between  our  pen  and  that  of  the 
privates,  on  which  the  sentinels  walk,  had  several  ladies  and  gen- 
tlemen walking  upon  it  a  day  or  two  ago,  and  they  looked  kindly 
and  compassionately  upon  the  emaciated,  ragged,  suffering  Rebels 
in  the  two  pens.  One  of  the  ladies  carried  her  handkerchief  to 
her  eyes  to  wipe  away  the  generous  tears,  as  she  gazed  pityingly 
upon  the  abject  misery  and  wretchedness  before  her.  I  hear  they 
were  Delaware  ladies,  and  that  Senator  Saulsbury  was  one  of  the 
gentlemen  in  the  party.  If  these  sjmipathizing  people  could  spend 
a  few  hours  inside  the  pens,  among  the  prisoners,  and  witness  the 
distressing  evidences  of  hunger  to  be  constantly  seen  there,  they 
would  have  pitied  us  with  truest  pity,  and  not  blamed  the  darring, 
starving  men  for  oft-repeated  attemps  to  escape  by  swimming,  un- 
der friendly  cover  of  night,  across  the  bay  to  the  Delaware  shore. 
Hunger  seems  to  have  dissipated  the  pride  and  self-respect  of  many 
of  the  prisoners.  They  will  perform  the  most  menial  services  for 
the  most  trivial  gift  or  smallest  articles  of  food.  When  the  bunks 
and  floors  are  swept,  pieces  of  bread  crusts  and  crumbs  and  stale 

Diary  of  Captaiii  Robert  E.  Park.  61 

scraps  of  food  are  sought  for  and  eagerly  gathered  up  by  hungry 
officers,  who  have  no  means  to  purchase  from  the  sutler,  and  for 
whom  the  rations  issued  are  entirely  insufficient.  It  is  a  painful 
spectacle  to  see  them  snatch  the  dirty  scraps  and  quickly  devour 
them,  or  hastily  thrust  them  in  their  jackets,  and  stand  ready  for 
another  grab.  A  number  gather  promptly  every  morning  around 
these  piles,  and  contend  for  the  spoils.  Their  hunger  must  be  tor- 
turing to  thus  humiliate  and  degrade  themselves  in  the  eff'ort  to 
secure  such  insufficient  and  filthy  cast  away  scraps  of  stale  bread. 
These  poor  fellows  eat  rats  and  mice  whenever  they  can  catch 
them.  How  miserable  their  good  mothers  and  loving  wives  would 
be  if  they  knew  to  what  wretched  straits  their  imprisoned  sons 
And  husbands  were  reduced.  Surely  the  powerful  Government 
ought  to  feed  these  poor,  suffering,  starving  men.  ■  In  Southern 
prisons  the  prisoners  are  issued  the  same  rations  as  their  guards, 
both  in  quantity  and  quality.  How  glad  we  would  be  if  we  were 
fed  as  our  guards  are.  Many  work  hard  all  day,  unloading  vessels, 
rolling  hogsheads  and  barrels,  etc.,  and  receive  an  extra  ration 
only  as  pa3^  Three  crackers  ("hard  tack,"  as  it  is  called)  and  a 
cup  of  coffee  for  breakfast,  and  a  small  piece  of  beef,  cup  of  soup 
and  a  third  of  a  loaf  of  bread  for  dinner,  are  now  our  daily  rations. 
These  are  for  stout  and  small,  sick  and  well,  and  are  not  enough  for  a 
hearty  well  man.  Many  eat  the  rations  from  dire  necessity,  as  the 
only  alternative  is  to  starve.  Some  men  require  more  food  than 
others,  and  the  small  amount  given  is  not  enough  to  satisfy  the 
least  hungry.  Guttapercha  rings,  breastpins,  fans,  buttons  and 
■canes  are  made  by  ingenious  prisoners  as  a  means  to  raise  money. 
The  patterns  are  numerous,  and  many  are  unique  and  beautiful, 
A  few  are  set  in  gold,  but  most  are  ornamented  with  silver,  tin  or 
lead,  fastened  with  rivets.  These  materials  are  bought  at  a  high 
price  from  the  sutler  and  secretly  from  the  guards.  The  articles 
are  bought  by  visitors  occasionally,  and  by  prisoners  as  prison  rel- 
ics. I  have  secured  some  rings  for  Sister  L.  Curiously  carved 
pipes,  and  tasteful  chains  and  necklaces,  all  of  guttapercha  and  ivy 
root,  are  to  be  found  for  sale  in  most  of  the  divisions.  They  have 
very  few  tools,  and  work  ten  or  twelve  hours  sometimes  for  a  mere 
pittance  as  a  reward.  Barbers  can  be  found,  too,  and  hair  cut  or 
face  shaved  for  only  five  cents.  Captain  H.,  of  the  Thirteenth 
Creoroia,  is  mv  barber. 

62  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Battle  of  Atchafalaj  a  Rirer— Letter  from  General  Thomas  Green. 

[The  following  letter,  from  one  of  the  most  gallant  and  successful  Generals 
of  the  Trans-Mississippi  Department,  gives,  with  all  the  freedom  of  private 
correspondence,  a  vivid  description  of  a  hotly  contested  fight.  "VVe  are  anx- 
ious to  obtain  more  material  from  the  Trans-Mississippi  Department,  and  are 
taking  steps  to  secure  it.] 

Headquarters  Forces  on  Atchafalaya, 
October  1,  1S63. 
My  Dear  AVife  : 

I  am  yet  in  the  land  of  the  living,  after  another  brilliant 
victory  near  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi.  I  crossed  the  Atchafa- 
laya during  the  night  of  the  28th  September,  and  moved  upon  the 
enemy  on  the  29th  in  three  columns — one  column  of  infantry, 
1,400  strong,  consisting  of  Mouton's  and  Speight's  brigades.  I 
moved  on  a  trail  through  the  swamps  and  took  position  behind 
the  enemy.  My  own  brigade,  dismounted,  with  Wallen's  and 
Rountree's  battalions  of  cavalry,  moved  upon  the  enemy  in  front. 
I  sent  one  of  Majou's  regiments  of  cavalry  upon  the  left  flank  of 
the  enemy,  crossing  the  Atchafalaya  twenty  miles  below^  my  posi- 
tion. At  about  twelve  o'clock  M.  I  closed  in  upon  the  enemy  on 
all  sides.  Speight's  brigade  of  600  men  and  Major  Boon's  cavalry 
of  200  were  the  only  troops  closely  engaged.  The  fight  was  a  very 
hot  one  for  a  half  or  three-quarters  of  an  hour.  Boon  charged  the 
enemy's  cavalry  and  dispersed  them.  Colonel  Harrison  of  Speight's 
brigade  charged  the  enemy's  infantry  in  rear  during  the  very  heat 
of  the  action.  Major  Boon  having  dispersed  the  cavalry  of  the 
enemy,  I  ordered  him  to  go  to  the  assistance  of  Harrison,  and 
charge  the  enemy  in  front,  which  he  did  in  the  most  dashing  and 
gallant  manner.  Nothing  could  be  imagined  more  terrible  on  the 
same  scale.  Boon  dashed  through  and  through  the  entire  encamp- 
ment of  the  enemy,  sabering*  and  shooting,  and  trampling  the 
living,  wounded  and  dead  under  the  feet  of  his  horses.  The  whole 
affiiir  was  a  most  brilliant  success,  and  has  added  another  victory  to 
our  long  list.  It  has  cheered  the  hearts  of  our  soldiers,  and  cast  a 
gloom  over  the  enemy.  I  have  five  hundred  prisoners,  many  of 
whom  are  officers  (say  thirty  or  forty),  two  colonels,  and  many 
captains  and  lieutenants. 

*  Major  Boon,  mentionea  in  the  foregoing  letter,  informs  me  that  the  writer  erred  in  this 
statement,  and  that  the  sabre  was  not  used  In  the  engagement  by  the  combatants  on  either 

Austin,  Texas,  October  6, 1876.  V.  O.  King. 

Battle  of  Atchafalaya  River.  65 

We  have  again  given  the  enemy  a  wholesome  lesson,  and  I  have 
go  far  been  exceedingly  fortunate  as  commander,  beginning  with 
Val  Verde.  The  last /owr  battles  fought  in  Louisiana  have  been 
under  my  command,  three  of  which  are  splendid  victories,  and  the 
other  one  of  the  most  desperate  fights  on  record,  for  the  numbers 
engaged,  and  one  where  there  was  more  fruitless  courage  displayed 
than  any  other,  perhaps,  during  the  war.  We  did  not  achieve  this 
last  victory  without  loss.  About  thirty  of  Speight's  brigade  were 
killed  dead,  and  sixty  or  seventy  wounded.  My  own  brigade  suf- 
fered in  the  death  of  Lieutenant  Spivey  and  three  or  four  others  of 
my  cavalry;  but  the  loss  which  was  greater  to  me  than  all  the 
others  put  together,  was  the  desperate  wounding  of  the  best  cavalry 
officer  in  the  army — Major  Boon  of  my  brigade.  The  Major's 
right  arm  was  torn  to  atoms,  and  amputated  in  the  socket  of  the 
shoulder.  His  left  hand  was  also  torn  up  and  two-thirds  of  it  am- 
putated, leaving  him  only  his  little  finger  and  one  next  to  it,  hav- 
ing lost  the  thumb  and  two  fingers  of  that  hand  and  over  half  the 
hand  itself  I  am  again  encamped  at  my  old  headquarters,  Mor- 
gan's ferry,  on  Atchafalaya.  The  Yankees  are  to-day  making  dem- 
onstrations as  though  they  intended  to  advance  upon  us;  but  if 
they  do,  it  will  be  after  very  heavy  reinforcement,  as  we  gave  those 
now  here  such  a  terrible  basting  day  before  yesterday  that  they 
will  not  again  voluntarily  engage  us. 

There  has  been  a  torrent  of  rain.  It  poured  down  all  day  the 
day  we  were  fighting,  and  rained  without  intermission  twenty-four 
hours  after  that  day.  The  mud  in  these  swamps  is  over  the  tops 
of  our  highest  boots — in  fact,  the  roads  now  are  next  to  impassa- 
ble. I  have  had  a  dumb  chill  to-day — the  first  one  I  have  had  in 
Louisiana.  I  fear  we  will  have  serious  sickness  as  tliC  winter  ap- 
proaches. There  have  been  very  few  deaths  so  far.  If  I  had  a 
little  good  brandy  or  whisky,  or  even  (Louisiana  lightning)  rum, 
I  could  break  my  dumb  chill  in  a  minute;  but  there  is  nothing  of 
that  kind  in  the  wilderness  of  the  Atchafalaya.  I  will  try  very 
hard  to  get  a  furlough,  unless  I  find  that  active  operations  are  again 
close  at  hand.  Major  and  Leigh  were  with  me  in  the  fight  on  the 
29th,  and  are  well. 

The  messenger  is  waiting  for  this. 

Yours  devotedly, 
(Signed)  Thomas  Gueen. 

»64  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Lieutenant- General  S.  D.  Lee's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaig-n, 
beginning  September  29th,  1864. 

[Pursuing  our  policy  of  giving  the  jDreference  to  reports  from  original 
■MSS.,  we  publish  the  following  from  an  autograph  MS.  of  the  accomplished 
soldier  who  prepared  it.  So  far  as  we  are  aware,  it  has  never  before  been 
published  in  any  form,  and  it  will  be,  therefore,  an  inipni-taut  addition  to  the 
••material  of  military  students,  as  well  as  of  deep  interest  to  all  desiring  to  see 
■some  account  of  that  campaign.] 

Columbus,  Mississippi,  January  30th,  1865. 

Colonel — I  have  the  honor  to  offer  the  following  as  my  official 
report  of  the  operations  of  my  corps  during  the  offensive  move- 
ment commencing  at  Palmetto  station,  Georgia,  September  29th, 
1864.  It  is  impracticable  now,  in  consequence  of  the  movement  of 
■troops  and  my  temporary  absence  from  the  army,  to  obtain  de- 
tailed reports  from  my  division  commanders. 

As  a  corps  commander,  I  regarded  the  morale  of  the  army 
.greatly  impaired  after  the  fall  of  Atlanta,  and  in  fact  before  its  fall 
■the  troops  were  not  by  any  means  in  good  spirits.  It  was  my  ob- 
servation and  belief  that  the  majority  of  the  officers  and  men  were 
"SO  impressed  with  the  idea  of  their  inability  to  carry  even  tempo- 
rary breastworks,  that  when  orders  were  given  for  attack,  and  there 
was  a  probability  of  encountering  works,  they  regarded  it  as  reck- 
lessness in  the  extreme.  Being  impressed  with  these  convictions,  they 
did  not  generally  move  to  the  attack  with  that  spirit  which  nearly 
always  insures  success.  Whenever  the  enemy  changed  his  posi- 
tion, temporary  works  could  be  improvised  in  less  than  two  hours, 
and  he  could  never  be  caught  without  them.  In  making  these  ob- 
servations, it  is  due  to  many  gallant  officers  and  commands  to 
state  that  there  were  noticeable  exceptions,  but  the  feeling  was  so 
general  that  anything  like  a  general  attack  was  paralyzed  by  it. 
The  army  having  constantly  yielded  to  the  flank  movements  of 
the  enemy,  which  he  could  make  with  but  little  difficulty,  by  rea- 
son of  his  vastly  superior  numbers,  and  having  failed  in  the  offen- 
sive movements  prior  to  the  fall  of  Atlanta,  its  efficiency  for  further 
retarding  the  progress  of  the  enemy  was  much  impaired;  and,  be- 
sides, the  advantages  in  the  topography  of  the  country  south  of 
Atlanta  were  much  more  favorable  to  the  enemy  for  the  move- 
ments of  his  superior  numbers  than  the  rough  and  mountainous 
■country  already  yielded  to  him.     In  view  of  these  facts,  it  was  my 

General  S.  D.  Lee's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaign.  65 

opinion  that  the  army  should  take  up  the  offensive,  with  the  hope 
that  favorable  opportunities  would  be  offered  for  striking  the  enemy 
successfully,  thus  insuring  the  efficiency  of  the  army  for  future 
operations.  These  opinions  were  freely  expressed  to  the  Com- 
manding General. 

My  corps  crossed  the  Chattahoochee  river  on  September  29th, 
and  on  October  3d  took  position  near  Lost  mountain,  to  cover  the 
movement  of  Stewart's  corps,  on  the  railroad,  at  Big  Shanty  and 
Altoona.  On  October  6th,  I  left  my  position  near  Lost  mountain, 
marching  via  Dallas  and  Cedartown,  crossing  the  Coosa  river  at 
Coosaville  October  10th,  and  moved  on  Resaca,  partially  investing 
the  place  by  four  P.  M.  on  October  12th.  The  surrender  of  the 
place  was  demanded  in  a  written  communication,  which  was  in  my 
possession,  signed  by  General  Hood.  The  commanding  officer  re- 
fused to  surrender,  as  he  could  have  easily  escaped  from  the  forts 
with  his  forces  and  crossed  the  Oustenaula  river.  I  did  not  deem 
it  prudent  to  assault  the  works,  which  were  strong  and  well 
manned,  believing  that  our  loss  would  have  been  severe.  The 
main  object  of  appearing  before  Resaca  being  accomplished,  and 
finding  that  Sherman's  main  army  was  moving  from  the  direction 
of  Rome  and  Adairsville  towards  Resaca,  I  withdrew  from  before 
the  place  to  Snake  Creek  gap  about  midday  on  the  13th.  The 
enemy  made  his  appearance  at  the  gap  on  the  14th  in  large  force, 
and  on  the  15th  it  was  evident  that  his  force  amounted  several 
corps.  Several  severe  skirmishes  took  place  on  the  15th,  in  which 
Deas'  and  Brantley's  brigades  of  Johnson's  division  were  princi- 
pally engaged.  This  gap  was  held  by  my  command  till  the  balance 
of  the  army  had  passed  through  Matex's  gap,  when  I  followed 
with  the  corps  through  the  latter.  The  army  moved  to  Gadsden, 
where  my  corps  arrived  on  October  21st.  At  this  point  clothing 
was  issued  to  the  troops,  and  the  army  commenced  its  march  to- 
wards Tennessee.  My  corps  reached  the  vicinity  of  Leighten,  in 
the  Tennesssee  Valley,  October  29th.  Stewart's  and  Cheatham's 
corps  were  then  in  front  of  Decatur.  On  the  night  of  the  29th  I 
received  orders  to  cross  the  Tennessee  river  at  Florence,  Alabama. 
By  means  of  the  pontoon  boats  two  brigades  of  Johnson's  division 
were  thrown  across  the  river  two  and  a  half  miles  above  south 
Florence,  and  Gibson's  brigade  of  Clayton's  division  was  crossed 
at  south  Florence.  The  enemy  occupied  Florence  with  about  1,000 
cavalry,  and  had  a  strong  picket  at  the  railroad  bridge.  The  cros- 
sing at  this  point  was  handsomely  executed  and  with  much  spirit 

66  Southern  Hidorical  Society  Papers. 

by  Gibson,  under  tbe  direction  of  General  Clayton,  under  cover  of 
several  batteries  of  artillery.  The  distance  across  the  river  was 
about  one  thousand  yards.  The  troops  landed,  and,  after  form- 
ing, charged  the  enemy  and  drove  him  from  Florence.  The  cross- 
ing was  spirited,  and  reflected  much  credit  on  all  engaged  in  it. 
Major-General  Edward  Johnson  experienced  considerable  difficulty 
in  crossing  his  two  brigades,  because  of  the  extreme  difficulty  of 
managing  the  boats  in  the  shoals.  He  moved  from  the  north  bank 
of  the  river  late  in  the  evening  with  one  brigade.  Sharp's  Missis- 
sippi, and  encountered  the  enemy  on  the  Florence  and  Huntsville 
road  about  dark.  A  spirited  affair  took  place,  in  which  the  enemy 
were  defeated  with  a  loss  of  about  forty  killed,  wounded  and  pris- 
oners. The  enemy  retreated  during  the  night  to  Shoal  creek,  about 
nine  miles  distant.  The  remainder  of  Johnson's  and  Clayton's 
divisions  were  crossed  on  the  night  of  the  30th  and  on  the  morning 
of  the  31st.  Stevenson's  division  was  crossed  on  November  2d. 
My  corps  remained  in  Florence  till  November  20th,  when  the  army 
commenced  moving  for  Tennessee,  my  command  leading  the  ad- 
vance and  marching  in  the  direction  of  Columbia  via  Henryville 
and  Mount  Pleasant.  I  arrived  in  front  of  Columbia  on  the  26th, 
relieving  Forest's  cavalry  then  in  position  there,  which  had  fol- 
lowed the  enemy  from  Pulaski. 

The  force  of  the  enemy  occupying  Columbia  was  two  corps. 
They  confined  themselves  to  the  main  works  around  the  city,  and 
their  outposts  and  skirmishers  were  readily  driven  in.  On  the 
night  of  the  27th  the  enemy  evacuated  Columbia  and  crossed  Duck 
river.  Stevenson's  division  of  my  corps  entered  the  town  before 
daylight.  After  crossing,  the  enemy  took  a  strong  position  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  river  and  entrenched,  his  skirmishers  occupy- 
ino-  rifle  pits  250  yards  from  the  river.  There  was  considerable 
skirmishing  across  the  river  during  the  day,  and  some  artillery 
firing,  resulting  in  nothing  of  importance. 

On  the  morning  of  the  29th  Johnson's  division  of  my  corps 
was  detached  and  ordered  to  report  to  the  General  Commanding. 
I  was  directed  to  occupy  and  engage  the  enemy  near  Columbia, 
while  the  other  two  corps  and  Johnson's  division  would  be  crossed 
above  and  moved  to  the  rear  of  the  enemy  in  the  direction  of 
Spring  Hill.  The  entire  force  of  the  enemy  Avas  in  front  of  Co- 
lumbia till  about  midday  on  the  29th,  when  one  corps  commenced 
moving  oflf — the  other  remaining  in  position  as  long  as  they  could 
be  seen  by  us,  or  till  dark.     I  had  several  batteries  of  artillery  put 

General  S.  D.  Lee's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaign.  67 

in  position,  to  drive  the  skirmishers  of  the  enemy  from  the  vicinity 
of  the  river  bank,  and  made  a  display  of  pontoons— running  sev- 
eral of  them  down  to  the  river,  under  a  heavy  artillery  and  mus- 
ketry fire.  Having  succeeded  in  putting  a  boat  in  the  river,  Pettus' 
brigade  of  Stevenson's  division  Avas  thrown  across,  under  the  im- 
mediate direction  of  Major-General  Stevenson,  and  made  a  most 
gallant  charge  on  the  rifle  pits  of  the  enemy,  driving  a  much  su- 
perior force  and  capturing  the  pits.  The  bridge  was  at  once  laid 
down  and  the  crossing  commenced.  During  the  affiiir  around  Co- 
lumbia the  gallant  and  accomplished  soldier,  Colonel  R.  F.  Beck- 
ham, commanding  the  artillery  regiment  of  my  corps,  was  mortally 
wounded  while  industriously  and  fearlessly  directing  the  artillery 
firing  against  the  enemy.  He  was  one  of  the  truest  and  best 
officers  in  the  service. 

The  enemy  left  my  front  about  2.30  A.  M.  on  the  morning  of  the 
30th,  and  the  pursuit  was  made  as  rapidly  as  was  prudent  in  the 
night  time.  The  advance  of  Clayton's  division  arrived  at  Spring 
Hill  about  9  A.  M.,  when  it  was  discovered  that  the  enemy  had 
made  his  escape,  passing  around  that  portion  of  the  army  in  that 
vicinity.  My  corps,  including  Johnson's  division,  followed  imme- 
diately after  Cheatham's  corps  towards  FrankHn.  I  arrived  near 
Franklin  about  4  P.  M.  The  Commanding  General  was  just  about 
attacking  the  enemy  with  Stewart's  and  Cheatham's  corps,  and  he 
directed  me  to  place  Johnson's,  and  afterwards  Clayton's,  division 
in  position  to  support  the  attack.  Johnson  moved  in  rear  of 
Cheatham's  corps.  Finding  that  the  battle  was  stubborn,  General 
Hood  directed  me  to  move  forward  in  person,  to  communicate 
with  General  Cheatham,  and,  if  necessary,  to  put  Johnson's  divi- 
sion in  the  fight.  I  met  General  Cheatham  about  dark,  and  was 
informed  by  him  that  assistance  was  needed  at  once.  Johnson 
was  immediately  moved  forward  to  the  attack,  but  owing  to  the 
darkness  and  want  of  information  as  to  the  locality,  his  attack  was 
not  felt  by  the  enemy  till  about  one  hour  after  dark.  This  divi- 
sion moved  against  the  enemy's  breastworks  under  a  heavy  fire  of 
artillery  and  musketry,  gallantly  driving  the  enemy  from  portions 
of  his  line.  The  brigades  of  Sharp  and  Brantly  (Mississippians), 
and  of  Deas  (Alabamians),  particularly,  distinguished  themselves. 
Their  dead  were  mostly  in  the  trenches  and  in  the  works  of  the 
enemy,  where  they  fell  in  a  desperate  hand  to  hand  conflict. 
Sharp  captured  three  stand  of  colors.  Brantly  was  exposed  to  a 
severe  enfilade  fire.     These  noble  brigades  never  faltered  in  this 


68  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

terrible  night  struggle.  Brigadier-General  Manigault,  commanding 
a  brigade  of  Alabamians  and  South  Carolinians,  was  severely 
wounded  in  this  engagement,  while  gallantly  leading  his  troops  to 
the  fight;  and  his  two  successors  in  command,  Colonel  Shaw  was 
killed  and  Colonel  Davis  wounded.  I  have  never  seen  greater 
evidences  of  gallantry  than  was  displayed  by  this  division,  under 
command  of  that  admirable  and  gallant  soldier,  Major-General 
Ed.  Johnson.  The  enemy  fought  gallantly  and  obstinately  at 
Franklin,  and  the  position  he  held  was  for  infantr}'  defence  one  of 
the  best  I  had  ever  seen.  The  enemy  evacuated  Franklin  hastily 
during  the  night  of  the  30th.  My  corps  commenced  the  pursuit 
about  1  P.  M.  on  December  1st,  and  arrived  near  Nashville  about 
2  P.  M.  December  2d.  The  enemy  had  occupied  the  works  around 
the  city.  My  command  was  the  centre  of  the  army  in  front  of 
Nashville;  Cheatham's  corps  being  on  my  right  and  Stewart's  on 
my  left.  Nothing  of  importance  occurred  till  the  15th.  The  army 
was  engaged  in  entrenching  and  strengthening  its  position.  On 
the  15th  the  enemy  moved  out  on  our  left,  and  a  severe  engage- 
ment was  soon  commenced.  In  my  immediate  front  the  enemy 
still  kept  up  his  skirmish  line,  though  it  was  evident  that  his  main 
force  had  moved.  My  line  was  much  extended,  the  greater  part 
of  my  command  being  in  single  rank.  About  12  M.  I  was  in- 
structed to  assist  Lieutenant-General  Stewart,  and  I  commenced 
withdrawing  troops  from  my  line  to  send  to  his  support.  I  sent 
him  Johnson's  entire  division,  each  brigade  starting  as  it  was  dis- 
engaged from  the  works.  A  short  time  before  sunset  the  enemy 
succeeded  in  turning  General  Stewart's  position,  and  a  part  of  my 
line  was  necessarily  changed  to  conform  to  his  new  line.  During 
the  night  Cheatham's  corps  was  withdrawn  from  my  right  and 
moved  to  the  extreme  left  of  the  army.  The  army  then  took  po- 
sition about  one  mile  in  rear  of  its  original  line.  My  corps  being 
on  the  extreme  right,  I  was  instructed  by  the  Commanding  Gen- 
eral to  cover  and  hold  the  Franklin  pike.  Clayton's  division  occu- 
pied my  right,  Stevenson's  my  centre,  and  Johnson's  my  left.  It 
was  evident  soon  after  daylight  that  a  large  force  of  the  enemy 
was  being  concentrated  in  my  front  on  the  Franklin  pike.  About 
9  A.  M.  on  the  16th  the  enemy,  having  placed  a  large  number  of 
guns  in  position,  opened  a  terrible  artillery  fire  on  my  line,  princi- 
pally on  the  Franklin  pike.  This  lasted  about  two  hours,  when 
the  enemy  moved  to  the  assault.  They  came  up  in  several  lines 
of  battle. 

General  S.  D.  Lee's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaign.         69 

My  men  reserved  their  fire  till  they  were  within  easy  range  and 
then  delivered  it  with  terrible  effect.  The  assault  was  easily  re- 
pulsed. It  was  renewed,  however,  with  spirit  several  times,  but 
only  to  meet  each  time  with  a  like  result.  They  approached  to 
within  thirty  yards  of  our  line,  and  their  loss  was  very  severe. 
Their  last  assault  was  made  about  3J  P.  M.,  when  they  were  driven 
back  in  great  disorder.  The  assaults  were  made  principally  in 
front  of  Holtzclaw's  Alabama,  Gibson's  Louisiana  and  Stovall's 
Georgia  brigades  of  Clayton's  division,  and  Pettus'  Alabama  brigade 
of  Stevenson's  division,  and  too  much  credit  cannot  be  awarded 
Major-General  Clayton  and  these  gallant  troops  for  their  conspicuous 
and  soldierly  conduct.  The  enemy  made  a  considerable  display  of 
force  on  my  extreme  right  during  the  day,  evidently  with  the  in- 
tention of  attempting  to  turn  our  right  flank.  He  made,  however, 
but  one  feeble  effort  to  use  this  force,  when  it  was  readily  repulsed 
by  Stovall's  Georgia  and  Brantley's  Mississippi  brigades,  which 
latter  two  had  been  moved  to  the  right.  Smith's  division  of  Cheat- 
ham's corps  reported  to  me  about  2  P.  M.,  to  meet  any  attempt  of 
the  enemy  to  turn  our  right  flank ;  it  was  put  in  position,  but  was 
not  needed,  and,  by  order  of  the  Commanding  General,  it  started  to 
Brentwood  about  2>l  P.  M.  The  artillery  fire  of  the  enemy  during 
the  entire  day  was  heavy,  and  right  nobly  did  the  artillery  of  my 
corps,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hoxton,  perform  their  duty.  Court- 
ney's battalion,  under  Captain  Douglas,  was  in  Johnson's  front, 
Johnson's  battalion  was  in  Stevenson's  front,  and  Eldridge's  bat- 
talion, under  Captain  Fenner,  was  in  Clayton's  front.  The  officers 
and  men  of  the  artillery  behaved  admirably,  and  too  much  praise 
cannot  be  bestowed  upon  this  efficient  arm  of  the  service  in  the 
Army  of  Tennessee.  The  troops  of  my  entire  line  were  in  fine 
spirits  and  confident  of  success  (so  much  so  that  the  men  could 
scarcely  be  prevented  from  leaving  their  trenches  to  follow  the 
enemy  on  and  near  the  Franklin  pike).  But  suddenly  all  eyes 
were  turned  to  the  centre  of  our  line  of  battle  near  the  Gracey 
White  pike,  where  it  was  evident  the  enemy  had  made  an  entrance, 
although  but  little  firing  had  .been  heard  in  that  direction.  Our 
men  were  flying  to  the  rear  in  the  wildest  confusion  and  the  enemy 
following  with  enthusiastic  cheers.  The  enemy  at  once  closed 
towards  the  gap  in  our  line  and  commenced  charging  on  the  left 
division— Johnson's— of  my  corps,  but  were  handsomely  driven 
back.  The  enemy  soon  gained  our  rear  and  were  moving  on  my 
left  flank  when  our  line  gradually  gave  away.     My  troops  left  their 

70  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

lines  in  some  disorder,  but  were  soon  rallied  and  presented  a  good 
front  to  the  enemy.  It  was  a  fortunate  circumstance  that  the  enemy- 
was  too  much  cripj)led  to  pursue  us  on  the  Franklin  pike.  The 
only  pursuit  made  at  that  time  was  by  a  small  force  coming  from 
the  Gracey  White  pike.  Having  been  informed  by  an  aide  of  the 
General  Commanding,  that  the  enemy  were  near  Brentwood,  and 
that  it  was  necessary  to  get  beyond  that  point  at  once,  everything 
was  hastened  to  the  rear.  When  Brentwood  was  passed,  the  enemy 
was  only  half  a  mile  from  the  Franklin  pike,  where  Chalmer's  cav- 
alry was  fighting  them.  Being  charged  with  covering  the  retreat 
of  the  army,  I  remained  in  rear  with  Clayton's  and  part  of  Steven- 
son's divisions,  and  halted  the  rear  guard  about  seven  miles  north 
of  Franklin  about  10  P.  M.  on  the  16th.  Early  on  the  morning  of 
the  17th  our  cavalry  was  driven  in  in  confusion  by  the  enemy, 
who  at  once  commenced  a  most  vigorous  pursuit,  his  cavalry 
charging  at  every  opportunity  and  in  the  most  daring  manner.  It 
was  apparant  that  they  were  determined  to  make  the  retreat  a  rout 
if  possible.  Their  boldness  was  soon  checked  by  many  of  them 
being  killed  and  captured  by  Pettus'  Alabama  and  Stovall's  Geor- 
gia brigades  and  Bledsoe's  battery  under  Major-General  Clayton. 
Several  guidons  were  captured  in  one  of  their  charges.  I  was  soon 
compelled  to  withdraw  rapidly  towards  Franklin,  as  the  enemy 
was  throwing  a  force  in  my  rear  from  both  the  right  and  left  of  the 
pike  on  roads  coming  into  the  pike  near  Franklin  and  five  miles 
in  my  rear.  This  force  was  checked  by  Brigader-General  Gibson, 
with  his  brigade  and  a  regiment  of  Buford's  cavalry  under  Colonel 
Shacklett.  The  resistance  which  the  enemy  had  met  with  early  in 
the  morning,  and  which  materially  checked  his  movements,  enabled 
us  to  reach  Franklin  with  but  little  difficulty.  Here  the  enemy 
appeared  in  considerable  force  and  exhibited  great  boldness,  but 
he  was  repulsed  and  the  crossing  of  the  Harpeth  river  effected.  I 
found  that  there  was  in  the  town  of  Franklin  a  large  number  of  our 
own  and  of  the  enemy's  wounded,  and  not  wishing  to  subject  them 
and  the  town  to  the  fire  of  the  enemy's  artillery,  the  town  was 
yielded  with  but  little  resistance.  Some  four  or  five  hours  were 
gained  by  checking  the  enemy  about  I2  half  miles  south  of  Frank- 
lin and  by  the  destruction  of  the  trestle  bridge  over  the  Harpeth, 
which  was  effected  by  Captain  Coleman,  the  engineer  officer  on  my 
staff,  and  a  party  of  pioneers,  under  a  heavy  fire  of  the  enemy's 
sharpsliooters.  About  4  P.  M.,  the  enemy,  having  crossed  a  con- 
siderable force,  commenced  a  bold  and  vigorous  attack,  charging 

■General  S.  D.  Lee's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaign.  71 

with  his  cavalry  on  our  flanks  and  pushing  forward  his  lines  in  the 
front.  A  more  persistent  effort  was  never  made  to  rout  the  rear 
guard  of  a  retiring  column.  This  desperate  attack  was  kept  up  till 
long  after  dark,  but  gallantly  did  the  rear  guard,  consisting  of  Pet- 
tus'  Alabama  and  Cummings'  Georgia  brigades  (the  latter  com- 
manded by  Colonel  Watkins)  of  Stevenson's  division,  and  under 
that  gallant  and  meritorious  officer  Major-General  C.  L.  Stevenson, 
repulse  every  attack.  Brigadier-General  Chalmers,  with  his  di- 
vision of  cavalry,  covered  our  flanks.  The  cavalry  of  the  enemy 
succeeded  in  getting  in  Stevenson's  rear  and  attacked  Major-General 
Clayton's  division  about  dark,  but  they  were  handsomely  repulsed; 
Gibson's  and  Stovall's  brigades  being  principally  engaged.  Some 
four  or  five  guidons  were  captured  from  the  enemy  during  the 

About  1  P.  M.  I  was  wounded  while  with  the  rear  guard,  but  did 
not  relinquish  command  of  my  corps  till  dark.  Most  of  the  details 
in  conducting  the  retreat  from  that  time  were  arranged  and 
executed  by  Major-General  Stevenson,  to  whom  the  army  is  much 
indebted  for  his  skill  and  gallant  conduct  during  the  day.  I  can- 
not close  this  report  without  alluding  particularly  to  the  artillery 
of  my  corps.  On  the  16th,  sixteen  guns  were  lost  on  the  lines — the 
greater  portion  of  them  were  without  horses — they  having  been  dis- 
abled during  the  day ;  many  of  the  carriages  were  disabled  also. 
The  noble  gunners,  reluctant  to  leave  their  guns,  fought  the  enemy 
in  many  instances,  till  they  were  almost  within  reach  of  the  guns. 
Major-General  Ed.  Johnson  was  captured  on  the  16th ;  being  on 
foot,  he  was  unable  to  make  his  escape  from  the  enemy  in  conse- 
quence of  an  old  wound.  He  held  his  line  as  long  as  it  was  prac- 
ticable to  do  so.  The  Army  of  Tennessee  has  sustained  no  greater 
loss  than  that  of  this  gallant  and  accomplished  soldier.  To  all  my 
•disvision  commanders,  Stevenson,  Johnson  and  Clayton,  I  am  in- 
debted for  the  most  valuable  services;  they  were  always  zealous  in 
the  discharge  of  their  duties. 

Although  it  is  my  desire  to  do  so,  I  cannot  now  allude  to  the 
many  conspicuous  acts  of  gallantry  exhibited  by  general,_  field  and 
company  officers,  and  by  the  different  commands.  It  is  my  in- 
tention to  do  so  in  future,  when  detailed  reports  are  received.  To 
the  officers  of  my  personal  staff  and  also  of  the  corps  _  stafi",  I  am 
indebted  for  valuable  services ;  they  were  always  at  their  posts  and 
ready  to  respond  to  the  call  of  duty. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  yours  respectfully, 

S.  D.  Lee,  Lieutenant- General. 
€olonel  A.  P.  Mason,  A.  A.  G. 

72  Southern  Historical  Society  Palmers. 

General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart's  Report  of  his  Caralry  Expedition  into 
Pennsylvania  in  October,  1862. 

[The  following  report,  which  we  print  from  an  original  MS.  in  General 
Stuart's  own  handwriting,  does  not  appear  in  the  Army  of  Northern  Vir- 
ginia reports,  published  by  the  Confederate  Congress,  and  has,  we  believe, 
never  been  in  print.  Lil<e  everj^thing  from  the  great  cavalry  chieftain,  it 
will  attract  attention  and  be  read  with  interest.] 

Headquarters  Cavalry  Division, 
October  14th,  1862. 
Colonel  E.  H.  Chilton, 

A.  A.  General  Army  Northern  Virginia: 

Colonel — I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  on  the  9th  instant, 
in  compliance  with  instructions  from  the  Commanding  General 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  I  proceeded  on  an  expedition  into 
Pennsylvania  with  a  cavalry  force  of  1,800  and  four  pieces  of  horse 
artillery,  under  command  of  Brigadier-General  Hampton  and  Col- 
onels W.  H.  F.  Lee  and  Jones.  This  force  rendezvoused  at  Darks- 
ville  at  12  M.,  and  marched  thence  to  the  vicinity  of  Hedgesville, 
where  it  camped  for  the  night.  At  daylight  next  morning  (Oc- 
toher  10th)  I  crossed  the  Potomac  at  McCoy's  (between  Williams- 
port  and  Hancock)  with  some  little  opposition,  capturing  two  or 
three  horses  of  the  enemy's  pickets.  We  were  told  here  by  citi- 
zens that  a  large  force  had  camped  the  night  before  at  Clear  Spring, 
and  were  supposed  to  be  en  route  to  Cumberland.  We  proceeded 
northward  until  we  reached  the  turnpike  leading  from  Hagerstown 
to  Hancock  (known  as  the  National  road).  Here  a  signal  station 
on  the  mountain  and  most  of  the  party  with  their  flags  and  ap- 
paratus were  surprised  and  captured,  and  also  eight  or  ten  pris- 
oners of  war,  from  whom,  as  well  as  from  citizens,  I  found  that  the 
large  force  alluded  to  had  crossed  but  an  hour  ahead  of  me  towards 
Cumberland,  and  consisted  of  six  regiments  of  Ohio  troops  and 
two  batteries,  under  General  Cox,  and  were  en  route  via  Cumber^ 
land  for  the  Kanawha.  I  sent  back  this  intelligence  at  once  to  the 
Commanding  General.  Striking  directly  across  the  National  road,. 
I  proceeded  in  the  direction  of  Mercersburg,  Pennsylvania,  which 
point  was  reached  about  12  M.  I  was  extremely  anxious  to  reach 
Hagerstown,  where  large  supplies  were  stored,  but  was  satisfied 
from  reliable  information  that  the  notice  the  eneni}^  had  of  my  ap- 
proach, and  the  proximity  of  his  forces,  would  enable  him  to  pre- 
vent my  capturing  it.     I  therefore  turned  towards  Chambersburg. 

General  Stuart's  Report  of  his  Pennsylvania  Expedition.         73' 

I  did  not  reach  this  point  until  after  dark  in  a  rain.  I  did  not 
deem  it  safe  to  defer  the  attack  till  morning,  nor  was  it  proper  tc 
attack  a  place  full  of  women  and  children  without  summoning  it 
first  to  surrender.  I  accordingly  sent  in  a  flag  of  truce,  and  found 
no  military  or  civil  authority  in  the  place,  but  some  prominent 
citizens  who  met  the  officer  were  notified  that  the  place  would  be 
occupied,  and  if  any  resistance  were  made  the  place  would  be 
shelled  in  three  minutes.  Brigadier-General  Wade  Hampton's 
command,  being  in  advance,  took  possession  of  the  place,  and  I 
appointed  him  military  governor  of  the  city.  No  incidents  oc- 
curred during  the  night,  during  which  it  rained  continuously. 
The  officials  all  fled  the  town  on  our  approach,  and  no  one  could 
be  found  who  would  admit  that  he  held  office  in  the  place.  About 
275  sick  and  wounded  in  the  hospital  were  paroled.  During  the 
day  a  large  number  of  horses  of  citizens  were  seized  and  brought 
along.  The  wires  were  cut  and  railroad  obstructed,  and  Colonel 
Jones'  command  was  sent  up  the  railroad  toward  Harrisburg  to  de- 
stroy a  trestle  work  a  few  miles  off.  He  however  reported  that  it  was 
constructed  of  iron,  and  he  could  not  destroy  it.  Next  morning  it 
was  ascertained  that  a  large  number  of  small  arms  and  munitions 
of  war  were  stored  about  the  railroad  buildings,  all  of  which  that 
could  not  be  easily  brought  away  were  destoyed,  consisting  of  about 
5,000  new  muskets,  pistols,  sabres  and  amunition;  also  a  large  as- 
sortment of  army  clothing.  The  extensive  machine  shops  and 
depot  buildings  of  the  railroad  and  several  trains  of  loaded  cars 
were  entirely  destroyed.  From  Chambersburg,  I  decided  after 
mature  consideration  to  strike  for  the  vicinity  of  Leesburg  as  the 
best  route  of  return,  particularly  as  Cox's  command  would  have 
rendered  the  direction  of  Cumberland,  full  of  mountain  gorges, 
particularly  hazardous.  The  route  selected  was  through  an  open 
country.  Of  course  I  left  nothing  undone  to  prevent  the  inhabi- 
tants from  detecting  my  real  route  and  object.  I  started  directly 
towards  Gettysburg,  but  having  passed  the  Blue  Ridge,  turned 
back  towards  Hagerstown  for  six  or  eight  miles,  and  then  crossed 
to  Maryland  by  Emmettsburg,  where  as  we  passed  we  were  hailed 
by  the  inhabitants  with  the  most  enthusiastic  demonstrations  of 
joy.  A  scouting  party  of  150  lancers  had  just  passed  towards  Get- 
tysburg, and  I  regretted  exceedingly  that  my  march  did  not  admit 
of  the  delay  necessary  to  catch  them.  Taking  the  road  towards 
Frederick,  we  intercepted  dispatches  from  Colonel  Rush  (lancers) 
to  the  commander  of  the  scout,  which  satisfied  me  that  our  where- 

'74  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

abouts  was  still  a  problem  to  the  enemy.  Before  reaching  Frede- 
rick I  crossed  the  Monocacy,  and  continued  the  march  through 
the  night  via  Liberty,  New  Market  and  Monrovia,  on  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  railroad,  where  we  cut  the  telegraph  wires  and  obstructed 
the  railroad.  We  reached  at  daylight  Hyattstown,  on  McClellan's 
line  of  wagon  communication  with  Washington ;  but  we  found 
only  a  few  wagons  to  capture,  and  pushed  on  to  Barnsville,  which 
we  found  just  vacated  by  a  company  of  the  enemy's  cavalry.  We 
had  here  corroborated  what  we  had  heard  before — that  Stoneman 
had  between  four  and  five  thousand  troops  about  Poolesville,  and 
guarding  the  river  fords.  I  started  directly  for  Poolesville,  but 
instead  of  marching  upon  that  point  I  avoided  it  by  a  march 
through  the  woods,  leaving  it  two  or  three  miles  to  my  left,  and 
getting  into  the  road  from  Poolesville  to  the  mouth  of  the  Monoc- 
acy. Guarding  well  my  flanks  and  rear,  I  pushed  boldly  forward, 
meeting  the  head  of  the  enemy's  column  going  toward  Poolesville. 
I  ordered  the  charge,  which  was  responded  to  in  handsome  style 
by  the  advance  squadron  (Irving's)  of  Lee's  brigade,  which  drove 
back  the  enemy's  cavalry  upon  the  column  of  infantry  advancing 
to  occupy  the  crest  from  which  the  cavalry  were  driven.  Quick  as 
thought  Lee's  sharpshooters  sprang  to  the  ground,  and  engaging 
the  infantry  skirmishers,  held  them  in  check  till  the  artillery  in 
advance  came  up,  which,  under  the  gallant  Pelham,  drove  back 
the  enemy's  force  upon  his  batteries  beyond  the  Monocacy,  be- 
tween which  and  our  solitary  gun  quite  a  spirited  fire  continued 
for  some  time.  This  answered,  in  connection  with  the  high  crest 
occupied  by  our  piece,  to  screen  entirely  my  real  movement  quickly 
to  the  left,  making  a  bold  and  rapid  strike  for  White's  ford  to  force 
my  way  across  before  the  enemy  at  Poolesville  and  Monocacy 
could  be  aware  of  my  design. 

Although  delayed  somewhat  by  about  200  infantry,  strongly 
posted  in  the  cliffs  over  the  ford ;  yet  they  yielded  to  the  moral 
effect  of  a  few  shells  before  engaging  our  sharpshooters,  and  the 
crossing  of  the  canal,  now  dry,  and  river  was  effected  with  all  the 
precision  of  passing  a  defile  on  drill — a  section  of  artillery  being 
sent  with  the  advance  and  placed  in  position  on  the  Loudoun  side, 
another  piece  on  the  Maryland  height,  while  Pelham  continued  to 
occupy  the  attention  of  the  enemy  with  the  other,  withdrawing 
from  position  to  position  until  his  piece  was  ordered  to  cross.  The 
enemy  was  marching  from  Poolesville  in  the  meantime,  but  came 
up  in  line  of  battle  on  the  Maryland  bank  only  to  receive  a  thun- 

General  Stuart^s  Report  of  Ms  Pennsylvania  Expedition.         75 

dering  salutation,  with  evident  effect,  from  our  guns  on  Ibis  side. 
I  lost  not  a  man  killed  on  the  expedition,,  and  only  a  few  slight 
wounds.  The  enemy's  loss  is  not  known,  but  Pelbam's  one  gun 
compelled  the  enemy's  battery  to  change  its  position  three  times. 

The  remainder  of  the  march  was  destitute  of  interest.  The  con- 
duct of  the  command  and  their  behavior  towards  the  inhabitants 
is  worthy  of  the  highest  praise ;  a  few  individual  cases  only  were 
exceptions  in  this  particular.  Brigadier-General  Hampton  and 
Colonels  Lee,  Jones,  Wickham  and  Butler,  and  the  officers  and 
men  under  their  command  are  entitled  to  my  lasting  gratitude  for 
their  coolness  in  danger  and  cheerful  obedience  to  orders.  Unof- 
fending persons  were  treated  with  civility,  and  the  inhabitants 
were  generous  in  proffers  of  provisions  on  the  march.  We  seized 
and  brought  over  a  large  number  of  horses,  the  property  of  citizens 
of  the  United  States.  The  valuable  information  obtained  in  this 
reconnoissance  as  to  the  distribution  of  the  enemy's  force  was 
communicated  orally  to  the  Commanding  General,  and  need  not 
be  here  repeated.  A  number  of  public  functionaries  and  promi- 
nent citizens  were  taken  captives  and  brought  over  as  hostages  for 
our  own  unoffending  citizens  whom  the  enemy  has  torn  from  their 
homes  and  confined  in  dungeons  in  the  North.  One  or  two  of  my 
men  lost  their  way,  and  are  probably  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 

I  marched  from  Chambersburg  to  Leesburg  (90  miles),  with  only 
an  hour's  halt,  in  thirty-six  hours,  including  a  forced  passage  of 
the  Potomac — a  march  without  a  parallel  in  history. 

The  results  of  this  expedition  in  a  moral  and  political  point  of 
view  can  hardly  be  estimated,  and  the  consternation  among  prop- 
erty holders  in  Pennsylvania  beggars  description, 

I  am  specially  indebted  to  Captain  B.  S.  White  (Confederate 
States  cavalry),  and  to  Messrs.  Hugh  Logan  and  Harbaugh,  whose 
skillful  guidance  was  of  immense  service  to  me.  My  staff  are 
entitled  to  my  thanks  for  untiring  energy  in  the  discharge  of  their 

I  enclose  a  map  of  the  expedition  drawn  by  Captain  W.  W. 
Blackford  to  accompany  this  report;  also  a  copy  of  orders  en- 
forced during  the  march. 

Believing  that  the  hand  of  God  was  clearly  manifested  in  the 
signal  deliverance  of  my  command  from  danger,  and  the  crowning 
success  attending  it,  I  ascribe  to  Him  the  praise,  the  honor  and  the 
glory.  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  most  respectfully,  your  obedient 
servant,  J.  E-  B.  Stuart, 

Major- General  Commanding  Cavalry. 

76  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

[The  following  letters  from  General  Lee  will  be  appropriate  ad- 
denda to  General  Stuart's  report.] 

Headquarters  Department  Northern  Virginia, 
Camp  Near  Winchester,  October  20,  1862. 

Major-General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  Commanding  Cavalry: 

General — To  show  my  appreciation  of  the  conduct  of  your- 
self and  your  men  in  the  recent  expedition  into  Pennsylvania,  I 
enclose  a  copy  of  my  letter  to  General  Cooper,  Adjutant  and  In- 
spector-General, forwarding  your  report  of  the  expedition. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  very  respectfully, 

Your  obedient  servant, 
(Signed)  R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Headquarters  Department  Northern  Virginia, 

October  18,  1862. 

General  S.  Cooper,  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General : 

General — In  forwarding  the  report  of  Major-General  Stuart 
of  his  expedition  into  Pennsylvania,  I  take  occasion  to  express  to 
the  Department  my  sense  of  "the  boldness,  judgment  and  prudence 
he  displayed  in  its  execution,  and  cordially  join  with  him  in  his 
commendation  of  the  conduct  and  endurance  of  the  brave  men  he 

To  his  skill  and  their  fortitude,  under  the  guidance  of  an  over- 
ruling Providence,  is  their  success  due. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  most  respectfully. 

Your  obedient  servant, 
(Signed)  R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Official : 

W.  H.  Taylor,  Major  and  Aide-de-Camp, 

Letters  on  the  Treatment  and  Exchange  of  Prisoners.  77 

Letters  on  the  Treatment  and  Exchange  of  Prisoners. 

[The  following  letters  explain  themselves,  and  shed  additional  light  on  a 
question  which  we  propose  to  ventilate  from  time  to  time.] 

Hdrs.  Department  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida, 
Charleston,  S.  C,  July  1,  iSG-i. 

General — I  send  with  this  a  letter  addressed  by  five  General 
■officers  of  the  United  States  army,  now  prisoners  of  war  in  this 
city,  to  Brigadier-General  L.  Thomas,  Adjutant-General  United 
States  army,  recommending  and  asking  an  exchange  of  prisoners 
■of  war. 

I  fully  concur  in  opinion  with  the  officers  who  have  signed  the 
letter,  that  there  should  be  an  exchange  of  prisoners;  and  though 
I  am  not  instructed  by  my  Government  to  enter  into  negotiations 
for  that  purpose,  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  is  willing  and  desirous 
now,  as  it  has  ever  been,  to  exchange  prisoners  of  war  with  your 
•Government  on  just  and  honorable  terms. 

One  difficulty  in  the  way  of  carrying  out  the  cartel  of  exchange 
agreed  on  between  the  two  Governments  would  not  exist,  that  I 
am  aware  of,  if  the  exchange  were  conducted  between  you  and 
myself.  If,  therefore,  you  think  proper  to  communicate  with  your 
Government  on  the  subject,  I  will  without  delay  communicate 
with  mine,  and  it  may  be  that  we  can  enter  into  an  agreement, 
subject  to  the  approval  of  our  respective  Governments,  by  which 
the  prisoners  of  war  now  languishing  in  confinement  may  be  re- 

I  should  be  glad  to  aid  in  so  humane  a  work;  and,  to  the  end 
that  there  may  be  no  unnecessary  delay  on  my  part,  I  have  di- 
rected an  officer  of  my  staff,  Major  J.  F.  Lay,  Assistant  Adjutant 
and  Inspector-General,  charged  with  the  delivery  of  this,  to  wait 
a  reasonable  time  in  the  vicinity  of  Port  Royal  ferry  for  your  an- 
swer. He  is  fully  informed  of  my  views  on  the  subject,  and,  if 
jou  desire  it,  will  confer  with  you  or  any  officer  you  may  desig- 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Sam.  Jones, 
Major-  General  Commanding. 

To  Major-General  J.  G.  Foster,  U.  S.  A., 

Commanding  Department  of  the  South,  Hilton  Head,  S.  C. 

78  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

[  Unofficial.] 

Charleston,  S.  C,  July  1,  1864. 

General — The  journals  of  this  morning  inform  us  for  the  first 
time,  that  five  General  officers  of  the  Confederate  service  have  ar- 
rived at  Hilton  Head,  with  a  view  to  their  being  subjected  to  the 
same  treatment  that  we  are  receiving  here. 

We  think  it  but  just  to  ask  for  these  ofhcers  every  kindness  and 
courtesy  that  you  can  extend  to  them,  in  acknowledgment  of  the 
fact  that  we  at  this  time  are  as  pleasantly  and  comfortably  situated 
as  is  possible  for  prisoners  of  war,  receiving  from  the  Confederate 
authorities  every  privilege  that  we  could  desire  or  expect;  nor  are- 
we  unnecessarily  exposed  to  fire. 

Respectfully,  General,  your  obedient  servants, 

(Signed)  R.  W.  Wessels, 

Brigadier-General  U.  S.  Volunteers,. 

(Signed)  T.  Seymour, 

Brigadier-General  U.  S.  Volunteers, 

(Signed)  E.  P.  Scammon, 

Brigadier-  General, 

(Signed)  C.  A.  Heckman, 

Brigadier-  Gen eral  Volunteers,. 

(Signed)  Alexander  Shaler, 

Brigadier- General  U.  S.  Volunteers,. 

Prisoners  of  War. 
To  Major-Goneral  J.  G.  Foster, 

Commanding  Department  of  tJie  South,  Hitton  Head,  S.  C. 

Charleston,  S.  C,  July  1,  1SG4. 
Brigadier-General  L.  Tpiomas, 

Adjutant- General  United  States  Army,  Washington,  D.  C.  : 

General — We  desire  respectfully  to  represent  through  you  to  our] 
authorities,  our  firm  belief  that  a  prompt  exchange  of  the  prison- 
ers of  war  in  the  hands  of  the  Southern  Confederacy,  if  exchanges 
are  to  be  made,  is  called  for  by  every  consideration  of  humanity. 
There  are  many  thousands  confined  at  Southern  points  of  the 
Confederacy,  in  a  climate  to  which  they  are  unaccustomed,  de- 
prived of  much  of  the  food,  clothing  and  shelter  they  have  habit- 
ually received,  and  it  is  not  surprising  that  from  these  and  other 

Letters  on  the  Treatment  and  Exchange  of  Prisoiiers.  79- 

causes  that  need  not  be  enumerated  here  much  suffering,  sickness 
and  death  should  ensue.  In  this  matter  the  statements  of  our  own 
officers  are  confirmed  by  those  of  Southern  journals.  And  while 
we  cheerfully  submit  to  any  policy  that  may  be  decided  upon  by 
our  Government,  we  would  urge  that  the  great  evils  that  must  re- 
sult from  any  delay  that  is  not  desired  should  be  obviated  by  the 
designation  of  some  point  in  this  vicinity  at  which  exchanges 
might  be  made— a  course,  we  are  induced  to  believe,  that  would 
be  acceded  to  by  the  Confederate  authorities. 

And  we  are,  General,  your  most  obedient  servants, 

(Signed)  H.  W.  Wessels, 

Brigadier-General  U.  S.  Volunteers. 
(Signed)  T.  Seymour, 

Brigadier- General  U.  S.  Volunteers. 
(Signed)  E.  P.  Scammon, 

Brigadier- General  U.  S.  Volunteers. 
(Signed)  Alexander  Shaler, 

Brigadier- General  U.  S.  Volunteers. 
(Signed)  C.  A.  Heckman, 

Brigadier- General  U.  S.  Volunteers. 

Through  Major-General  J.  G.  Foster.  U.  S.  V., 

Commanding  Department  of  the  South,  Hilton  Head,  S.  C. 

Hdks.  Department  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida, 
Charleston,  S.  C,  July  13,  1SG4. 

General' — I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  1st  instant.  Mine  of 
the  13th  and  22d  ultimo  indicate  with  all  necessary  precision  the 
location  of  United  States  officers  who  are  prisoners  of  war  in  this 
city.  I  cannot  be  more  minute  without  pointing  out  the  houses  in 
which  they  are  confined ;  and  for  reasons  very  easily  understood,  I 
am  sure  that  this  will  not  be  expected.  If  my  statements  in  my 
letter  of  the  22d  ultimo  are  insufficient,  the  letter  of  the  five  Gen- 
eral officers,  dated  the  1st  instant,  in  which  they  assure  you  that 
they  "  are  as  pleasantly  and  comfortably  situated  as  is  possible  for 
prisoners  of  war,  receiving  from  the  Confederate  authorities  every 
privilege  that  we  (they)  could  desire  or  expect;  nor  are  Ave  (they) 
unnecessarily  exposed  to  fire,"  gives  you  all  the  information  in  re- 
gard to  their  treatment  that  you  can  reasonably  desire. 

:80  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

In  conclusion,  let  me  add  that  I  presumed,  from  a  copy  of  your 
■confidential  order  of  the  29th  ultimo,  found  on  the  battle  field  on 
.John's  Island  on  the  9th  instant,  that  you  were  commanding  in 
person  the  troops  operating  against  this  city,  and  as  you  had  par- 
ticularly requested  me  to  communicate  with  you  only  by  way  of 
Port  Royal  ferry,  I  felt  bound  to  delay  my  reply  until  I  was  as- 
sured it  would  promptly  reach  you  by  the  route  you  were  pleased 
to  indicate. 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Sam.  Jones, 

Major-  General  Commanding. 
To  Major-General  J.  G.  Foster. 

Commanding  United  States  Forces.,  Hilton  Head. 

Hdrs.  Depaetment  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida, 

Charleston,  July  13, 1864. 

'General — Your  letter  of  the  4th  in  reply  to  mine  of  the  1st  inst. 
i.has  been  received. 

I  am  pleased  to  know  that  you  reciprocate  my  desire  for  an  ex- 
change of  prisoners  of  war,  but  regret  that  you  should  require  as 
a  condition  precedent  to  any  negotiation  for  this  end  that  I  should 
remove  from  their  present  location  the  United  States  prisoners  of 
war  now  in  this  city.  Such  a  course  on  my  part  would  be  an  im- 
plied admission  that  those  officers  are  unduly  exposed  and  treated 
with  unnecessary  rigor,  which  they  have  themselves  assured  you 
in  their  letter  of  'the  1st  instant  is  not  the  case. 

I  regard  the  exchange  of  prisoners  as  demanded  alike  by  the 
rules  of  civilized  warfare  and  the  dictates  of  common  humanity. 
To  require  a  change  of  location,  which  you  have  every  reason  to 
know  that  the  prisoners  themselves  do  not  desire,  is  to  throw  an 
unnecessary  obstacle  in  the  way  of  accomplishing  this  end,  and 
thus  to  retain  prisoners  of  war  in  irksome  confinement.  The 
'Change  I  most  prefer  is  to  send  them  to  your  headquarters,  and 
this  may  yet  be  done  unless  defeated  by  obstacles  interposed  by 
yourself  or  your  Government. 

I  was  notified  of  your  request  that  I  would  send  a  staff  officer 
to  meet  one  of  yours  at  Port  Royal  at  2  P.  M.  to-day,  too  late  to 
comply  therewith.  I  have,  however,  directed  the  officer  of  your 
staff  to  be  informed  that  I  would  send  an  officer  to  meet  him  at  4 
P.  M.  to-morrow,  and  I  have  accordingly  directed  Major  J.  F.  Lay, 

Letters  on  the  Treatment  and  Exchange  of  Prisoners.  81 

Assistant  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General,  to  take  charge  of  this 
letter  and  deliver  it  at  Port  Royal  ferry.     I  repeat  that  he  is  fully 
advised  of  my  views,  and,  should  you  desire  it,  will  confer  with 
you,  or  any  officer  of  your  staff  whom  you  may  designate. 
Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Sam.  Jones, 

Major-  General  Commanding. 
To  Major-General  J.  G.  Foster, 

Commanding  United  States  Forces,  Hilton  Head. 

Hdrs.  Department  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida, 
Charleston,  S.  C,  August  2,  1864. 

General — I  received  j^our  letter  of  the  29th  ultimo,  informing 
me  that  the  United  States  Secretary  of  War  has  authorized  you  to 
exchange  any  prisoners  in  your  hands,  rank  for  rank,  or  their 
equivalents,  such  exchange  being  a  special  one,  and  that  you  had 
sent  Major  Anderson  of  your  staff  to  make  arrangements  as  to 
time  and  place  for  the  exchange.  Major  Lay  of  my  staff",  whose 
authority  to  act  I  had  previously  made  known  to  you,  and  who 
met  Major  Anderson  at  Port  Royal  ferry,  reports  to  me  that  he  and 
Major  Anderson  had  agreed  to  make  the  exchange  to-morrow  morn- 
ing in  the  north  channel  leading  to  Charleston  harbor.  Having 
received  authority  from  my  Government  to  make  the  exchange,  I 
will  send,  five  General  and  forty-five  field  officers  of  the  United 
States  service  on  a  steamer  for  exchange  at  the  time  and  place 
appointed.  The  details  as  to  equivalents  will  be  settled  between 
Majors  Lay  and  Anderson,  or  other  officer  to  whom  you  may  as- 
sign that  duty,  and  any  balance  that  may  be  found  due  you  will 
be  forwarded,  in  officers,  by  flag  of  truce  as  agreed  upon. 

On  your  assurance,  conveyed  in  your  letter  of  the  16th  ultimo, 
that  Assistant  Surgeon  Robinson,  of  the  104th  Pennsylvania  regi- 
ment, was  not  when  captured  reconnoitring,  I  will  release  and 
send  him  within  your  lines  as  soon  as  it  can  be  done.  He  had 
been  sent  from  here  before  I  received  your  letter  in  regard  to  him 
I  am,  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Sam.  Jones, 

Major-  General  Commanding. 
To  Major-General  J.  G.  Foster, 

Commanding  U.  S.  Forces,  Department  of  the  South,  Hilton  Head. 


82  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Gregg. 

Since  publishing  in  our  last  number  General  Lane's  account  of  the  defence 
of  Fort  Gregg,  we  have  received  a  letter  from  an  officer  of  the  Washington 
artillery,  complaining  that  injustice  was  done  that  gallant  command  in 
Captain  McCabe's  note  (page -301,  December  N'umber),  by  omitting  all  men- 
tion of  the  part  borne  by  them.  In  General  Lane's  account  the  name  of 
Lieutenant  McElroy  of  the  Washington  artillery  is  mentioned.  But  in 
order  that  we  may  give  all  a  fair  hearing,  we  take  pleasure  in  republishing, 
as  requested,  the  following  account  from  "A  Soldier's  Story  of  the  Late 
War,  by  Napier  Bartlett."  We  may  add  the  remark  that  in  the  peculiar 
circumstances  which  surrounded  the  heroic  band  from  different  commands 
who  collected  in  Fort  Gregg,  it  is  perfectly  natural  that  there  should  be 
honest  differences  of  opinion  as  to  the  numbers,  &c.,  of  the  several  com- 
mands. Bid  they  were  all  Confederate  soldiers,  and  they  bore  themselves 
worthily  in  the  hour  of  trial. 

[From  "A  Soldier's  Story  of  the  War."] 

A  dramatic  interest  attached  to  the  defence  of  the  forts,  aside 
from  the  fact  that  here  was  to  be  the  last  stand  for  Petersburg. 
This  was  because  of  the  necessity  of  here  detaining  the  enemy, 
who  were  advancing,  wave  after  wave  around  the  works,  until 
Longstreet  could  get  across  the  James;  secondly,  the  attack  on 
Gregg  was  followed  by  a  lull  along  other  portions  of  the  line,  and 
the  men  rested  upon  their  weapons  to  witness,  as  at  a  spectacle  of 
great  national  interest,  the  struggle  of  Secessia,  and  the  last  angry 
glare  of  her  guns  on  a  formal  field  of  battle.  The  number  of  men 
on  the  two  sides,  214  in  Fort  Gregg,  about  the  same  in  Whitworth, 
and  5,000  advancing  against  them,  illustrated  the  comparative 
srrength  of  the  combatants.  Fort  Gregg  was  the  Confederate  La 
Tourgue.  When  it  falls,  all  of  the  old  traditions  and  usages  of  the 
South  fall  with  it;  when  the  Federal  standards  wave  over  it,  there 
is  then  to  be  centralization,  negro  government,  and  four  times  the 
ruin  inflicted  on  the  South  as  was  put  by  Germany  on  France. 

The  two  forts  stand  250  yards  in  the  rear  of  the  captured  line, 
and  were  built  for  precisely  such  an  occasion  as  is  suggested  by 
the  cheers  of  the  advancing  enemy — namely,  for  use  as  an  inner 
defence  when  disaster  should  overtake  the  Confederate  line. 
Fronting  Gregg  is  a  little  fort,  the  last  built  by  Lee,  and  called  by 
the  men  Fort  Owen,  after  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  that  name 
from  the  Washington  artillery,  who  was  assigned  to  the  command 
of  Fort  Gregg  and  the  surrounding  works.     Lieutenant  Battles,  of 


Defence  of  Fori  Gregg.  33 

the  Washington  artillery,  is  in  "Owen,"  with  two  guns,  and  Lieu- 
tenant McElroy,  of  the  same  battalion,  has  charge  of  a  company  of 
sixty-two  artillerymen  who  have  been  doing  duty  here  most  of  the 

The  night  had  been  strangely  quiet  upon  this  portion  of  the 
lines,  but  towards  daybreak  the  silence  gave  place  to  a  little  touch 
of  skirmishing  to  the  right  of  Gregg— sufficient  to  cause  the  order- 
ing of  the  infantry  and  artillerymen  into  Fort  Owen,  although  it 
was  then  so  dark  that  scarcely  anything  could  be  seen.  Our  in- 
fantry there  could  be  barely  detected  moving  in  the  trenches, 
towards  what  seemed  to  be  the  picket  firing.  As  the  men  peered 
into  the  darkness  in  the  direction  of  the  flashes,  solid  shots  com- 
menced to  plow  up  the  earth — the  infantry  began  quitting  the 
trenches  and  taking  to  the  fields,  leaving  the  cannoniers  under  the 
impression  that  the  troops  were  chasing  small  game  of  some  sort. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Owen  in  his  report  says  he  gave  orders  to 
withdraw  to  Fort  Gregg,  and  hurried  off"  to  rally  fugitives — a  no 
easy  matter — who  had  already  been  dispersed  by  the  Federal 
attack.  McElroy  reached  the  latter  with  his  men,  but  Battles  not 
receiving  his  horses  in  time,  found  himself  suddenly  surrounded, 
and  his  command  captured  by  the  enemy.  McElroy  immediately 
opened  fire  from  Fort  Gregg  with  his  artillery-infantry,  drove  them 
away,  and  then  turning  his  infantry  once  more  back  to  artillery, 
ran  down  into  Fort  Owen  and  opened  fire  with  the  recaptured 
pieces  on  the  enemy,  two  hundred  yards  to  his  right.  Horses 
having  been  procured,  the  pieces  by  order  were  moved  forward  a 
mile,  where  the  guns  fired  thirty-five  rounds  each,  and  were  then 
retired  to  Fort  Gregg.  Lieutenant  McElroy  says,  in  his  report, 
there  were  two  hundred  men  in  the  fort,  who  were,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  his  command,  of  Harris'  Mississippi  brigade,  and  that  his 
loss  was  six  killed,  two  wounded  and  thirty-two  prisoners.  Colonel 
Owen  proceeds  to  say : 

At  the  time  McElroy  was  put  in  position  in  "  Gregg"  some  guns 
were  placed  in  Fort  Whitworth,  a  detached  work  like  "  Gregg  "  and 
to  its  right  and  rear. 

Major-General  Wilcox,  who  was  then  in  Gregg,  seeing  Harris' 
brigade  in  what  he  thought  a  dangerous  position  in  front,  sent  his 
Aide  to  the  General  to  recall  his  men  to  the  two  forts,  Harris  him- 
self going  into  Whitworth,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  James  II. 
Duncan,  of  the  Nineteenth  Mississippi,  into  Gregg. 

As  the  enemy  advanced,  McElroy  was  cautioned  to  have  his 
ammunition  as  handy  as  possible  upon  the  platform  for  quick 

84  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

work.  Under  orders,  Captain  Walker  hurriedly  withdrew  the  guns 
from  Fort  Whitworth. 

The  enemy,  a  full  corps  of  at  least  5,000  men,  advanced  in  three 
lines  of  battles.  Three  times  the  little  garrison  repulsed  them. 
The  fort  seemed  fringed  with  fire  from  the  rifles  of  the  Mississip- 

The  cannoniers  bravely  and  skilfully  used  their  guns.  The  enemy 
fell  on  the  clear  field  around  the  fort  by  scores. 

The  capture  of  the  work  was  but  a  question  of  time.  The  blue 
coats  finally  jumped  into  the  ditch  surrounding  the  fort,  and 
presently  climbed  over  each  others  backs  to  gain  the  summit  of 
the  parapets.  There  was  a  weak  point  on  the  side  of  Gregg,  where 
the  ditch  was  incomplete,  and  over  this  a  body  of  the  enemy  rushed. 
Presently  six  regimental  standards  were  distinctly  seen  waving  on 
the  parapet. 

The  part  taken  in  the  defence  of  Gregg,  by  the  Mississippians, 
is  thus  described  in  the  Vicksburg  Times: 

"  Fort  Gregg  was  held  by  the  Twelfth  and  Sixteenth  Mississippi 
regiments,  Harris'  brigade,  numbering  about  150  muskets,  under 
command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  James  H.  Duncan,  of  the  Nine- 
teenth Mississippi,  who  had  been  assigned  by  General  Harris  to 
the  immediate  command  of  that  work.  The  artillery  in  the  fort 
was  a  section  of  Third  company  Washington  artillery,  commanded 
by  Lieutenant  Frank  McElroy.  General  Harris,  with  his  two  other 
regiments.  Nineteenth  and  Forty-eighth  Mississippi,  occupied  'Fort 
Whitworth,'  distant  about  100  yards,  and  between  that  work  and 
the  Southside  railroad." 

General  Harris,  in  a  letter  designed  to  be  an  official  report,  says, 
"  General  Wilcox  ordered  me  to  take  position  in  front  of  the  enemy, 
and  detain  them  as  long  as  possible.  With  this  object  in  view  I 
advanced  about  400  yards,  and  formed  at  right  angles  with  the 
Boydton  plank  road.  The  ground  being  undulating,  I  threw  both 
flanks  behind  the  crest  on  which  I  formed,  and  exposed  my  centre, 
in  order  that  I  might  induce  the  enemy  to  believe  that  there  was  a 
continuous  line  of  battle  behind  the  ridge.  I  then  advanced  a  line 
of  skirmishers  well  to  the  front.  The  enemy  being  misled  by  this 
device,  made  the  most  careful  dispositions,  two  lines  of  battle,  and 
advancing  with  the  utmost  caution,  my  position  was  held  until  the 
enemy  was  in  close  range,  when  a  heavy  fire  was  opened  upon 
both  sides. 

"The  enemy  pressing  me  heavily  and  out-reaching  me  on  my 
flanks,  I  fell  back  upon  Fort  Gregg  and  Whitworth,  the  Twelfth 
and  Sixteenth  under  Colonel  Duncan,  being  ordered  to  Fort  Gregg, 
and  to  hold  it  at  all  hazards. 

"The  Nineteenth  and  Forty-eighth  were  placed  in  Whitworth. 
In  Gregg  there  was  a  section  of  the  Third  company  Washington 
artillery,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Frank  McElroy.  Preparations 
were  now  made  by  the  enemy  for  the  assault,  and  this  time  Captain 

Defence  of  Fori  Gregg.  85 

Walker,  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General  of  General  Walker,  Chief 
of  Artillery,  came  with  orders  to  withdraw  the  artillery,  and  against 
this  I  most  earnestly  protested. 

"The  four  guns  were  withdrawn  from  Whitworth  under  protest; 
but  the  enemy  were  too  close  to  permit  the  withdrawal  of  the  guns 
from  Gregg.  Perceiving  the  guns  of  Whitworth  leaving,  the  enemy 
moved  forward  to  assault  us  in  both  works.  He  assaulted  in 
columns  of  brigades,  completely  enveloping  Gregg,  and  approach- 
ing Whitworth  only  in  front.  Gregg  repulsed  assault  after  assault; 
the  two  remnants  of  regiments,  which  had  won  glorious  honor  on 
so  many  fields,  fighting  this,  their  last  battle,  with  most  terrible 
enthusiasm,  as  if  feeling  this  to  be  the  last  act  in  the  drama  for 
them  ;  and  the  officers  and  men  of  the  Washington  artillery  fight- 
ing their  guns  to  the  last,  preserved  untarnished  the  brilliancy  of 
reputation  acquired  by  their  corps.  Gregg  raged  like  the  crater  of 
a  volcano,  emitting  its  flashes  of  deadly  fires,  enveloped  in  flame 
and  cloud,  wreathing  our  flag  as  well  in  honor  as  in  the  smoke  of 
death.  It  was  a  glorious  struggle.  Louisiana  represented  by  these 
noble  artillerists,  and  Mississippi  by  her  shattered  bands,  stood 
there  side  by  side  together,  holding  the  last  regularly  fortified  lines 
around  Petersburg." 

While  Gregg  and  Whitworth  were  holding  out,  Longstreet  was 
hastening  with  Field's  division,  from  the  north  side  of  the  James, 
to  form  an  inner  line  for  the  purpose  of  covering  General  Lee's 
withdrawal  that  night.  As  soon  as  Harris  heard  of  the  formation 
of  that  line,  he  withdrew  with  his  little  band,  cutting  his  way 

At  12  o'clock  that  night  the  last  man  and  the  last  gun  of  the 
brave  army  that  had  defended  the  lines  of  Petersburg  for  one  year, 
passed  over  the  pontoon  bridges,  and  the  march  commenced,  that 
ended  at  Appomattox  courthouse.  I  have  been  induced  to  write 
the  foregoing,  of  which  I  was  eye  witness,  in  the  hope  of  correcting^ 
history.  Many  accounts  have  been  published  of  the  defence  of 
Fort  "  Gregg,"  but  all  that  I  have  seen  have  been  generally  far  from 
the  truth.  Pollard,  who  showed  but  little  disposition  to  waste 
compliments  on  the  troops  from  the  Gulf  States,  says  Captain 
Chew  of  the  fourth  Maryland  battery  of  artillery  was  in  command 
of  the  work,  and  his  account  is  reiterated  by  many  others.  If  he 
was,  it  is  strange  we  did  not  know  it.  A  battery  of  Mary  landers 
had  in  reality  been  disbanded  a  short  time  before  the  fight,  their 
time  having  expired,  and  they  were  awaiting  their  discharge  papers 
to  enable  them  to  go  to  their  homes.  If  Captain  Chew  was  in  the 
fort  at  all,  he  was  simply  there  as  a  volunteer  or  a  spectator. 

We  should  give  the  honor  to  those  who  earned  it  in  this  fierce 
fight  of  three  hours  against  such  fearful  odds.  Swinton,  in  his 
"Army  of  the  Potomac,"  in  hisdescription  of  the  breaking  through 
the  lines  on  this  historic  Sunday,  says: 

"On  reaching  the  lines  immediately  around  Petersburg,  a  part 
of  Ord's  command  under  Gibbon  began  an  assault  directed  against 

86  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Fort  Gregg  and  Whitworth,  two  strong  enclosed  works,  the  most 
salient  and  commanding  south  of  Petersburg.  The  former  of  these 
redoubts  was  manned  by  Harris'  Mississippi  brigade,  numbering 
two  hundred  and  fifty  men,  and  this  handful  of  skilled  marksmen 
conducted  the  defence  with  such  intrepidity  that  Gibbons'  force, 
surging  repeatedly  against  it,  was  each  time  thrown  back  ;  at  length 
a  renewed  charge  carried  the  work,  but  not  till  its  two  hundred  and 
fifty  defenders  had  been  reduced  to  thirty.  *  *  Gibbons'  loss 
was  four  hundred  men." 

Swinton  does  not  mention  the  Washington  artillery  in  the  fort : 
he  also  errs  in  putting  the  number  of  Mississippians  at  250.  Gene- 
ral Harris  says  there  were  150.  These,  with  the  64  artillerists,  make 
a  total  of  214  men,  and  these  men  put  liors  clu  combat  500  of  the 
enemy,  or  an  average  of  more  than  two  men  each. 

Dahlgreri's  Ride  into  Fredericksburg.  87 

Dahlg-ren's  Ride  into  Fredericksburg. 

This  incident  is  scarcely  of  sufficient  importance  to  demand  a 
place  in  our  Papers,  except  as  an  illustration  of  how  "  history  "  is 
manufactured  and  a  small  affair  magnified  into  a  brilliant  achieve- 
ment by  a  sensational  press. 

In  the  Memoir  of  Ulric  Dahlgren,  by  his  father,  Rear  Admiral 
Dahlgren,  there  is  quoted  from  the  account  of  a  newspaper  corre- 
spondent the  following  vivid  sketch  of  the  affair  : 

I  am  sitting  in  Colonel  Ashboth's  tent,  at  General  Sigel's  head- 
quarters, listening  to  a  plain  statement  of  what  occurred,  narrated 
by  a  modest,  unassuming  sergeant.     I  will  give  it  briefly. 

General  Burnside  had  requested  that  a  cavalry  reconnoissance 
of  Fredericksburg  should  be  made.  General  Sigel  selected  his 
body-guard,  commanded  by  Captain  Dahlgren,  with  fifty-seven  of 
the  First  Indiana  cavalry.  It  was  no  light  task  to  ride  forty  miles, 
keep  the  movement  concealed  from  the  enemy,  cross  the  river  and 
dash  through  the  town,  especially  as  it  was  known  that  the  Rebels 
occupied  it  in  force.  It  was  an  enterprise  calculated  to  dampen 
the  ardor  of  most  men,  but  which  was  hailed  almost  as  a  holiday 
excursion  by  the  Indianians.  They  left  Gainesville  Saturday 
morning,  took  a  circuitous  route,  rode  till  night,  rested  awhile,  and 
then,  under  the  light  of  the  full  moon,  rode  rapidly  over  the  worn- 
out  fields  of  the  Old  Dominion,  through  by-roads,  intending  to 
dash  into  the  town  at  daybreak.  They  arrived  opposite  the  place 
at  dawn,  and  found  to  their  chagrin  that  one  element  in  their  cal- 
culation had  been  omitted — the  tide. 

The  bridge  had  been  burned  when  we  evacuated  the  place  last 
summer,  and  they  had  nothing  to  do  but  wait  till  the  water  ebbed. 
Concealing  themselves  in  the  woods,  they  waited  impatiently. 
Meanwhile,  two  of  the  Indianians  rode  along  the  river  bank  below 
the  town  to  the  ferry.  They  hailed  the  ferr3aTian,  who  was  on  the 
opposite  shore,  representing  themselves  to  be  Rebel  officers.  The 
ferryman  pulled  to  the  northern  bank,  and  was  detained  till  he 
gave  information  of  the  Rebel  force,  which  he  said  numbered  eight 
companies,  five  or  six  hundred  men  all  told. 

The  tide  ebbed,  and  Captain  Dahlgren  left  his  hiding  place  with 
his  fifty-seven  Indianians.  They  crossed  the  river  in  single  file  at 
a  slow  walk,  the  bottom  being  exceedingly  rocky.  Reaching  the 
opposite  shore,  he  started  at  a  slow  trot  towards  the  town,  hoping 
to  take  the  enemy  by  surprise.  But  his  advance  had  been  discov- 
ered. The  enemy  w"as  partly  in  saddle.  There  was  a  hurrying  to 
and  fro,  mounting  of  steeds,  confusion,  and  fright  among  the  peo- 
ple. The  Rebel  cavalry  were  in  every  street.  Captain  Dahlgren 
resolved  to  fall  upon  them  like  a  thunderbolt.  Increasing  his  trot 
to  a  gallop,  the  fifty-seven  dauntless  men  dashed  into  the  town, 

88  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

cheering,  with  sabres  glittering  in  the  sun — riding  recl^lessly  upon 
the  enemy,  who  waited  but  a  nrioment  in  the  main  street,  then  ig- 
nominiousiy  fled.  Having  cleared  the  main  thoroughfare,  Captain 
Dahlgren  swept  through  a  cross  street  upon  another  squadron  with 
the  same  success.  Tliere  was  a  trampling  of  hoofs,  a  clattering  of 
scabbards,  and  the  sharp  ringing  cut  of  the  sabres,  the  pistol  flash, 
the  going  down  of  horse  and  rider,  the  gory  gashes  of  the  sabre 
stroke,  a  cheering  and  hurrahing,  and  screaming  of  frightened  wo- 
men and  children,  a  short,  sharp,  decisive  contest,  and  the  town 
was  in  the  possession  of  the  gallant  men.  Once  the  Rebels  at- 
tempted to  recover  what  they  had  lost,  but  a  second  impetuous 
charge  drove  them  back  again,  and  Captain  Dahlgren  gathered  the 
fruits  of  the  victory — thirty-one  prisoners,  horses,  accoutrements, 
sabres — held  possession  of  the  town  for  three  hours  and  retired, 
losing  but  one  of  his  glorious  band  killed  and  two  wounded;  leav- 
ing a  dozen  of  the  enemy  killed  and  wounded.  I  would  like  to 
give  the  names  of  these  heroes  if  I  had  them.  The  one  brave  fel- 
low who  lost  his  life  had  fought  through  all  the  conflict,  but  seeing 
a  large  rebel  flag  waving  from  a  building  he  secured  it,  wrapped  it 
around  his  body,  and  was  returning  to  his  command,  when  a  fatal 
shot  was  fired  from  a  window,  probably  by  a  citizen.  He  was 
brought  to  the  northern  shore,  and  there  buried  by  his  fellow-sol- 
diers beneath  the  forest  pines. 

It  thrills  one  to  look  at  it,  to  hear  the  story,  to  picture  the  en- 
counter— the  wild  dash,  the  sweep  like  a  whirlwind,  the  cheers, 
the  rout  of  the  enemy,  their  confusion,  the  victory.  Victory,  not 
for  the  personal  glory,  not  for  ambition,  but  for  a  beloved  country; 
for  that  which  is  dearer  than  life — the  thanks  of  the  living,  the 
gratitude  of  unnumbered  millions  yet  to  be.  Brave  sons  of  the 
West,  this  is  your  glory,  this  your  reward!  No  exploit  of  the  war 
equals  it.  It  will  go  down  to  history  as  one  of  the  bravest  achieve- 
ments on  record. 

The  following  letters  from  Judge  Critcher  and  Major  Kelly  show 
how  largely  the  correspondent  drew  upon  his  imagination  in  his 
account  of  this  comparatively  insignificant  aSair.  But  this  ro- 
mancing is  a  fair  sample  of  the  style  in  which  many  of  the  so- 
called  "  histories  "  of  the  day  are  manufactured. 

The  letters  of  Judge  Critcher  and  Major  Kelly  were  written  after 
seeing  the  above  account  of  "  one  of  the  bravest  achievements  on 

General  Fitzhugh  Lee: 

My  Dear  Sir — There  is  far  more  of  romance  than  truth  in  the 
newspaper  account  of  Dahlgren's  ride  into  Fredericksburg.  The 
contributors  to  the  daily  newspapers  seem  to  be  under  the  neces- 
sity of  writing  something,  if  possible,  that  is  marvellous  and  sen- 

DahJgren's  Bide  into  Frcderichhurg.  SO* 

sational ;  and  a  father  may  well  be  pardoned  for  reproducing  what 
is  so  flattering  to  his  pride.     But  the  facts  : 

There  were  four  companies  of  cavalry,  just  mustered  into  service 
and  armed  with  such  guns  as  each  man  could  provide,  that  had 
then  their  headquarters  at  Fredericksburg.  But  these  companies 
were  distributed  by  order  of  General  Smith  (then  at  Richmond) 
from  West  Point,  on  the  York  river,  along  the  lower  Rappahan- 
nock; at  certain  points  on  the  Potomac,  and  on  the  upper  Rappa- 
hannock at  the  various  fords  twenty-five  or  thirty  miles  above 
Fredericksburg,  leaving  at  headquarters,  besides  the  sick  and  such 
as  had  no  arms,  but  few  efficient  men. 

The  evening  before  Dahlgren's  raid  Captain  Simpson's  company, 
from  Norfolk,  unexpectedly  joined  us,  but  having  provided  no 
quarters,  they  were  distributed  for  the  night  in  the  most  conve- 
nient  houses.  Next  morning  Dahlgren  entered  the  town,  conducted 
by  a  deserter  from  Stafford,  who  led  his  men  over  a  ford  near  Fal- 
mouth which  had  not  been  used  within  the  memory  of  man.  Our 
pickets  nearer  town  were  deceived  and  captured.  Our  position  in 
town  and  our  weakness  were  well  known  to  the  surrounding  coun- 
try, and  of  course  to  the  deserter.  When  the  attack  was  made  by 
Dahlgren  on  our  camp,  he  found  but  a  few  sick  and  disabled  men, 
with  the  usual  employees  of  the  quartermaster  and  commissary, 
and  perhaps  a  few  others.  Captain  Simpson  placed  himself  at  the 
head  of  a  few  of  his  men,  attacked  the  rear  guard  of  the  enemy^ 
pursued  them  at  full  speed  through  Fredericksburg  to  Falmouth, 
killing  one  and  wounding  two  men.  As  soon  as  our  scattered 
forces  could  effect  a  rendezvous  on  Marye's  heights,  we  crossed  the 
river  and  pursued  the  party  five  or  six  miles  through  Stafford — 
capturing,  however,  but  two  of  their  men.  Captain  Simpson  lost 
one  man  killed.  Exclusive  of  Simpson's  company,  which  had  not 
reported  for  duty,  I  question  whether  we  had  as  many  men  in 
Fredericksburg  at  the  time  as  Dahlgren,  and  of  these  several  were 
sick  and  others  without  arms.  So  that,  knowing  our  position  and 
our  weakness  as  he  must  have  done,  and  as  he  could  have  learned 
from  any  one  along  the  road  or  at  Falmouth,  the  exploit  of  this 
youthful  hero,  though  very  creditable  to  him,  seems  not  so  distin- 
guished by  its  boldness  or  success. 

I  append  a  letter  from  Major  Kelly,  from  whom  I  hoped  to  ob- 
tain an  accurate  account  of  the  affair.  He  was  then  editor  of  the 
Fredericksburg  Herald,  in  which  paper  a  minute  and  accurate  ac- 
count of  every  incident  of  the  day  was  published  the  next  morn- 
ing. Most  respectfully, 

John  Critciier, 
Lieutenant- Colonel  Commanding  at  Fredericksburg^ 

in  the  autumn  of  18G2. 

•90  Southern  Historical  Society  Palmers. 

Fredericksburg,  April  19,  1S72. 
Judge  Critcher  : 

Dear  Sir — I  regret  very  much  that  I  am  unable  to  assist  you 
materially  in  the  review  you  propose  of  the  article  sent  in  regard 
to  "Dahlgren's  Ride  into  Fredericksburg." 

The  files  of  the  Herald  during  the  war  fell  a  prey  to  the  ravages 
of  the  times,  and  I  have  not  the  slightest  recollection  of  any  facts 
that  I  may  then  have  written. 

The  first  intimation  I  had  of  the  affair  was  a  small  colored  boy's 
coming  into  the  chamber  (about  8  o'clock  in  the  morning,  or  pos- 
sibly 9)  with  the  announcement,  "De  Yankees  is  in  town."  It 
was  Sunday  morning,  as  ^ou  recollect.  Directly  thereafter  I  heard 
the  clatter  of  horses'  feet,  and  on  going  to  the  parlor  window  saw 
the  head  of  the  invading  force.  The  horses  were  in  a  walk,  and 
no  dash  whatever.  I  looked  for  some  moments  before  I  realized 
that  they  were  indeed  Federal  soldiers.  I  saw  the  blue  overcoats, 
but  thought  they  belonged  to  Colonel  Bell's  company,  he  having 
arrived,  as  I  understood,  the  evening  before. 

The  invading  party  could  learn  at  Falmouth  all  they  wanted  to 
know,  and  I  have  not  a  doubt  that  when  they  crossed  the  river 
they  were  under  the  impression  that  only  one  company  of  cavalry 
occupied  the  town.  I  do  not  suppose  any  one  in  Falmouth  had 
heard  of  the  arrival  of  Bell  and  his  company — the  latter,  I  believe, 
having  been  quartered  below  town  or  in  its  suburbs  late  the  even- 
ing previous. 

You  know  more  accurately  than  I  do  as  to  the  "  fruits  of  the 
victory,"  &c.  The  Munchausen  story  of  "prisoners,"  "holding 
the  town  three  hours,"  &c.,  is  simply  ludicrous. 

The  Federal  cavalryman  was  killed  by  one  of  the  Confederates, 
and  not  a  citizen.  The  first  was  on  the  outside  of  a.  fence  on  a 
cross  street  and  the  other  on  the  inside.  There  was  no  dash  on 
his  part  after  a  "  Rebel  flag,"  but  those  living  in  the  vicinity  said 
he  was  retreating  and  refused  to  surrender.  This  I  learned  a  very 
brief  period  after  he  was  killed,  and  whilst  his  body  was  still  lying 
on  the  ground.  His  "  fellow-soldiers  "  had  something  else  to  do 
than  take  his  body  to  the  northern  shore  and  bury  it.  They  were 
retreating  for  life.  One  or  two  of  the  Yankees  were  captured.  I 
remember  to  have  talked  with  one,  and  my  impression  is  that  he 
was  not  wounded. 

I  remember  that  you  took  some  cavalrymen,  crossed  the  rivei, 
and  went  in  pursuit — overtook  them,  and  had  a  brisk  engagement. 
You  told  me  afterwards  of  the  gallantry  of  some  of  your  men  on 
that  occasion. 

Regretting  that  I  cannot  assist  you  in  giving  a  narrative,  such  as 
I  could  if  my  memory  was  refreshed  by  the  account  I  wrote  at  the 
time,  I  remain,  Very  truly  yours, 

J,  H.  Kelly. 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  91 

EditOTial  If  anagraphs. 

The  Kind  Notices  of  the  Press  have  several  times  elicited  our 
thanks,  but  we  have  not  thought  proper  to  publish  in  our  Papers  any  of 
the  comniendations  of  our  editorial  brethren.  We  will,  however,  venture  to 
give  our  readers  the  following  from  the  pen  of  our  gallant  friend,  Captain  J. 
Hampden  Chamberlayne,  the  editor  of  tlie  Richmond  State  : 

We  have  several  times  had  occasion  to  commend  the  work  of  this  Society 
and  the  usefulness  of  its  publications.  The  issue  of  the  Papers  for  the 
month  just  passed  is  one  of  unusual  variety,  and  is,  as  all  its  predecessors, 
of  a  positive  value  to  tlie  historian  and  to  all  interested  in  reaching  tiie  truth 
of  our  recent  war  between  tlie  States. 

Particularlj'  welcome  are  the  reports  of  General  IMaurj'  of  the  operations 
of  his  department — headquarters  at  Mobile — and  of  General  R.  L.  Page 
touching  the  defence  of  Fort  Morgan.  These  papers  are  published  for  the 
first  time,  and  fill  an  important  gap  in  the  story  of  the  militarj'-  life  of  the 
Confederacy.  Captain  Park's  diary  continues  its  minute  and  lifelike  descrip- 
tions, and  Mr.  McCarthy's  "  Soldier  Life"  is,  as  all  his  sketches,  faithful  and 
sparkling.  The  papers  on  the  Fort  Gregg  defence  lielp  to  throw  light  on 
aftau's  hitherto  known  but  vaguel.y,  and  the  memorial  address  on  General 
Lee,  confining  itself  for  the  most  part  to  mere  outline,  yet  attempts  to  set 
forth  clearly  the  salient  points  of  character  and  achievement  exhibited  by 
our  great  commander. 

This  issue  is,  we  repeat,  of  positive  value  as  well  as  not  a  little  of  attrac- 
tiveness in  the  various  styles  of  its  ditFerent  essays  and  reports. 

The  Society,  indeed,  has  in  a  very  short  time  taken  honorable  rank  in  its 
class,  and  by  the  persistent  labors,  energy,  accuracy  and  knowledge  of  the 
Secretary  it  has  not  only  acquired  for  its  publications  a  large  and  self-sus- 
taining circulation,  but  accumulated  a  great  mass  of  historical  material  of 
high  value  to  the  country  and  to  the  truth  of  history.  Establishing  close 
relations  with  other  societies  having  analogous  ends  in  view,  a  system  of  ex- 
change has  been  adopted  which  is  already  of  great  use,  and  promises  con- 
stantly increasing  results.  Contented  with  small  beginnings  and  hard  work, 
the  Secretary  and  the  Society  have  wisely  avoided  all  attempts  at  show,  and 
make  good  use  of  the  poor  quarters,  which  is  all  that  has  yet  been  bestowed 
by  way  of  encouragement  to  its  work.  It  is  much  to  be  hoped  that  no  long 
time  will  go  by  before  the  valuable  material  accumulated  by  its  labor  will 
find  better  means  and  place  of  preservation,  and  the  ofticers  be  more  wor- 
thily furnished  with  facilities  for  their  duties.  The  publications,  however, 
by  which  the  Society  is  chiefly  known,  though  they  form  as  yet  but  a  small 
part  of  what  it  has  done,  are  worthy  of  unstinted  praise.  Giving  a  due  at- 
tention to  a  variety  of  subjects,  and'letting  slip  no  opportunity  of  sifting  out 
of  conflicting  statements  the  very  truth,  they  already  serve,  when  bound,  to 
furnish  a  veritable  mine  of  facts,  records,  anecdotes,  and  memoralMlia  ni 
general  which  bear  upon  the  history  of  the  Confederacy,  both  as  a  civd  or- 
ganization and  as  an  armed  camp.  Fortunate,  too,  in  the  printer  selected, 
these  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers  are  admiral>ly  prepared  (at 
the  printing  house  of  George  W.  Gary),  and  lack  nothing  of  neatness  aud 
even  elegance  in  material  and  typography. 

Guided  by  patriotic  enthusiasm^  and  conducted,  down  to  the  details  of  its 
work,  with  minute  and  painstaking  care,  it  is  not  strange  that  the  Society 
and  its  monthly  Papers  grow  fast  as  well  as  deservedly  in  the  appreciation 
of  the  public. 


"92  Southern  Miswrical  Society  Pai^evs. 

"General  Lee,"  a  New  Work  by  Marshall,  the  Engraver. — 
We  have  received  from  the  publisher,  Oscar  Marsliall,  697  Broadway,  New 
Yorlc,  a  copy  of  this  superb  picture.  Wliile  we  do  not  thinli  the  photograpli 
from  which  the  engraving  is  made  quite  equal  to  another  one  of  tlie  thirty- 
two  in  our  possession,  we  regard  the  engraving  as  a  very  admirable  one  in 
every  respect,  and  are  so  anxious  to  see  it  widely  circulated  tliat  we  cheer- 
fully give  place  to  the  following  notice  sent  us  by  a  competent  and  apprecia- 
tive art  critic : 

Virginia,  if  she  cannot  claim  to  be  the  mother  of  many  artists,  has  more 
than  once  benefited  art  by  furnishing  llie  subject,  the  hero,  and  tlie  inspira- 
tion. Tims  Washington,  the  noblest  of  Virginians,  inspired  Stuart  with 
that  slight  but  matchless  sketch  in  the  Boston  Athen;eum,  wliich  is  undoubt- 
edly the  most  celebrated  American  picture  in  existence,  Henry,  another 
Virginian,  is  the  subject  of  historical  painting  "•Patrick  Henry  in  the 
House  of  Burgesses,"  which  is  perhaps  the  masterpiece  of  Eothermel,  And 
now  the  chief  American  engravei-,  William  Edgar  Marshall,  who  has 
already,  by  a  strolve  or  a  few  strokes  of  genius,  scattered  Stuart's  master- 
piece across  the  country  in  an  incomparable  line  engraving,  has  issued 
another  print,  likewise  of  very  uncommon  power,  representing  that  man 
who  of  all  cont(-mporary  Americans  lias  perliaps  the  greatest  number  of  ad- 
mirers both  in  the  North  and  tlie  South,  General  Eobert  E.  Lee, 

This  new  worlv  is  very  ambitious  in  size,  grasp  and  treatment.  It  is  a 
bust-portrait,  tlie  head  being  somewhat  larger  than  life,  and  the  chest  being 
represented  below  the  shoulders.  Although  the  scale  is  so  large,  there  is- 
none  of  his  works  in  which  this  master  of  pure  line  has  shown  more  care  and 
intelligence  in  representing,  by  well  chosen  strokes,  the  richness  and  trans- 
parenc.y  of  complexion,  the  variety  of  textures,  the  tilmy  lightness  of  hair 
and  beard,  the  fullness  of  stufts,  and  the  general  sense  of  enveloping  air,  all 
of  which  combine  to  give  quality  to  a  portrait. 

The  face,  tui-ned  somewhat  to  the  spectator's  right,  represents  Lee  in  the 
hale  strength  f>f  middle  age,  with  the  eagle  force  of  the  eyes  slightly  veiled 
by  the  influence  of  time  and  experience.  As  in  tlie  record  of  his  life  the 
vicissitudes  of  history  only  tauglit  this  grand  man  a  calm  and  equable  dig- 
nity, so  in  the  portrait  it  is  tlie  endurance,  fortitude  and  unconquerable 
nobility  of  character  which  ai-e  made  emphatic.  The  active  and  aggressive 
traits  are  held  in  check  by  a  sense  of  superior  wisdom.  If  ever  the  expres- 
sion of  a  modern  face  deserved  to  be  called  Olympian,  it  is  the  countenance 
delineated  in  tliis  remarkable  pi-int.  Seldom  has  an  engraver  given  sucli 
liquid  depth  to  a  large,  grand  eye.  It  looks  out  straight  to  the  horizon,  with 
a  comprehensive  glance  of  inelfable  manliness,  repose,  and  natural  com- 
mand. It  shows  the  courage  to  act,  and  also  the  courage  to  bear  and  to 

The  fine,  waving,  grizzled  hair  and  beard,  which  gave  to  Lee  tlie  soldierly 
comeliness  of  some  noble  old  moustache  of  the  Peninsula,  are  treated  by 
Mr.  Marshall  with  a  felicity  that  only  his  long  experience  with  the  burin 
could  inspire.  Tlie  light  waved  lines  express,  at  the  proper  distance,  the 
exact  character  of  dry,  soft,  silky,  aged  hair,  which  lifts  easily  on  every 
breeze,  and  always  allows  the  conforination  of  the  cranium  and  the  muscu- 
lar anatomy  of  the  face  to  be  distinctly  divined.  The  grand  and  thought- 
worn  forehead,  the  firm  mouth,  and  the  general  monumental  and  strong 
■character  of  the  face  are  well  understood  and  rendered.  Few  heroes  have 
had  so  pure  and  heroic  a  type  of  face.  The  engraver  understands  his  work 
so  well  as  to  leave  on  the  beholder's  mind  an  impression  of  magnificent 
manhood,  of  vast  resources  of  energy,  and,  finallj-  of  self-communing,  self- 
respecting  calm. 

The  dress  indicated  is  the  old  working  uniform  of  warlike  days — the  suit 
three   small  stars  on  the  collar,    the   waistcoat  carelessly 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  93 

opened,  and  the  white.  shU't  stiffly  tied  at  the  neck  with  black.  Although 
this  uniform,  how^ever,  indicates  a  definite  historical  period,  we  cannot  help 
seeing  in  the  air  of  the  majestic  face  a  somethino;  wiiich  that  particular  uni- 
form never  accompanied — the  accomphshed  work  of  life,  tlie  cliasteningand 
visionary  sadness  of  a  Lost  Cause,  the  jojrandeur  of  self-repression.  By  this 
happy  inconsistency,  tliis  hen  trovato  anacln-onism,  we  conceive  the  engraver 
to  wish  to  include  the  whole  record  of  a  great  career,  and  to  combine  at  once 
the  characteristics  of  tlie  time  of  effort  and  the  time  of  rptrospeetion.  The 
technical  quality  of  this  head  is  througiiout  peculiarly  good  :  seldom  lias  jMu-e 
line  given  as  good  a  suggestion  of  tlie  painter's  carnation  and  gray  and  silver 
and  warm  shadows.  Every  plane  of  tlie  modeling,  every  variation  of  tint  in 
a  rich  blood-chased  complexion  is  keenly  followed  by  tiie  cliange  of  line,  and 
subtly  interpreted  to  tlie  eye.  The  mere  technical  inventiveness  of  this  large 
print  is  a  lesson  to  l\w  line-engraver. 

"  Wade  Hampton,  Governor  of  South  Carolina,"  is  now  a  grand 
historic  figure  whom  the  world  admires.  Lieutenant-General  Wade  Hamp- 
ton of  the  old  Cavalry  Corps,  Army  Northern  Virginia,  won  the  admiration 
•of  all  w'ho  love  chivalric  skill  and  daring.  But  the  bold  j^et  cautious  and 
prudent  campaign  which  has  rescued  his  native  State  from  "carpet-bag" 
rule  and  plunder,  and  made  '•''Wade  Hampton  (jovernor  of  South  Carolina.,''^ 
the  idol  of  his  people,  and  the  admiration  of  the  world,  has  showai  him  pos- 
sessed of  even  nobler  traits  of  mind  and  heart  than  lie  ever  displayed  on  the 
field  of  battle,  and  has  made  the  w^orld  more  anxious  than  ever  to  see  the 
lineaments  of  his  classic  face. 

We  are  greatly  indebted  to  Walker,  Evans  &  Cogswell,  of  Cliai-loston,  S. 
C,  for  a  superb  engraving  of  this  grand  man.  The  likeness  is  a  very  admi- 
rable one,  the  execution  is  fine,  and  the  picture  one  which  we  would  be  glad 
to  see  extensively  hung  in  the  homes  of  our  people,  that  our  children  may 
study  the  features  of  this  noble  specimen  of  the  soldier,  patriot  and  states- 

A  Roster  of  General  Ed.  Johnson's  Dn^isioN,  EwcU's  corps,  had 
been  prepared  along  with  the  other  ''copy"  of  the  Army  Xorthern  Virginia 
Roster,  and  was  left  out  by  one  of  those  strange  mishaps  which  will  some- 
times occur  in  the  Ix-st  regulated  offices.  It  will  appear  at  the  end  of  the 
entire  Roster. 

The  Confederate  Roster  is  nearly  complete,  and  has  excited  conside- 
rable interest  and  attention.  'J'liat  some  errors  should  have  crept  into  it, 
and  some  omissions  have  occurred,  is  not  to  be  wondered  at.  Indeed,  no 
one  can  have  any  tolerable  conception  of  the  immense  amount  of  labor  it 
has  cost  to  dig  out  a  Roster  from  the  imperfect  records  to  be  iiad,  without  ad- 
miring the  patient  research  which  our  friend.  Colonel  Jones,  has  shown,  and 
Avondering  that  his  work  contains  so  few  errors  or  omissions. 

After  the  publication  of  the  Roster  in  its  present  form  is  completed,  it  is 
designed  to  thoroughly  revise  and  correct  it,  make  such  additions  to  it  as 
Miay  be  necessary,  and  then  publish  it  in  separate  book  form.     Meantime  the 

94  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

author  is  exceedingly  anxious  to  make  it  as  accurate  and  complete  as  possi- 
ble, and  we  would  esteem  it  a  favor  if  any  one  detecting  errors  or  omissions 
would  write  us  tlie  necessary  corrections. 

Renew  !  Renew  !  Renew  !  is  now  the  watcliword  at  this  office.  If  any 
of  our  subscribers  fail  to  receive  this  number  of  our  Papers,  and  sliould 
chance  to  see  this  paragraph  in  the  copj'"  of  some  more  fortunate  neighbor, 
let  them  know  tliat  the  trouble  probably  is  that  they  have  failed  to  pay  their 
subscj-iption  for  1877.  We  dislike  very  mucli  to  part  company  with  anj^  of 
our  subscribers,  but  we  must  adhere  to  our  terms,  whicli  are  cash  in  advance^ 

Agents  are  Wanted  to  canvass  every  city,  town,  village  and  commu- 
nity for  our  Papers,  and  to  a  reliable,  efficient  agent  we  can  pay  liberal 

But  our  agents  must  malve  us  frequent  reports  and  prompt  remittances. 
Subscribers  are  entitled  to  receive  their  Papers  just  as  soon  as  they  pay  for 
them,  and  we  cannot,  of  course,  send  them  until  the  agent  reports  the  names 
to  us. 

Contributions  to  Our  Archives  continue  to  come  in,  and  our  collec- 
tion grows  more  and  more  valuable  every  day.  Among  otliers  received  we 
acknowledge  now  the  following  : 

From  Mr.  Yates  Snowden,  of  Charleston,  S.  C.  :  "  The  Land  We  Love  '^ 
for  18G8,  and  two  numbers  for  1869;  a  number  of  war  newspapers  for '61, 
'62,  '63  and  '64 ;  a  number  of  valuable  Confederate  pamplilets. 

From  A.  Barron  Holmes,  Esq.,  of  Cliarleston,  S.  C.  :  Caldwell's  "His- 
tory of  Gregg's  (McGowan's)  South  Carolina  Brigade" ;  Holmes'  "Phosphate 
Rocks  of  Soutli  Carolina  "  ;  Report  of  the  Committee  on  tlie  Destruction  of 
Churclies  in  tlie  Diocese  of  South  Carolina  during  the  late  War,  presented 
to  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Convention,  May,  1868.  (This  report  sliows  that 
in  the  diocese  of  South  Carolina  the  enemj'^  burned  ten  churches  and  tore 
down  tlu'ee ;  tliat  eleven  parsonages  were  burned ;  that  every  church  be- 
tween tlie  Savannah  river  and  Charleston  was  injured,  some  stripped  even 
of  weatherboarding  and  flooring ;  that  almost  every  minister  in  that  region 
of  the  State  lost  home  and  library  ;  that  almost  every  church  lost  its  commu- 
nion plate — often  a  massive  and  venerable  set,  the  donation  of  an  English 
or  Colonial  ancestor, — and  that  clergy  and  parisliioners  alike  had  been  so 
robbed  and  despoiled  that  they  were  reduced  to  absolute  want.)  "The 
Record  of  Fort  Sumpter  during  the  Administration  of  Governor  Pickens," 
compiled  by  W.  A.  Harris ;  address  of  Major  Theo.  G.  Barker  at  the  anni- 
versary of  the  Washington  Artillery  Club,  February  22d,  1876  ;  Reinterment 
of  the  South  Carolina  Dead  from  Gettysburg,  address  of  Rev.  Dr.  Girardeau, 
odes,  &c.;  Oration  of  General  Wade  Hampton,  and  poem  of  Rev.  Dr.  E.  T. 
Winkler,  at  the  unveiling  of  tlie  monument  of  the  Washington  Light  In- 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  95 

fantiy  of  Charleston,  June  16th,  1870;  "South  Carolina  in  Arms,  Arts,  and 
the  Industries,"  by  John  Peyre  Thomas,  Superintendent  of  Carolina  Mili- 
tary Institute ;  Map  of  the  Siege  of  Vicksburg ;  Map  of  the  Seat  of  War  in 
Mississippi ;  "  Marginalia,  or  Gleanings  from  an  Army  Note  Book,"  by  Per- 
sonnel urmY  correspondent,  &c.,  Columbia,  S.  C,  1864;  "The  Burning  of 
Columbia,  S.  C,"  by  Dr.  D.  H.  Trezevant. 

From  J.  F.  Maijer,  Eichmond  :  Messages  of  President  Davis  for  January 
18th,  February  5th,  February  13th  and  February  14th,  1864.  Mr.  Mayer  is 
an  industrious  collector  of  Confederate  material,  and  places  us  under  fre- 
quent obligations  for  rare  and  valuable  documents. 

From  General  Carter  L.  Stevenson,  Fredericksburg,  Va  :  A  box  of  his  ' 
headquarter  papers,  which  consist  of  such  valuable  material  as  the  following: 
Keport  of  Lieutenant-General  S.  D.  Lee  of  the  operations  of  his  corps  from 
the  time  he  succeeded  General  Hood  in  the  command  to  the  arrival  of  the 
army  at  Palmetto  Station  ;  General  Lee's  report  of  Hood's  Tennessee  Cam- 
paign ;  General  Stevenson's  report  of  the  same  campaign ;  General  Steven- 
son's report  of  the  operations  of  his  division  from  tlie  beginning  of  the  Dal- 
ton- Atlanta  campaign  up  to  May  30th,  1864 ;  General  Stevenson's  report  of 
engagement  on  Powder  Sprhigs  road,  June  22d,  1864 ;  Eeports  of  General 
Stevenson,  General  Brown,  General  J.  E.  Jackson,  General  E.  C.  Walthal, 
General  E.  W.  Pettus,  and  a  number  of  regimental  and  battery  commanders 
of  the  Battle  of  Lookout  Mountain. 

A  large  number  of  general  field  orders,  field  letters,  field  notes,  returns, 
inspection  reports,  &c.,  &c.,  which  are  invaluable  material  for  a  history  of 
Stevenson's  division,  and  indeed  of  the  whole  army  with  which  this  gallant 
and  accomplished  oflicer  was  connected. 

(We  are  exceedingly  anxious  to  collect  a  full  set  of  papers  bearing  on  the 
operations  of  our  Western  armies,  and  regard  this  contribution  of  General 
Stevenson  as  a  most  valuable  addition  to  the  large  amount  of  such  material 
which  we  already  had  in  our  archives.) 

From  the  Department  of  State,  Washington  :  Foreign  relations  of  the 
United  States,  1876. 

From  General  Eaton,  Commissioner  of  Education  :  Eeport  of  education 
bureau  for  1875.     Special  Eeport  on  Libraries  in  the  United  States. 

From  Major  R.  F.  Walker,  Superintendent  Public  Printing,  Va.:  Annual 
reports  for  1875-76. 

From  Dr.  W.  H.  Ruffner,  Svperintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Va.: 
School  report  for  1876. 

From  Historical  Society  of  Montana  :  "Contributions,"  Vol.  I,  1876. 

From  Major  H.  B.  McClellan,  of  Lexington,  Kentucky  (in  addition  to  con- 
tributions acknowledged  in  our  last) :  Two  letters  of  instructions  from  Gene- 
ral E.  E.  Lee  to  General  Stuart— one  dated  August  19,  1862,  ami  the  other 
August  19, 1862,  4|P.  M.;  General  Lee's  order  of  battle  on  the  Eapidan,  August 
19,  1862 ;  General  Stuart's  report  of  October  24,  1862,  giving  roster  of  his 
cavalry  division  and  recommending  Col.  Thomas  T.  Munford  to  be  promoted 
to  rank  of  brigadier-general ;  autograph  letter  from  General  Stuart  to  Gene- 

"96  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

ral  Cooper,  dated  Xovember  11,  1862,  recommending  the  promotion  of  Major 
Pelham  to  the  rank  of  lientenant-colonel  of  artillery;  original  letter  from 
General  R.  E.  Lee  to  General  Stuart  commending  the  "gallant  conduct" 
of  Sergeant  Mickler,  of  Second  South  Carolina  cavalrj',  and  liis  party  in  the 
fight  at  Brentsville  January  9,  18G3,  and  stating  that  he  had  recommended 
their  promotion  for  "gallantry  and  skill ";  confidential  letter  (dated  April 
4,  1864),  from  General  Stuart  to  General  J.  R.  Chambliss,  commander  of  his 
outposts  on  the  Lower  Rappahannock ;  confidential  letter  of  Colonel  Charles 
Marshall  (General  Lee's  military  secretary)  to  General  Stuart  conveying  im- 
portant iiaformation  and  orders  from  General  Lee. 

From  General  I.  M.  St.  John,  last  Commissary-General :  A  report  to  Presi- 
dent Davis  of  the  closing  operations  of  the  Commissary  Department.  Letters 
from  Ex-President  Davis,  General  R.  E.  Lee  ;  GeneralJohn  C.  Breckinridge, 
Secretary  of  War ;  Colonel  Thomas  G.  "Williams,  Assistant  Commissary- 
General  ;  Major  J.  H.  Claiborne,  Commissary  Department ;  Major  B.  P. 
Noland,  Chief  Commissary  for  Virginia  ;  Hon.  Lewis  E.  Harvie,  late  presi- 
dent of  the  Richmond  and  Danville  and  Petersburg  railroads ;  and  Bishop 
T.  U.  Dudley,  late  major  and  C.  S. — all  confirming  the  statements  made  in 
General  St.  John's  report.  These  papers  have  never  been  published,  and 
are  of  great  historic  interest  and  value. 

From  Robert  W.  Christian.,  Esq.,  Richmond :  General  J.  B.  Magruder's 
report  of  his  operations  on  the  Peninsula,  and  of  the  battles  of  "Savage 
Station,"  and  "  Malvern  Hill."  Maryland's  Hope,  by  W.  Jefterson  Buchanan. 
Richmond,  1864.  Letters  of  John  Scott,  of  Fauquier,  proposing  constitutional 
reform  in  the  Confederate  Government.    Richmond,  1864. 

From  Professor  L.  M.  Blackford,  Episcopal  High-School :  A  volume  of 
Confederate  battle  reports,  including  Generals  Beauregard's  and  Johnston's 
reports  of  first  Manassas,  and  a  number  of  other  reports  of  the  first  year  of 
the  war. 

From  Major  I.  Scheibert,  of  the  Royal  Prussian  Engineers  :  The  French 
edition  of  his  work  on  the  civil  war  in  America.  We  are  awaiting  the  pi'omise 
of  a  competent  soldier  and  critic  to  give  us  a  review  of  this  able  book. 




L  lilf  PiPK, 

Vol.  III. 

Richmond,  Ta.,  March,  1877. 

No.  3. 

Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1865— Report  of  General  I.  M.  St.  John, 
Commissary  General. 

[The  following?  report  of  General  St.  John,  from  his  orignial  MS.,  with  the 
accompanying  letters,  will  form  a  necessary  supplement  to  the  papers  on  the 
"  Resources  of  the  Confederacy  "  which  we  published  last  year,  and  will  be 
found  to  be  of  great  interest  and  historic  value.  From  these  papers  it  appears 
certain  that  the  Departments  never  received  the  letter  wi-itten  by  General 
Lee  requesting  the  accumulation  of  supplies  for  his  army  at  Amelia  Court- 

Louisville,  Kentucky,  July  14th,  1S73. 
Hon.  Jefferson  Davis  : 

Sir — In  pursuance  of  your  suggestion,  I  have  the  honor  to 
report,  from,  the  best  accessible  data,  the  closing  operations  of  the 
Confederate  States  commissary  service.  As  you  are  probably  aware, 
many  of  the  more  important  papers  of  the  Subsistence  Bureau 
were  lost  during  the  Richmond  fire  and  the  subsequent  retreat.  It 
accordingly  became  essential  to  verify  in  the  most  careful  manner 
all  statements  herein  resting  simply  upon  personal  recollection. 
This  has  been  done;  and  hence  the  time  which  has  been  allowed 
to  pass  since  the  first  intimation  of  your  wishes. 

Early  in  February,  1865,  I  received  the  order  of  transfer  from 
the  direction  of  the  Nitre  and  Mining  Corps  to  that  of  the  Subsist- 
ence Bureau.  A  very  brief  inquiry  into  the  available  resources  of 
the  latter  sufficed  to  disclose  a  state  of  afiairs  calling  for  extreme 
and  indeed  exceptional  measures  to  meet  immediate  and  very 
urgent  requisitions.  The  more  remote  future  I  found  too  critically 
involved  in  the  military  operations,  then  progressing  in  Virginia 
and  the  Carolinas,  to  require  more  than  general  consideration. 
Beyond  the  most  trusted  confidential  officers  of  the  Executive  and 
the  War  Department,  few  knew  how  far  military  events  and  hostile 
pressure  had  come  to  control  the  power  of  the  Subsistence  Bureau 
to  execute  its  ordinary  duties.  I  expected  to  find  greater  embar- 
rassments in  arranging  a  prompt  and  ample  collection  of  supplies 

98  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

for  the  Southern  armies,  from  the  depreciated  currency,  the  failing 
condition  of  the  railroads  and  the  general  exhaustion  of  the  country ; 
but  difficulties  still  more  serious  lay  elswhere.  In  every  military 
department,  and  in  the  several  districts  of  supply  (which  I  ex- 
amined), after  the  fullest  allowance  for  all  local  obstacles,  and  all 
possible  official  shortcomings,  the  military  status  was  still  found  to 
be  the  real  measure  of  the  ability  of  the  Subsistence  Bureau  to 
collect  at  that  time  the  required  supplies.  Cavalry  raids,  which  at 
first  only  occasionally  cut  the  more  important  lines  of  communi- 
cation, had  penetrated  at  the  close  of  1864  into  the  interior  districts 
and  had  become  very  destructive.  Travel  and  the  movement  of 
supplies  were  in  several  important  instances  (as  officially  reported 
to  the  War  Department)  suspended  for  days  at  a  time  on  every 
leading  railroad  within  our  lines.  Upon  some  of  these  roads  com- 
munications were  only  restored  with  great  difficulty,  and  on  one 
important  trunk  line  not  at  all.  Interior  depots  of  supplies  pre- 
viously deemed  secure  against  all  risk,  were  frequently  captured 
and  destroyed.  Several  of  the  more  productive  districts  of  Virginia 
and  the  Carolinas,  which  were  relied  upon  for  certain  supply  in 
last  resort,  had  passed  permanently  into  hostile  occupation.  All 
the  remaining  districts  of  supply  (in  February'',  1865)  were  either 
directly  menaced,  or  remotely  disturbed  by  military  preparations 
and  movements  for  what  proved  to  be  our  closing  struggle. 

Under  these  depressing  circumstances,  I  found  the  army  of 
Northern  Virginia  with  difficulty  supplied  day  by  day  with  reduced 
rations.  In  the  other  military  departments,  however,  the  situation 
was  better ;  and  from  several  it  was  still  possible  to  draw  a  con- 
siderable surplus  for  the  Richmond  and  Petersburg  depots,  whenever 
transportation  could  be  procured. 

After  a  brief  survey  of  the  work  to  be  done  and  of  our  remain- 
ing resources  as  before  referred  to,  I  at  once  proceeded  to  organize 
a  system  of  appeal  and  of  private  contribution  as  auxiliary  to  the 
regular  operations  of  the  commissary  service.  With  the  earnest 
and  very  active  aid  of  leading  citizens  of  Virginia  and  North 
Carolina,  this  effort  was  attended  with  results  exceeding  expectation. 
Calls  were  made  upon  the  Quartermaster-General  in  person,  and 
the  officers  in  charge  of  the  corn  and  forage  supply  for  combined 
action ;  and  these  calls  were  met  to  the  extreme  limit  of  their 
power.  Requisitions  were  also  made  upon  the  reserve  stores  of 
the  Nitre  and  Mining  Bureau,  which  my  successor  (in  hearty  co- 
operation) arranged  to  meet  without  detriment  to  his  own  service. 

Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1865,  99 

Still  further  to  increase  receipts  of  meat  and  other  supplies  from 
beyond  the  Confederate  lines,  requisitions  for  coin  were  approved 
by  the  President  and  the  Secretary  of  War,  and  were  met  as  called 
for  by  the  Treasury  Department.  It  would  be  an  omission  not  to 
add  in  this  direct  connection  that  all  aid  and  support  possible 
under  the  circumstances  were  rendered  to  the  Commissary-General 
by  his  superior  and  associate  officers,  and  especially  by  the  old 
corps  of  his  predecessor. 

With  these  combined  agencies,  it  was  found  practicable  during 
the  ensuing  three  weeks  to  materially  improve  the  collection  of 
supplies  for  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  and  in  part  for  their 
delivery :  sufficiently  so  to  become  the  subject  of  special  note  in 
the  correspondence  of  the  General  Commanding  (General  Lee) 
with  the  War  Department,  to  which  reference  is  made  in  the  ap- 
pended letter  of  the  late  Secretary  of  War  (General  Breckinridge). 
On  or  before  March  15th,  1865,  the  Commissary-General  was  able 
to  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  that  in  addition  to  the  daily  issue 
of  rations  to  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  there  lay  in  depot 
along  the  railroad  between  Greensboro'  (North  Carolina),  Lynch- 
burg, Staunton  and  Richmond,  at  least  ten  days  rations  of  bread 
and  meat,  collected  especially  for  that  army,  and  subject  to  the 
requisition  of  its  chief  commissary  officer :  also  that  considerably 
over  300,000  rations  were  held  in  Richmond  as  a  special  reserve, 
and  that  the  Post  Commissary,  Major  J.  H.  Claiborne,  had  marked 
down  and  was  prepared  to  impress  a  still  larger  quantity  of  flour 
and  other  supplies  secretly  stored  by  hoarders  and  speculators. 

In  the  accompanying  statement  of  the  Assistant  Commissary- 
General,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas  G.  Williams  (see  appended 
papers),  it  will  be  further  observed  that  there  was  collected  by  April 
1st,  1865,  in  depot,  subsistence  stated  in  detail  as  follows : 

At  Richmond,  Virginia,  300,000  rations  bread  and  meat. 
At  Danville,  Virginia,  500,000  rations  bread. 
At  Danville,  Virginia,  1,500,000  rations  meat. 
At  Lynchburg,  Virginia,  180,000  rations  bread  and  meat. 
At  Greensboro',  North  Carolina,  and  vicinity,  1,500,000  rations 
bread  and  meat. 

In  addition,  there  were  considerable  supplies  of  tea,  coffee  and 
sugar  carefully  reserved  for  hospital  issues  chiefly.  These  returns 
did  not  include  the  subsistence  collections  by  the  field  trains  of 
the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  under  orders  from  its  own  head- 

100  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

quarters,  nor  the  depot  collections  at  Charlottesville,  Staunton  and 
other  points  upon  the  Virginia  Central  railroad  to  meet  requisitions 
from  the  Confederate  forces  operating  in  the  Valley  and  Western 
Virginia.  South  and  West  of  Greensboro'  (North  Carolina)  the 
depot  accumulations  were  reserved  first  to  meet  requisitions  for  the 
forces  operating  in  the  Carolinas,  and  the  surplus  for  Virginia 

This  collection  of  supplies  was  reported  daily,  as  it  progressed, 
to  the  Secretary  of  War.  The  Quartermaster-General  and  his  offi- 
cers were  also  officially  advised  as  occasion  required.  It  is  hardly 
necessary  to  add  that  every  possible  effort  was  made  to  secure  from 
the  Quartermaster  Department  prompt  transportation  from  the 
railroad  depots  to  the  front;  but  the  officers  of  that  Department, 
owing  to  the  rapid  deterioration  and,  in  many  cases,  the  absolute 
failure  of  the  motive  power  of  the  railroads,  were  unable  to  for- 
ward the  collected  supplies  as  fast  as  they  were  brought  into  depots. 
After  every  effort  to  move  had  been  exhausted,  the  supplies  not 
transported  were  placed  in  temporary  sub-depots  to  await  events. 

Early  in  March,  1865,  the  questions  arising  out  of  the  status  thus 
set  forth  were  carefully  considered  in  a  conference  between  the 
Secretary  of  War  (General  Breckinridge)  and  the  General  Com- 
manding (General  Lee),  to  which  the  Quartermaster-General  (Gen- 
eral Lawton)  and  the  Commissary-General  were  called.  After  a 
general  discussion  of  the  army  wants  in  clothing,  forage  and  sub- 
sistence, the  Commissary-General,  in  reply  to  the  inquiry  of  the 
General  Commanding,  stated  that  a  daily  delivery  by  cars  and  canal 
boat,  at  or  near  Richmond,  of  about  five  hundred  tons  of  commis- 
sary stores  was  essential  to  provide  for  the  Richmond  siege  reserve 
and  other  accumulations  desired  by  the  General  Commanding; 
that  the  depot  collections  were  already  sufficient  to  assure  the 
meeting  of  these  requisitions,  and  if  the  then  existing  military  lines 
could  be  held,  the  Commissary-General  felt  encouraged  as  to  the 
future  of  his  own  immediate  Department.  Upon  the  question  of 
railroad  transportation,  the  Quartermaster-General  then  stated  that 
the  rolling  stock  at  command,  and  especially  the  engines,  had  be- 
come so  much  worn  and  otherwise  deficient,  and  without  means  or 
provision  for  renewal,  that  the  daily  delivery  in  Richmond  and 
Petersburg  of  five  hundred  tons  of  commissary  stores  in  addition 
to  other  requirements  of  the  general  service  and  the  demands  of 
the  resident  population,  could  not  be  guaranteed.  He  engaged 
however,  to  make  every  possible  effort  to  secure  from  the  railroad 

Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1865.  101 

companies  the  desired  improvement  in  the  condition  of  their  roll- 
ing stock.  These  efforts  were  made;  but  at  that  late  period  of  ex- 
haustion the  situation  had  passed  all  human  power  to  amend. 

The  Commissary-General  next  submitted  the  question  of  mili- 
tary protection  of  stores  in  transit;  but  the  Commanding  General 
in  reply  dwelt  upon  the  increasing  military  pressure  upon  his 
lines  and  his  own  diminishing  forces.  No  better  protection  was  to 
be  looked  for  in  the  coming  than  in  the  last  campaign. 

From  the  date  of  this  interview  until  the  evacuation  of  Rich- 
mond, the  Bureau  effort  continued  to  be  directed  to  depot  accumu- 
lations, and  with  the  general  result  already  referred  to,  and  of  which 
the  annexed  statements  of  the  Assistant  Commissary-General  and 
of  Majors  Claiborne,  Noland  and  Dudley,  Confederate  States  Army, 
present  details. 

Upon  the  earliest  information  of  the  approaching  evacuation, 
instructions  were  asked  from  the  War  Department  and  the  General 
Commanding  for  the  final  disposition  of  the  subsistence  reserve  in 
Richmond,  then  reported  by  Major  Claiborne,  Post  Commissary,  to 
exceed  in  quantity  350,000  rations.  The  reply — Send  up  the  Dan- 
ville railroad  if  Richmond  is  not  safe — was  received  from  the  army 
headquarters  April  2d,  1865,  and  too  late  for  action,  as  all  railroad 
transportation  had  then  been  taken  up,  by  superior  orders,  for  the 
archives,  bullion  and  other  Government  service  then  deemed  of 
prior  importance.  All  that  remained  to  be  done  was  to  fill  every 
accessible  army  wagon;  and  this  was  done,  and  the  trains  were  hur- 
ried southward.  The  residue  of  the  subsistence  reserve  was  then 
distributed  among  the  citizens  of  Richmond,  partly  in  a  regular 
manner  under  the  direction  of  the  Post  Commissary,  and  thereafter, 
what  was  left,  after  the  evacuation  had  progressed  too  far  for  an 
orderly  distribution,  was  appropriated  by  the  crowd. 

It  may  be  added  that  on  March  31st,  or  possibly  the  morning  of 
April  1st,  a  telegram  was  received  at  the  Bureau  in  Richmond  from 
the  chief  commissary  officer  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia 
requesting  bread  stuffs  to  be  sent  to  Petersburg.  Shipment  was 
commenced  at  once,  and  Avas  pressed  to  the  extreme  limit  of  trans- 
portation permitted  by  the  movement  of  General  Longstreet's  corps 
(then  progressing)  southward.  No  calls  by  letter  or  requisition 
from  the  General  Commanding,  or  from  any  other  source,  official 
or  unofficial,  had  been  received,  either  by  the  Commissary-General 
or  the  Assistant  Commissary-General;  nor  (as  will  be  seen  by  the 
appended  letter  of  the  Secretary  of  War)  was  any  communication 

102  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

transmitted  through  the  Department  channels  to  the  Bureau  of 
Subsistence — for  the  collection  of  supplies  at  Amelia  Courthouse. 
Had  any  such  requisition  or  communication  been  received  at  the 
Bureau  as  late  as  the  morning  of  April  1st,  it  could  have  been  met 
from  the  Richmond  reserve,  with  transportation  on  south-bound 
trains ;  and  most  assuredly  so  previous  to  General  Longstreet's  move- 

On  the  morning  of  April  3d,  the  Commissary-General  left  Rich- 
mond with  the  Secretary  of  War,  for  the  headquarters  of  the 
General  Commanding  near  Amelia  Springs.  On  the  route  efforts 
were  made  to  press  to  the  same  point  several  trains  of  army  wagons 
with  subsistence,  part  of  which  was  captured  by  hostile  cavalry 
then  operating  immediately  in  the  rear  of  General  Lee's  army  near 
Clementon  bridge  of  the  Appomattox  river,  and  the  remainder  were 
turned  off  towards  Farmville.  The  party  of  the  Secretary  of  War 
forced  their  way  with  difficulty  through  to  Amelia  Springs,  pass- 
ings long  lines  of  army  trains  (headquarter  and  subsistence)  still 

After  personal  conference,  early  on  the  morning  of  the  6th,  with 
the  General  Commanding  (at  General  Longstreet's  quarters)  as  to 
the  disposition  of  the  remaining  supplies  at  Farmville,  the  Secretary 
of  War  with  the  Quartermaster-General,  the  Chief  of  the  Engineer 
Bureau  and  the  Commissary-General,  proceeded  to  Farmville,  the 
latter  officer  awaiting  notification  from  headquarters  whether  to 
hold  at  Farmville  or  to  send  down  the  railroad  about  80,000  rations 
there  held  on  trains  for  immediate  issue.  No  return  communication 
coming  from  the  General  Commanding  or  the  corps  commanders, 
couriers  were  repeatedly  sent  out :  but  the  military  events  of  the 
day  were  very  adverse  on  the  left.  During  that  night  and  the 
morning  of  the  7th,  the  remnants  of  the  army  passed  through 
Farmville  taking  but  a  portion  of  the  rations  there  being  issued. 
On  the  day  before,  the  Commissary-General  asked  from  the  General 
Commanding,  in  the  presence  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  instructions 
or  suggestions  as  to  placing  these  Farmville  supplies  at  the  most  con- 
venient points  of  temporary  security,  the  presence  of  the  enemy's 
cavalry  having  caused  the  supplies  of  other  depots  to  be  moved 
westward.  General  Lee  replied  in  substance  that  the  military 
eituation  did  not  permit  an  answer. 

On  the  evening  of  the  7th  the  party  of  the  Secretary  of  War 
again  met  the  subsistence  trains  on  the  railroad  at  Pamphlin's 
station,  twenty  miles  west  of  Farmville.     From  reports  of  hostile 

Resources  of  the  Confe'deracy  in  1865.  103 

movements  close  at  hand,  the  Commissary-General  suggested  that 
the  cars  be  ordered  further  west,  communicating,  if  possible,  with 
the  General  Commanding,  then  six  miles  distant  on  the  Appomattox 
road.  It  was,  however,  on  consultation  with  the  Secretary  of  War 
and  Quartermaster-General,  not  deemed  advisable,  under  the  extreme 
uncertainty  of  information,  to  give  special  orders.  The  next  morn- 
ing these  cars,  or  the  larger  portion,  were  captured,  or  burned  to 
avoid  capture.  The  surrender  followed  the  subsequent  day,  April 

From  Pamphlin's  depot,  the  Commissary-General  accompanied 
the  Secretary  of  War  to  Danville,  and  thence  to  Greensboro'  (North 
Carolina),  then  the  headquarters  of  General  Joseph  E,  Johnston. 
At  Danville  instructions  were  given  to  Colonel  T.  G.  Williams  and 
Major  S.  B.  French  (ranking  officers)  to  remain  with  Major  B.  P. 
Noland,  Chief  Commissary  Officer  in  Virginia,  and  reorganize  the 
commissary  service  in  that  State,  should  events  permit. 

The  Bureau  headquarters  were  continued  in  North  Carolina 
until  the  surrender  of  that  Military  Department. 

During  the  interval,  preparations  were  made  for  the  westward 
movement  of  forces  as  then  contemplated.  In  these  arrangements, 
the  local  depots  were  generally  found  so  full,  and  supplies  so  well 
in  hand,  from  Charlotte  southwest,  that  the  Commissary-General 
was  able  to  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  that  the  requisitions  for 
which  he  was  notified  to  prepare  could  all  be  met.  The  details  of 
this  service  were  executed,  and  very  ably,  by  Major  J.  H.  Claiborne, 
then  and  until  the  end  Assistant  Commissary-General. 

The  remaining  duties  of  the  Subsistence  Bureau  from  that  time 
until  the  final  surrender  of  the  Trans-Mississippi  Department,  con- 
sisted chiefly  in  arranging,  so  far  as  was  permitted  by  our  rapidly 
diminishing  territory  and  resources,  for  the  supply  of  returning 
troops  and  the  hospitals. 

Permit  me  in  closing  to  acknowledge  in  grateful  terms  the  very 
efficient  aid  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  T.  G.  Williams,  Assistant  Com- 
missary-General, Majors  French,  Claiborne,  Noland  and  Dudley, 
and  of  all  Commissary  officers  who  assisted  in  the  execution  of  the 
duties  indicated  in  this  report. 

Very  respectfully, 

•^  I.  M.  St.  John, 

(Late)  Commissary- General  C.  S.  A. 

104  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Louisville,  Kentucky,  1st  November,  1873. 
General  I.  M.  St.  John  : 

Dear  Sir — I  have  read  with  great  satisfaction  your  report  of 
your  administration  of  the  commissariat  of  the  Confederate  States. 
The  facts  stated  by  you,  and  by  those  connected  with  you  in  your 
official  duties  as  Commissary-General,  accord  with  my  recollections 
and  impressions,  as  well  as  with  your  oral  report  to  me  soon  after 
the  surrender  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  Had  your  ex- 
pressions been  stronger  than  they  are,  they  would  but  the  more 
fully  have  corresponded  with  the  oral  report  referred  to,  and  with 
your  statement  as  to  the  provision  made  to  supply  the  troops  under 
the  command  of  General  Johnston,  had  that  army  made  the  con- 
templated retreat. 

With  great  regard  and  a  grateful  remembrance  of  your  zeal  and 
efficiency  in  the  several  offices  held  by  you  in  the  service  of  the 


I  am  faithfully,  yours, 
(Signed)  Jefferson  Davis. 

Phoenix  Hotel, 
Lexington,  Kentucky,  May  16th,  1871. 

.  My  dear  General — My  absence  from  home  for  some  weeks  has 
caused  a  delay  in  answering  your  letter  in  relation  to  the  supplies 
for  General  Lee's  army  about  the  time  of  the  evacuation  of  Kich- 

Without  reciting  the  various  points  of  jouv  inquiries,  I  will 
answer  them  by  a  general  statement. 

I  took  charge  of  the  War  Department  on  the  5th  of  February,  1865. 
The  evacuation  of  Richmond  occurred  the  night  of  the  2d  of  April. 
When  I  arrived  at  Richmond  the  Commissary  Department,  from^ 
the  cutting  of  the  railroads  by  the  enemy's  cavalry,  and  other 
causes  not  necessary  to  mention,  was  in  a  ver}'-  deplorable  condi- 
tion. I  placed  you,  much  against  your  wishes,  at  the  head  of  the 
Department.  Your  conduct  of  it  under  all  the  disadvantages  was 
so  satisfactory  that  a  few  weeks  afterwards  I  received  a  letter  from  ' 
General  Lee,  in  which  he  said  that  his  army  had  not  been  so  weU 
supplied  for  many  months. 

A  few  days  before  the  evacution  of  Richmond  you  reported  to 
me  that  besides  supplies  accumulated  at  different  distant  points  in. 
Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  you  had  ten  days  rations  accessible- 
by  rail,  to  and  subject  to  the  orders  of  his  Chief  Commissary. 

Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1865.  105 

I  have  no  recollection  of  any  communication  from  General  Lee 
in  regard  to  the  accumulation  of  rations  at  Amelia  Courthouse.  If 
any  came  to  me,  it  was  probably  by  telegram  on  the  day  of  the 
evacuation,  when  it  was  too  late  to  comply. 

You  and  I  had  daily  interviews,  and  I  am  sure  that  all  requisi- 
tions were  promptl}''  considered  and  filled  when  possible. 

The  second  or  third  day  after  the  evacuation,  I  recollect  you  said 
to  General  Lee  in  niy  presence  that  you  had  a  large  number  of 
rations  (I  think  80,000)  at  a  convenient  point  on  the  railroad,  and 
desired  to  know  where  you  should  place  them.  The  General  re- 
plied that  the  military  situation  made  it  impossible  to  answer. 

General  Lee's  letter  to  me,  relative  to  the  improved  condition  of 
the  Commissary  Department,  is  probably  among  the  Confederate 
archives  at  Washington  city. 

I  am,  General,  respectfully  and  truly, 

(Signed)  John  C.  Breckinridge. 

General  I.  M.  St,  John,  Louisville,  Kentucky. 

Richmond,  Va.,  September,  1SG5. 
General : 

At  your  request,  I  have  the  honor  to  make  the  following 

statement,  from  the  best  data  I  could  obtain : 

On  the  1st  of  April,  1865,  the  Subsistence  Bureau  of  the  Con- 
federate States,  had  available  for  the  army  of  Northern  Virginia: 
At  Richmond,  300,000  rations  bread  and  meat;  at  Danville,  500,- 
000  rations  bread ;  at  Danville,  1,500,000  rations  meat ;  at  Lynch- 
burg, 180,000  rations  bread  and  meat;  at  Greensboro',  North 
Carolina,  and  the  vicinity  of  Danville,  there  were  in  addition  not 
less  than  1,500,000  rations  of  bread  and  meat;  there  were  also  at 
the  points  above  named  large  supplies  of  tea,  coffee  and  sugar, 
which  were  reserved  chiefly  for  issues  to  hospital. 

These  supplies  were  held  ready  for  distribution  upon  the  requi- 
sition of  the  Chief  Commissary  of  General  Lee's  army.  No  requi- 
sitions were  then  on  hand  unsupplied. 

On  the  morning  of  2d  April,  1865,  the  Chief  Commissary  of 
General  Lee's  army  was  asked  by  telegram,  what  should  be  done 
with  the  stores  in  Richmond.  No  reply  was  received  until  night; 
he  then  suggested  that  if  Richmond  was  not  safe,  they  might  be 
sent  up  on  the  Richmond  and  Danville  railroad.     As  the  evacuation 

106  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

of  Richmond  was  then  actively  progressing,  it  was  impracticable 
to  move  those  supplies. 

For  many  months  previously  the  army  wagon  trains  had  been 
employed  in  collecting  subsistence  throughout  the  country  and 
hauling  directly  to  the  army  near  Petersburg.  No  report  of  these 
collections  was  ever  made  directly  to  the  Bureau ;  so  no  estimate 
can  be  made  of  the  amount  of  stores  held  in  that  way  on  or  about 
the  1st  of  April,  1865. 

In  reply  to  your  question  with  regard  to  the  establishment  of  a 
depot  of  supplies  at  Amelia  Courthouse,  I  have  to  say  that  I  had 
no  information  of  any  such  requisition  or  demand  upon  the  Bureau. 
During  the  month  of  March,  and  up  to  the  1st  April,  1865,  the 
combined  exertions  of  our  own  officers  and  those  of  the  volunteer 
commissariat  kept  all  of  the  sub-depots  on  the  lines  of  railroad  in 
Virginia  nearly  always  full.  The  means  of  transportation  were  con- 
stantly inadequate. 

Very  respectfully, 
(Signed)  Thomas  G,  Williams, 

{Late)  Lt.-Col.  and  Act.  Asst.  Corny.- Gen.  C.  S.  Army. 

Richmond,  June  3d,  1873. 

General — Your  communication,  calling  attention  to  difference  in 
my  statement  of  number  of  rations  at  this  post  at  the  time  of  the 
€vacution  of  the  city  (400,000  rations  of  bread  and  meat)  and  that 
of  Lieutenant-Colonel  T.  G.  Williams,  Assistant  Commissary-Gen- 
eral (300,000  rations  of  bread  and  meat),  has  been  duly  considered. 
This  difference  has  evidently  been  caused  by  reports  to  the  Bureau 
prior  to  the  latest  movements  before  the  evacuation  of  the  city,  and 
I  feel  fully  assured  in  reiterating  my  statement  that  I  controlled 
the  quantity  claimed;  and  more,  that  I  had  under  my  eye  stores 
put  away  by  speculators  and  hoarders  that  could  have  been  gathered 
in  short  time,  and  had  been  permitted  to  remain  undisturbed  until 
necessity  demanded.  I  distributed  a  large  number  of  rations  on 
the  day  and  night  of  the  evacuation  to  every  demand  from  army 
sources,  to  many  of  the  citizens,  and  then,  with  the  pressure  of  the 
evacuation,  the  supplies  were  taken  possession  of  by  the  crowd. 

No  order  was  received  by  me,  and  (with  full  opportunities  of 
information  if  it  had  been  given)  I  have  no  knowledge  of  any  plan 
to  send  supplies  to  Amelia  Courthouse. 

Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1865.  107 

Under  such  circumstances,  with  transportation  afiforded,  there 
could  readily  have  been  sent  about  300,000  rations,  with  due  re- 
gard to  the  demand  upon  this  post. 

During  the  retreat,  supplies  were  found  at  Pamphlin's  depot, 
Farmville,  Danville,  Salisbury  and  Charlotte:  and  being  placed 
under  orders  as  Assistant  Commissary-General,  I  forwarded  sup- 
plies from  South  Carolina  to  General  J.  E.  Johnston's  army,  and 
also  collected  supplies  at  six  or  seven  named  points  in  that  State 
for  the  supposed  retreat  of  General  Johnston's  army  through  the 
State.  This  duty,  with  a  full  determination  at  the  evacuation  of 
this  city  to  follow  the  fortunes  of  our  cause,  gave  me  opportunity 
of  ascertaining  the  resources  of  the  country  for  my  Department. 
The  great  want  was  that  of  transportation,  and  specially  was  it  felt 
by  all  collecting  commissaries  for  a  few  months  before  the  sur- 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

(Signed)  J.  H.  Claiborne, 

(Late)  Major  and  C.  S.  C.  S.  A. 
To  General  I,  M.  St.  John, 

(Late)  Commy.  Gen.  of  Subs.  C.  S.  A. 

MiDDLEBURG,  Va.,  April  16th,  1874. 

Dear  General — My  absence  from  home  for  a  month,  and  the 
consequent  accumulation  of  business,  imposes  on  me  the  necessity 
of  making  but  a  brief  and  hurried  answer  to  your  inquiries. 

Had  I  the  time  it  would  give  me  pleasure  to  give  you,  as  desired, 
a  full  statement  of  the  organization  and  working  of  the  Subsistence 
Bureau,  and  its  condition  when  you  were  appointed  Commissary- 
General  in  February,  1865.  I  have  read  with  care  your  statement 
to  Mr.  Davis  of  the  operations  of  the  Subsistence  Bureau  during 
the  dark  and  closing  days  of  the  Confederacy,  when  you  were  the 
chief  of  that  Bureau,  and  so  far  as  I  was  cognizant  of  them,  or 
was  at  the  time  informed,  I  think  the  statement  entirely  correct. 
I  was  Chief  Commissary  of  Virginia,  with  the  rank  of  Major 
and  Commissary,  was  stationed  in  Richmond,  with  my  office 
in  the  same  building  with  that  of  the  Commissary-General,  and 
was  in  close  association  with  him.  I  think  the  plan  adopted  by 
your  predecessor.  Colonel  Northrop  (which  was  continued  by  you), 
for  obtaining  for  the  use  of  the  army  the  products  of  the  country, 
was  as  perfect  and  worked  as  effectively  as  any  that  could  have 
been  devised. 

108  Southern  Historical  Society  Pajoers. 

Each  State  had  its  chief  commissary;  was  laid  off  in  divisions, 
with  an  officer  in  each,  and  the  divisions  subdivided,  with  agents 
in  each  of  them.  All  these  officers  had  the  authority  to  impress 
supplies  ;  and  with  this  power  and  the  mone}^  which  was  furnished 
them  without  stint,  all  supplies  which  could  be  spared  from  the 
support  of  the  non-combatants  were  obtained  for  the  use  of  the 
army.  The  accumulations  at  the  supply  depots  were  regularly 
reported  by  the  subordinate  officers  to  the  Chief  Commissary  of 
the  State,  and  by  him  to  the  Commissary-General,  who,  either  by 
general  or  special  order,  directed  their  disposition. 

I  recollect  well  when  you  took  charge  of  the  Bureau,  that  our 
condition  was  almost  desperate,  not  because  our  supplies  were 
exhausted  (though  exhaustion  at  a  not  remote  future  was  looked 
to  and  seriously  apprehended),  but  because  our  transportation  from 
points  where  supplies  were  accumulated  had  almost  entirely  failed 
us.  All  the  railroads  were  in  bad  condition,  and  several  of  the 
most  imjDortant  ones  had  been  so  damaged  by  the  enemy's  cavalry 
as  to  be  unavailing  for  the  transportation  of  supplies  for  weeks  at 
a  time. 

Your  action  was  prompt,  energetic  and  efficient.  Your  appeal 
for  temporary  aid  from  private  resources  was  nobly  responded  to 
by  the  people.  The  damaged  roads  were  speedily  repaired,  and 
very  soon  we  felt,  as  I  well  recollect,  in  a  comparatively  comfort- 
able condition ;  and  thus  we  continued  until  the  evacuation  of 
Richmond.  I  have  no  means  of  stating  the  quantities  of  supplies 
on  hand  at  my  several  depots  at  or  about  that  time,  for  all  my 
official  papers  were  burned,  but  I  know  that  in  Richmond,  Dan- 
ville, Lynchburg,  Staunton,  Charlottesville,  &c.,  the  accumulations 
were  large.  I  left  Richmond  at  1  o'clock  of  the  night  Richmond 
was  evacuated,  with  orders  from  you  to  make  Lynchburg  my  head- 
quarters, and  be  ready  to  forward  supplies  from  that  point  to  the 
army.  I  never  heard  of  any  order  for  the  accumulation  of  sup- 
plies at  Amelia  Springs.  If  such  order  was  given  it  must  have 
been  after  the  evacuation  of  Richmond  was  determined  on,  and  when 
railroad  transportation  could  not  be  had ;  prior  to  that  time  such 
order  could  readily  have  been  complied  with. 

Regretting  that  I  cannot  make  a  more  full  and  satisfactory  re- 
sponse to  your  inquiries, 

I  am,  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

(Signed)  B.  P.  Noland, 

(Late)  Major  and  Chief  Commissary  for  Virginia,  C.  S.  A. 
General  I.  M.  St.  John,  {Late)  Commissary- General  C.  S.  A. 


Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1875.  109 

January  1st,  1876. 
Oeneral  I.  M.  St.  John, 

Late  Covimissary-Gencral  Confederate  States: 
Dear  Sir — I  have  read  your  report  of  July  14th,  1873,  to  Hon. 
Jeflferson  Davis,  giving  an  account  of  the  operations  of  the  Confede- 
rate States  commissary  service,  with  great  interest,  and  am  confident 
of  its  correctness  and  accuracy  in  every  essential  particular.  While 
you  filled  the  office  of  Commissary-General,  and  during  your  pre- 
decessor's administration  of  that  Department,  I  was  president  and  in 
charge  of  the  Richmond  and  Danville  railroad  and  the  Piedmont  rail- 
road, and  conversant  (except  for  a  short  interval)  with  many  mat- 
ters connected  with  the  commissariat  at  Richmond.  My  relations 
with  two  of  the  Secretaries  of  War  and  with  Colonel  Northrup,  as 
well  as  the  principal  officers  of  his  Department,  were  numerous, 
and  frequently  confidential.  I  had  ofiicial  as  well  as  personal 
relations  with  them  at  all  times,  and  their  views  and  actions  on  the 
subject  of  transportation  were  frequently  communicated  to  me. 
I  was  familiar  with  the  wants  of  the  Government,  and  when  the  • 
city  of  Richmond  was  selected  as  the  Capital  of  the  Confederacy, 
I  was  consulted  as  to  the  best  plan  for  systematising  the  transpor- 
tation over  all  the  railroad  lines  within  its  limits  ;  and  being  presi- 
dent of  the  Richmond  and  Danville  and  Piedmont  railroads,  some 
times  the  only  ones  open  to  the  city  of  Richmond,  great  responsi- 
bility was  devolved  on  me.  The  difliculties  of  obtaining  supplies 
were  very  great,  particularly  when  the  roads  under  my  charge 
were  cut  and  transportation  suspended  on  them,  which  was  the 
case  upon  one  or  two  occasions  for  several  weeks.  Engines  and 
cars  and  machinery  generally  on  these  roads  were  insuSicient  and 
inadequate  from  wear  and  tear,  to  accomplish  the  amount  of  trans- 
portation required  by  the  Government,  barely  sufficient  to  meet 
the  daily  wants.  Every  other  route  for  obtaining  supplies  outside 
of  the  State  of  Virginia  was  closed  long  before  the  surrender,  but 
after  you  entered  on  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  Commissary- 
General,  the  Richmond  and  Danville  and  Piedmont  railroads  were 
kept  open,  and  about  that  time  we  added  largely  to  its  rolling  stock, 
by  procuring  engines  and  cars  from  the  different  roads  on  the  route 
of  the  Virginia  and  Tennessee  railroad  west.  Starvation  had 
stared  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  in  the  face  ;  and  the  Com- 
missary Department  organized  an  appeal  to  the  people  on  the  line 
of  the  Ricfehmond  and  Danville  railroad  for  voluntary  contributions 
of  supplies,  and  a  number  of  gentlemen  of  influence,  character  and 

110  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

position,  including  the  most  eminent  clergymen  of  the  State,  ad- 
dressed them  in  several  counties,  urging  them  to  furnish  the  sup- 
ply wanted. 

No  one  who  witnessed  can  ever  forget  the  result.  Contribution 
was  universal,  and  supplies  of  food,  sufficient  to  meet  the  wants  of 
the  army  at  the  time,  were  at  once  sent  to  the  depots  on  the  road, 
until  they  were  packed  and  groaned  under  their  weight;  and  I 
affirm  that  at  the  time  of  the  evacuation  of  Richmond,  the  difficulty 
of  delivering  supplies  sufficient  for  the  support  of  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia  under  General  Lee  was  solved  and  surmounted* 
for  I  know  that  abundant  supplies  were  in  reach  of  transportation 
on  the  Richmond  and  Danville  railroad,  being  massed  in  Danville, 
Charlotte,  and  at  other  points;  and  from  the  increased  motive 
powei  above  referred  to,  they  could  have  been  delivered  as  fast  as 
they  were  required.  Moreover,  sufficient  means — not  in  Confede- 
rate currency,  but  in  specie — just  before  the  evacuation  of  Richmond, 
had  been  furnished  me  by  Mr.  Trenholm,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury, 
to  meet  the  exigency  and  pay  all  pressing  demands  on  the  company. 
At  the  time  of  the  evacuation  of  that  city,  there  were  ample  sup- 
plies in  it,  as  well  as  on  the  railroad  west  of  Amelia  Courthouse, 
to  have  been  delivered  at  the  latter  place  for  the  retreating  army, 
if  its  numbers  had  been  double  what  they  were.  No  orders  were 
ever  given  to  any  officers  or  employee  of  the  Richmond  and  Dan- 
ville railroad  to  transport  any  supplies  to  Amelia  Courthouse  for 
General  Lee's  arm)'',  nor  did  I  ever  hear  that  any  such  orders  were 
sent  to  the  Commissary  Department  on  the  occasion  of  the  evacua- 
tion of  Richmond,  until  after  the  surrender  of  the  army.  On 
Saturday,  the  day  before  the  evacuation  of  the  city,  I  was  officially 
informed  by  the  Quartermaster- General  (Lavvton),  by  direction  of 
President  Davis,  that  the  Government  had  no  purpose  to  evacuate 
the  city  at  that  time,  and  no  reason  to  expect  it,  and  that  I  could 
leave  Richmond  for  a  fortnight  or  more,  if  I  desired  to  do  so,  with- 
out feeling  any  apprehension  of  its  being  evacuated  in  the  mean- 
time. This  information  was  given  me  in  answer  to  a  communica- 
tion that  I  wrote  to  President  Davis  on  Friday  night,  asking  full 
information  of  the  purpose  of  the  Government,  in  order  that  I 
might  meet  the  responsibilities  of  my  position.  He  not  only 
directed  the  Secretary  of  War  to  give  me  all  the  information  pos- 
sessed by  the  War  Department,  but  to  procure  any  ^information 
that  I  might  ask  for  from  General  Lee  himself.  Being  assured 
that  there  was  no  reason  to  apprehend  an  evacuation  of  the  city,  I 

Resources  of  the  Confederacy  in  1 865.  Ill 

went  on  that  evening  to  my  home  in  Amelia,  and  returned  next 
day,  upon  being  informed  by  telegraph  of  the  proposed  evacuation. 
Neither  the  superintendent  of  the  road  nor  myself,  up  to  the  time 
that  the  trains  left  the  city,  ever  heard  of  supplies  being  wanted  at 
Amelia  Courthouse,  although  I  had  a  long  interview  with  the 
President  and  Secretary  of  War  alone  in  my  office  in  reference  to 
the  route  to  be  taken  by  the  wagon  supply  train,  and  a  still  longer 
conversation  with  the  President  on  the  cars  during  the  night  on 
his  way  to  Danville.  I  have  never  believed  that  any  orders  to 
place  supplies  of  food  at  Amelia  Courthouse  were  received  by  the 
Commissary  Department  at  the  time  of  the  evacuation  of  the  city, 
because  from  Richmond,  or  from  the  upper  portions  of  the  railroad 
if  required,  they  could  at  once  have  been  transported  without  any 
delay  or  difficulty.  Neither  the  road  nor  the  telegraph  was  cut  or 
disturbed  until  the  day  after  the  evacuation  of  the  city.  If  orders 
were  sent  to  the  Commissary  Department,  I  presume  they  were  in- 
tercepted or  otherwise  miscarried. 

Respectfully  and  truly  yours, 
(Signed)  Lewis  E.  Harvie. 

Baltimore,  Md.,  July  7, 1873, 

My  Dear  General — I  have  read  carefully  the  statement  you  have 
submitted  to  the  Hon.  Jefferson  Davis  of  the  closing  operations  of 
the  Confederate  States  Commissary  Department,  and  I  write  to  say 
that  my  recollection  of  the  events  of  that  troublous  time  entirely 
concurs  with  your  own. 

My  duties  as  assigned  by  yourself  gave  me  full  knowledge  of 
the  effort  inaugurated  at  that  time  to  avail  of  the  influence  and 
labors  of  distinguished  private  citizens,  and  I  distinctly  remember 
that  the  results  were  such  as  you  indicate.  With  the  accumula- 
tion of  supplies  at  the  general  depots  I  had  no  official  connection, 
but  I  am  quite  convinced  that  the  statements  of  yourself.  Colonel 
Williams  and  Major  Claiborne  are  entirely  accurate. 
Very  respectfully  and  truly  yours, 

(Signed)  T.  U.  Dudley,  Jr., 

(Late)  Major  and  C.  S.  C.  S.  Army. 

General  I.  M.  St.  John,  (Late)  Commissary- General  C.  S.  Army. 


112  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

General  Earl3''s  Talley  Campaigrn. 

By  General  A.  L.  Long,  Chief  of  Artillery  Second  Corps  Army  Northern  Virginia. 

[The  history  of  this  campaign  has  been  ablj''  and  fully  presented  in  Gene- 
ral Early's  "Memoirs" — a  book  that  should  be  in  the  library  of  every  one 
desiring  to  know  the  truth  concerning  General  Lee's  splendid  campaign  of 
1864 — but  we  are  glad  to  be  able  to  present  the  following  outline  from  the 
pen  of  the  accomi^lished  soldier  who  served  as  Early's  Chief  of  Artillery.] 

In  compliance  with  his  instructions,  General  Early,  on  the  13th 
of  June,  withdrew  his  corps,  consisting  of  about  eight  thousand 
infantry  and  twenty-four  pieces  of  artillery,  from  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia,  and  proceeded  towards  Staunton.  The  artil- 
lery was  subsequently  increased  to  forty  guns,  and  his  forces  were 
further  augmented  by  the  addition  of  about  fifteen  hundred  cav- 
alry and  two  thousand  infantry.  At  Charlottesville  Early  received 
intelligence  of  the  rapid  advance  of  Hunter  upon  Lynchburg  with 
a  force  of  twenty  thousand  men. 

Promptly  shifting  his  objective  point,  and  availing  himself  of 
the  Orange  and  Alexandria  railroad,  he  moved  with  such  rapidity 
that  he  reached  Lynchburg  in  time  to  rescue  it.  At  that  time  the 
only  force  at  hand  for  the  defence  of  Lynchburg  was  the  division 
of  Breckinridge,  less  than  two  thousand  strong,  and  a  few  hundred 
home  guards,  composed  of  old  men  and  boys  whose  age  exempted 
them  from  active  service.  Hunter,  finding  himself  unexpectedly 
confronted  by  Early,  relinquished  his  intended  attack  uj)on  the 
city,  and  sought  safety  in  a  rapid  night  retreat. 

The  next  day  Early  instituted  a  vigorous  pursuit,  which  contin- 
ued with  uninterrupted  pertinacity,  until  Hunter  was  overtaken  in 
the  neighborhood  of  Salem,  a  small  town  on  the  Virginia  and  Ten- 
nessee railroad,  where  he  was  defeated  and  forced  to  a  hazardous 
and  disorganizing  retreat  through  the  mountains  to  the  Ohio  river. 

Having  at  a  single  blow  liberated  the  Valley,  Early  determined 
upon  an  immediate  invasion  of  Maryland  and  a  bold  advance  on 
Washington  City.  As  his  instructions  were  discretionary,  he  was 
at  liberty  to  adopt  that  course,  which  at  the  time  was  both  in  a 
political  and  military  point  of  view  the  best  plan  of  action  that 
could  have  been  assumed. 

The  defence  of  Richmond  being  the  settled  policy  of  the  Con- 
federate Government,  General  Lee  had  on  two  occasions  assumed 

General  Earlyh  Valley  Campaign.  113 

the  offensive  in  order  to  relieve  that  place  from  the  paralyzing  in- 
fluence of  the  Federals. 

The  invasion  of  Maryland  in  1862  and  the  campaign  into  Penn- 
sylvania the  following  year  had  relieved  Richmond  of  the  presence 
of  the  enemy  for  more  than  a  year,  but  the  tide  of  war  had  again 
returned,  and  that  celebrated  city  was  gradually  yielding  to  the 
powerful  embrace  of  her  besiegers,  which  could  only  be  loosened 
by  a  strong  diversion  in  her  favor. 

This  Early  undertook  with  the  force  at  his  command,  after  the 
disposal  of  Hunter's  army.  By  uniting  with  his  own  corps  the 
division  of  Breckinridge  and  Ransom's  cavalry,  Early  found  him- 
self at  the  head  of  about  twelve  thousand  men.  Though  he  knew 
this  force  to  be  inadequate  to  the  magnitude  of  the  work  in  hand, 
nevertheless  he  determined  to  overcome  his  want  of  numbers  by 
the  rapidity  of  his  movements,  thus  hoping  to  acquire  a  momen- 
tum by  velocity  that  would  enable  him  to  overcome  that  produced 
by  the  superior  gravity  of  his  opponents. 

After  the  dispersion  of  Hunter's  forces,  one  day  in  preparation 
sufficed  Early  for  the  commencement  of  his  advance  upon  Mary- 
land. His  route  through  the  Valley  extended  over  a  distance  of 
two  hundred  miles  or  more,  but  the  road  was  good,  and  although 
the  country  had  been  laid  waste  a  short  time  before  by  Hunter, 
the  genial  season  and  fertile  soil  had  already  reproduced  abundant 
subsistence  for  the  horses  and  mules  of  the  expedition ;  but  the 
greater  part  of  the  supplies  for  the  troops  were  necessarily  drawn 
from  Lynchburg  and  Richmond.  To  prevent  delay,  therefore, 
orders  were  sent  to  these  places  directing  supplies  to  be  forwarded 
to  convenient  points  along  the  line  of  march.  Staunton  was 
reached  on  the  27th  of  June.  This  was  the  most  suitable  point  at 
which  to  supply  the  army,  and  there  Early  made  a  short  halt  to 
make  the  necessary  arrangements  to  insure  the  uninterrupted  con- 
tinuance of  his  march.  In  this  he  was  ably  assisted  by  Colonel 
Allan,  Majors  Harman,  Rogers,  Hawks,  and  other  members  of  his 
staff.  The  beautiful  Valley  of  Virginia  everywhere  gave  evidence 
of  the  ravages  of  w^ar.  Throughout  the  march  down  the  Valley 
the  unsparing  hand  of  Hunter  was  proclaimed  by  the  charred 
ruins  of  the  once  beautiful  and  happy  homes.  At  Lexington  the 
cracked  and  tottering  walls  of  the  Virginia  Military  Institute,  the 
pride  of  Virginia  and  the  Ahna  Mater  of  many  of  the  distinguished 
sons  of  the  South,  were  seen,  and  near  them  appeared  the  black- 
ened remains  of  the  private  residence  of  Governor  Letcher.  Mrs. 

114  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Letcher,  with  an  infant  hardly  a  week  old,  had  been  moved  from 
her  bed  to  witness  the  destruction  of  her  house. 

These  melancholy  scenes  are  almost  too  sad  to  relate ;  neverthe- 
less the}''  are  facts  that  must  stand  in  evidence  of  the  cruelty  with 
which  the  war  was  prosecuted  by  the  North  against  the  South. 

When  Early  reached  Winchester  he  learned  that  there  was  a 
Federal  force  at  Harper's  Ferry  and  another  at  Martinsburg,  which 
it  was  necessary  to  dislodge  before  attempting  the  passage  of  the 
Potomac ;  and  this  was  effected  by  the  4th  of  July  without  much 
opposition,  the  Federals  having  withdrawn  without  waiting  an  at- 
tack. The  way  being  now  clear,  the  passage  of  the  Potomac  was 
made  on  the  5th  at  Shepherdstown,  and  the  army  advanced  to 

Since  the  defeat  of  Hunter  the  advance  of  Early  had  been  so 
rapid  that  his  design  to  invade  Maryland  had  not  reached  the 
Federal  authorities  in  time  to  oppose  his  passage  of  the  Potomac. 
But  his  entrance  into  Maryland  being  now  known,  it  had  produced 
great  consternation  as  far  as  Baltimore  and  Washington.  The 
boldness  of  this  movement  caused  Early's  forces  to  be  greatly 
exaggerated,  and  rumor  soon  magnified  it  to  four  or  five  times  its 
real  strength. 

The  invasion  was  considered  of  such  magnitude  that  the  cities 
of  Washington  and  Baltimore  were  thought  to  be  in  such  immi- 
nent danger,  that  the  greatest  alacrity  was  instituted  in  every  di- 
rection to  collect  troops  for  the  defence  of  those  places. 

The  object  of  General  Early  being  simply  a  diversion  in  favor 
of  the  operations  about  Richmond,  he  remained  a  day  or  two  at 
Sharpsburg,  in  order  that  the  impression  created  by  his  invasion 
might  have  time  to  produce  its  full  effect  before  he  exposed  his 
weakness  by  a  further  advance.     At  this  time  all  the  troops  in  the 
vicinity  of  Washington  had  been  collected,  besides  which  a  large] 
number  of  quartermaster's  employees  had  been  improvised  as  sol- 
diers, thus  making  the  force  at  hand  exceed  twenty  thousand  men,! 
while  two  corps  from  the  army  besieging  Richmond  and  a  part  of  I 
another  corps  from  North  Carolina,  intended  to  reinforce  that  army,  [ 
had  been  detached  and  put  in  rapid  motion  for  the  defence  of  the! 

In  the  face  of  these  odds  Early  continued  his  advance  into  Ma- 
ryland. At  Frederick  he  found  General  Wallace,  with  about  ten 
thousand  men,  in  position  to  oppose  the  passage  of  the  Monocacy. 
Immediate  preparations  were  made  to  dislodge  Wallace  and  effect 

General  Early'' s  Valley  Cam'paign.  115 

a  crossing  of  that  stream.  Rodes  was  thrown  forward  on  the  Bal- 
timore and  Ramseur  on  the  Washington  City  road,  while  Gordon 
and  Breckinridge,  with  a  portion  of  Ransom's  cavalry  inclining  to 
the  right,  moved  to  the  fords  a  mile  or  two  below  the  railroad 
bridge.  At  the  same  time  the  heights  contiguous  to  the  river  were 
crowned  by  Long's  artillery  (consisting  of  the  guns  of  Xelson, 
Braxton,  King  and  McLaughlin),  to  cover  the  movement  of  the 
other  troops. 

When  the  troops  had  gained  their  position,  the  crossing  at  the 
lower  fords  was  promptly  accomplished,  and  Breckinridge  and 
Gordon,  quickly  forming  their  line  of  battle,  advanced  rapidly  up 
the  stream  toward  the  Federal  position,  and,  after  a  short  but  spir- 
ited conflict,  defeated  Wallace,  whose  army  soon  fell  into  a  panic 
and  fled  in  wild  confusion,  spreading  dismay  for  miles  in  every 
direction  by  the  terrible  accounts  they  gave  of  the  tremendous 
force  Early  vv^as  leading  through  the  country.  The  route  being 
now  open,  Early  proceeded  by  rapid  marches  to  within  cannon- 
shot  of  the  walls  of  Washington.  Since  his  entrance  into  Mary- 
land his  force  had  been  exaggerated  by  the  inhabitants  and  the 
soldiery  he  had  met,  until  in  their  terrified  imagination  it  was 
magnified  to  thirty  or  forty  thousand  men. 

On  his  arrival  before  the  Federal  Capital,  the  exaggerated  rumor 
of  his  strength  having  preceded  him,  its  occupants  were  variously 
affected.  The  Federal  authorities  and  all  of  their  adherents  Avere 
in  a  state  of  consternation,  while  the  Southern  sympathizers  w-ere 
full  of  exultation — for  at  the  time  it  was  thought  by  many  he  would 
take  the  city.  Had  he  had  twenty  or  thirty  thousand  men  he  would 
have  done  so,  with  a  prospect  of  holding  it,  and  giving  a  new  turn  to 
subsequent  military  operations.  But  Early  was  too  prudent  and 
sagacious  to  attempt  an  enterprise  with  a  force  of  eight  thousand 
men  which,  if  successful,  could  only  be  of  temporary  benefit.  He 
was  therefore  content  to  remain  in  observation  long  enough  to 
give  his  movement  full  time  to  produce  its  greatest  effect,  and  then 
withdrew  in  the  face  of  a  large  army  and  recrossed  the  Potomac 
without  molestation. 

This  campaign  is  remarkable  for  having  accomplished  more  in 
proportion  to  the  force  employed,  and  for  having  given  less  public 
satisfaction,  than  any  other  campaign  of  the  war.  The  want  of 
appreciation  of  it  is  entirely  due  to  the  erroneous  opinion  that  the 
City  of  Washington  should  have  been  taken;  but  this  may  be 

116  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

passed  over  as  one  of  the  absurdities  of  public  criticism  on  the 
•conduct  of  the  war. 

By  glancing  at  the  operations  of  Early  from  the  13th  of  June  to 
the  last  of  July,  it  will  be  seen  that  in  less  than  two  months  he 
had  marched  more  than  four  hundred  miles,  and  with  a  force  not 
exceeding  twelve  thousand  men,  had  not  only  defeated  but  entirely 
dispersed  two  Federal  armies  of  an  aggregate  strength  of  more 
than  double  his  own ;  had  invaded  Maryland,  and  by  his  bold  and 
rapid  movement  upon  Washington,  had  created  an  important  di- 
version in  favor  of  General  Lee  in  the  defence  of  Richmond,  and 
had  re-entered  Virginia  with  a  loss  of  less  than  three  thousand 
men.  After  remaining  a  short  time  in  the  neighborhood  of  Lees- 
burg,  he  returned  to  the  Valley  by  way  of  Snicker's  Gap,  and 
about  the  17th  of  July  occupied  the  neighborhood  of  Berryville. 

Early  had  no  sooner  established  himself  at  Berryville,  than  a 
considerable  force  of  the  enemy  appeared  on  the  Shenandoah,  near 
Castleman's  Ferry,  and  partially  effected  a  crossing,  but  were 
promptly  driven  back  with  heavy  loss,  after  which  they  retired  to 
the  neighborhood  of  Harper's  Ferry. 

About  the  same  time  a  large  force  under  General  Averill  was 
reported  to  be  advancing  from  Martinsburg  to  Winchester.  Being 
unwilling  to  receive  an  attack  in  an  unfavorable  position,  Early 
sent  Ramseur,  with  a  division  and  two  batteries  of  artillery,  to 
Winchester,  to  retard  Averill,  while  he  withdrew  with  the  main 
body  of  the  army  and  supply  trains  by  way  of  White  Post  and 
Newtown  to  Strasburg. 

Ramseur,  having  encountered  the  enemy  a  few  miles  east  of 
Winchester,  was  defeated,  with  a  loss  of  four  pieces  of  artillery,  and 
forced  to  retire  to  Newtown,  where  he  rejoined  Early. 

Averill,  being  arrested  in  his  pursuit  of  Ramseur  near  Newtown, 
fell  back  to  Kernstown,  where  he  was  soon  joined  by  General 
Crook,  with  the  forces  from  Harper's  Ferry. 

From  Newtown,  Early  continued  his  march  to  Strasburg  without 
interrruption.  On  the  23d  he  was  informed  of  the  junction  of 
Crook  and  Averill,  and  of  their  occupation  of  Kernstown ;  there- 
upon, it  was  determined  to  attack  them  without  delay.  The 
security  of  the  trains  having  been  properly  provided  for,  the  army 
was  put  in  motion  early  on  the  morning  of  the  24th  towards  the 

About  noon  a  position  was  gained  from  which  it  was  observed 
that  the  enemy  was  in  possession  of  the  identical. ground  which 


General  Earhfs  Valley  Campaign.  117 

had  been  occupied  by  Shields  when  encountered  by  Stonewall 
Jackson  in  March,  1862.  The  memory  of  that  battle  evidently 
did  much  to  inspire  the  troops  to  deeds  of  valor  in  the  approaching 

Early  quickly  made  his  disposition  for  battle.  The  divisions  of 
Breckinridge  and  Rodes  were  thrown  to  the  right  of  the  turnpike, 
and  those  of  Ramseur  and  Gordon  were  deployed  to  its  left,  the 
artillery  being  disposed  of  so  as  to  cover  the  advance  of  the  in- 
fantry, while  the  cavalry  received  instructions  to  close  behind  the 
enemy  as  soon  as  defeated. 

Perceiving  that  the  left  flank  of  the  enemy  was  exposed,  Breck- 
inridge, under  cover  of  a  wooded  hill,  gained  a  position  from  which 
he  bore  down  upon  it,  and  in  gallant  style  doubled  it  upon  the 
centre.  This  success  was  so  vigorously  followed  up  by  the  other 
troops,  that  the  Federals  gave  way  at  all  points,  and  were  soon  in 
rapid  retreat,  which  was  accelerated  by  a  vigorous  pursuit.  In  this 
battle  the  losses  on  the  part  of  the  Confederates  were  insignificant, 
while  those  of  the  Federals  in  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners  were 
considerable.  While  on  the  retreat  a  large  number  of  their  wagons 
and  a  considerable  quantity  of  their  stores  were  destroyed  to 
prevent  capture. 

Finding  that  the  enemy  had  again  sought  safety  behind  his  de- 
fences, Early  determined  to  re-enter  Maryland,  for  the  double  pur- 
pose of  covering  a  retaliatory  expedition  into  Pennsylvania,  and 
to  keep  alive  the  diversion  which  had  already  been  made  in  favor 
of  the  defence  of  Richmond.  Therefore,  about  the  6th  August,  he 
crossed  the  Potomac  in  two  columns — the  one  at  Williamsport,  and 
the  other  at  Shepherdstown — and  took  a  position  between  Sharps- 
burg  and  Hagerstown. 

This  occupation  of  Maryland  was  destined  to  be  of  short  duration, 
for  since  Early's  audacity  had  caused  his  strength  to  be  so  greatly 
magnified,  and  the  importance  of  his  operations  so  exaggerated, 
Grant  had  considered  it  necessary  to  largely  increase  the  Army  of 
the  Shenandoah,  and  to  supersede  Hunter,  whose  incapacity  had 
long  been  obvious,  by  Phil.  Sheridan,  one  of  the  most  energetic  and 
unscrupulous  of  his  Lieutenants.  Being  aWare  of  the  great  increase 
of  force  prepared  to  be  brought  against  him.  Early  recrossed  the 
Potomac  and  returned  up  the  Valley,  being  slowly  followed  by 
Sheridan,  who  had  now  taken  command  of  the  Middle  Depart- 

On  reaching  Fisher's  Hill,  a  position  three  miles  west  of  Stras- 


118  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

burg,  Early  halted  and  offered  battle,  which  Sheridan  made  a  show 
of  accepting  until  the  morning  of  the  17th,  when  he  was  discovered 
to  be  retreating  towards  Winchester.  He  was  immediately  pursued 
by  Early,  and  being  overtaken  near  Kernstown,  a  spirited  skirmish 
ensued  while  he  continued  to  retire.  Night  coming  on  the  com- 
batants separated.  Early  bivouacking  in  the  neighborhood  of  Win- 
chester, while  Sheridan  crossed  the  Opequon. 

About  this  time  Lieutenant-General  Anderson  joined  Early  with 
one  division  of  infantry  and  a  division  of  cavalry,  thus  increasing 
his  force  to  about  twelve  thousand  men,  while  that  of  Sheridan 
exceeded  forty  thousand.  Notwithstanding  the  great  disparity  of 
numbers,  the  campaign  was  characterized  by  a  series  of  skilful 
movements  and  brilliant  skirmishes,  which  resulted  on  the  19th  of 
September  in  the  battle  of  Winchester,  which  had  doubtless  been 
hastened  to  a  conclusion  by  the  departure  of  Anderson  from  the 
Valley  on  the  loth  with  Kershaw's  division  for  Richmond.  Anderson 
had  no  sooner  turned  his  back  on  the  mountains,  than  Sheridan 
threw  his  whole  force  against  Early  at  Winchester  and  defeated 
him,  not  so  much  by  force  of  numbers,  as  by  one  of  those  chances 
of  war  which  sometimes  beset  the  ablest  commander ;  for  after 
having  gallantly  contested  the  field,  and  firmly  maintained  their 
position  until  near  the  close  of  the  day,  a  portion  of  his  troops  was 
seized  with  a  panic,  which  rapidly  spread  until  the  greater  part  of 
the  infantry  and  cavalry  fell  into  confusion,  and  troops  who  had 
never  before  turned  their  backs  upon  the  enemy  retired  in  disorder 
from  the  field.  The  artillery  alone  remained  firm,  and  covered  with 
distinguished  gallantry  the  retreat  of  the  other  troops,  until  a  place 
of  safety  was  gained  and  order  restored,  and  then  retired  fighting, 
step  by  step,  until  it  extricated  itself  from  overwhelming  numbers, 
leaving  heaps  of  dead  to  testify  to  its  matchless  conduct  and  power. 
Sheridan's  forces  were  so  shattered  that  he  could  not  immediately 
avail  himself  of  the  success  he  had  gained,  and  Early  was  permitted 
an  uninterrupted  retreat  to  Fisher's  Hill. 

Notwithstanding  his  force  had  been  considerably  weakened  by 
its  late  disaster.  Early  determined  to  maintain  his  position  on 
Fisher's  Hill.  He  could  not  realize  that  every  man  was  not  as 
stout-hearted  as  himself,  nor  that  the  troops  he  had  so  often  led  to 
victory  were  not  invincible;  and, besides  h^s  reluctance  to  abandon 
the  rich  and  beautiful  Valley,  there  were  other  and  stronger  rea- 
sons for  his  decision.  It  was  evident  that,  if  left  unopposed  in  the 
Valley,  Sheridan  would  immediately  concert  a  plan  of  co-operation 

General  Early'' s  Valley  Campaign.  119 

with  Grant,  either  by  advancing  directly  upon  Richmond  or  by 
operating  on  its  lines  of  communication  with  a  powerful  cavalry 
until  a  junction  was  formed  with  him  below  Petersburg;  in  which 
case  the  important  diversion  in  favor  of  Lee  would  have  come  to 
naught.  Therefore  the  object  of  detaining  Sheridan  with  his  for- 
midable force  in  the  Valley  sufficiently  warranted  Earl}',  on  the 
soundest  military  principles,  in  his  determination  to  oppose  him 
at  all  hazard. 

The  defiant  attitude  assumed  by  him  was  the  most  effective  he 
could  have  adopted  for  accomplishing  his  object,  and  it  created  a 
deception  as  to  his  strength  that  made  his  opponent  cautious, 
but  which  was  quickly  dissipated  by  a  collision.  His  force  at 
this  time  was  less  than  seven  thousand  men,  while  that  of  Sheri- 
dan was  greater  by  at  least  four  to  one. 

Sheridan's  forces  having  sufficiently  recovered  from  the  effect  of 
the  battle,  pursued  Early,  and  on  the  22d  attacked  him  in  his  po- 
sition on  Fisher's  Hill.  The  thin  Confederate  ranks  could  offer 
but  feeble  resistance  to  the  overwhelming  force  brought  against 
them,  and  the  conflict  was  consequently  of  short  duration ;  and, 
owing  to  the  extent  and  difficulty  of  the  position,  the  Confederates 
sustained  considerable  loss  before  they  could  extricate  themselves. 

Early  then  retired  up  the  Valley  to  a  position  above  Harrison- 
burg, while  Sheridan  pursued  as  far  as  New  Market.  Both  armies 
then  remained  inactive  for  some  days,  in  order  to  rest  and  reorgan- 
ize their  forces. 

About  the  first  of  October,  Sheridan  retraced  his  steps  down  the 
Valley  to  the  neighborhood  of  Middletown,  where  he  took  up  a 
position  on  an  elevated  plateau  behind  Cedar  creek.  Early,  per- 
ceiving that  his  adversary  had  retired,  pursued  him  to  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Strasburg,  where  he  took  up  a  position  from  which 
he  might  be  able  to  attack  with  advantage.  Sheridan  had  unwit- 
tingly assumed  a  position  that  gave  his  adversary  admirable  ad- 
vantages and  opportunity  to  execute  a  surprise. 

Early  entrusted  a  considerable  force  to  General  Gordon  for  that 
purpose.  Having  made  himself  fimiiliar  with  the  work  in  hand, 
Gordon,  on  the  night  of  18th  October,  proceeded  to  its  execution. 
Crossing  Cedar  creek  sufficiently  below  the  Federal  pickets  to 
avoid  observation,  he  cautiously  proceeded  in  the  direction  of  the 
Federal  encampments  without  accident  or  discovery.  A  favorable 
point  for  the  accomplishment  of  his  plans  was  gained  just  before 
daybreak  on  the  19th.     The  camp  was  reached,  and  in  the  midst 

120  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

of  quiet  sleep  and  peaceful  dreams  the  war-cry  and  the  ringing 
peels  of  musketry  arose  to  wake  the  slumbering  warriors  and  call 
them  affrighted  to  their  arms.  The  drums  and  bugles  loudly 
summoned  the  soldier  to  his  colors,  but  alas !  there  was  no  ear  for 
those  familiar  sounds !  The  crack  of  the  rifle  and  the  shouts  of 
battle  were  upon  the  breeze,  and  no  other  sounds  were  heeded  by 
the  flying  multitude. 

Gordon's  surprise  had  been  complete,  and  when  the  dawn  ap- 
peared long  lines  of  fugitives  were  seen  rushing  madly  towards 
Winchester.  Such  a  rout  had  not  been  seen  since  the  famous 
battle  of  Bull  Pam. 

The  Federals  left  artillery,  baggage,  small  arms,  camp  equippage, 
clothing,  knapsacks,  haversacks,  canteens,  in  fact  everything,  in 
their  panic.  The  whole  camp  was  filled  with  valuable  booty, 
which  in  the  end  proved  a  dangerous  temptation  to  the  Confede- 
rates— many  of  whom,  instead  of  following  up  their  brilliant  suc- 
cess, left  their  ranks  for  plunder. 

If  an  apology  for  such  conduct  were  ever  admissible,' it  was  so 
on  this  occasion — the  troops  having  been  so  long  unaccustomed  to 
the  commonest  comfort  while  making  long  and  fatiguing  marches 
and  battling  against  large  odds,  and  being  now  broken  down, 
ragged  and  hungry,  they  would  have  been  superhuman  had  they 
resisted  the  tempting  stores  that  lay  scattered  on  every  hand.  Our 
censure  of  this  conduct  must  be  mingled  with  compassion,  when 
we  remember  that  instances  arise  when  the  demand  of  nature  is 

The  Federals  finding  that  they  were  not  pursued  when  they 
reached  the  neighborhood  of  Middletown,  their  spirits  began  to 
revive,  and  the  habit  of  discipline  and  order  assumed  its  sway, 
and  the  shapeless  mass  of  the  morning  regained  the  appearance  of 
an  army. 

Sheridan,  having  been  absent,  met  his  fugitive  army  a  little  be- 
low Newtown.  Order  having  been  restored,  he  reforEied  his  troops, 
and,  facing  them  about,  returned  to  the  scene  of  their  late  disaster. 
The  Confederates  being  unprepared  for  an  attack,  were  quickly 
defeated  and  forced  to  retire  to  Fisher's  Hill;  from  thereto  New 
Market,  where  Early  maintained  a  bold  front  for  several  weeks. 
By  this  return  of  fortune  Sheridan  not  only  recovered  all  that  had 
been  lost  in  the  morning,  but  acquired  considerable  captures  from 
the  Confederates. 

The  Confederates  then  retired  to  the  neighborhood  of  Staunton 

General  Earhfs  Valley  Campaign.  121 

and  further  operations  were  suspended  on  account  of  the  inclem- 
ency of  the  season. 

Sheridan  then  occupied  the  lower  Valley,  where  he  employed 
himself  in  completing  the  work  of  destruction  so  bravely  begun 
by  Hunter,  in  which  he  seemed  to  vie  with  Alaric.  His  work  of 
devastation  was  so  complete  that  he  exultingly  reported  to  his  supe- 
perior  that  a  "crow  in  traversing  the  Valley  would  be  obliged  to  carry 
his  rations."  Before  the  spring  was  open,  Sheridan  was  in  motion 
with  a  cavalry  or  rather  mounted  infantry  force  nine  thousand  strong, 
his  objective  point  being  Staunton.  The  force  of  Early,  having 
been  greatly  reduced,  was  entirely  inadequate  for  an  effective  re- 
sistance. Staunton  was  therefore  evacuated,  and  Early  retired  to 
Waynesboro'.  His  entire  force  now  only  consisted  of  Wharton's 
division  of  infantry,  six  pieces  of  artillery  and  a  small  body  of 
cavalry,  making  in  all  about  eighteen  hundred  men.  With  this 
force  he  took  a  position  to  protect  an  important  railroad  bridge 
over  the  south  branch  of  the  Shenandoah,  and  at  the  same  time  to 
cover  Rockfish  Gap,  a  pass  connecting  the  Valley  with  Eastern 
Virginia.  This  pass  was  doubly  important,  as  it  gave  a  passage 
both  to  the  Charlottesville  turnpike  and  Central  railroad. 

As  Sheridan  was  without  artillery,  and  the  ground  being  unfit 
for  the  operation  of  cavalry,  Early  could  have  easily  maintained 
his  position  with  reliable  troops ;  but,  contrary  to  his  belief,  there 
was  considerable  disaffection  in  Wharton's  division.  Therefore, 
without  his  knowledge  his  little  army  harbored  the  elements  of 
defeat,  for  at  the  first  show  of  an  attack  the  malcontents  threw 
down  their  arms,  and,  almost  without  opposition,  Sheridan  carried 
the  position,  compelling  Early  with  his  faithful  few  to  seek  safety 
in  retreat.  A  number  of  these,  however,  were  captured  before  they 
could  make  their  escape. 

Sheridan,  having  now  removed  all  opposition,  passed  through 
Rockfish  Gap  into  Eastern  Virginia,  traversed  the  interior  of  the 
State,  and  formed  a  junction  with  Grant  almost  without  interrup- 

On  reaching  Gordonsville,  Early  collected  a  handful  of  men  and 
threw  himself  upon  the  flank  and  rear  of  Sheridan,  but  his  force 
was  too  small  to  make  any  impression.  He  was  only  induced  to 
make  this  effort  by  his  extreme  reluctance  to  witness  an  unop- 
posed march  of  an  enemy  through  his  country. 

It  has  been  said  that  Early,  at  the  head  of  his  faitliful  band, 
hovering  like  an  eagle  about  the  columns  of  Sheridan,  displayed 

122  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

more  heroic  valor  than  when  at  the  head  of  his  victorious  army  in 

Among  some  of  those  whom  superior  rank  has  not  brought  into 
special  notice  are  Colonels  Carter  (Acting  Chief  of  Artillery), 
Nelson,  King  and  Braxton ;  Majors  Kirkpatrick  and  McLaughlin, 
of  the  artillery,  distinguished  at  Winchester;  Captains  Massey, 
killed,  and  Carpenter,  wounded ;  Colonel  Pendleton,  Adjutant- 
General  of  Early's  corps,  killed  at  Fisher's  Hill  while  gallantly 
rallying  the  fugitives ;  Colonel  Samuel  Moore,  Inspector-General 
of  Early's  corps ;  Colonel  Green  Peyton,  Adjutant-General  Rodes' 
division  ;  Captain  Lewis  Randolph,  of  Rodes'  staff;  Colonel  R.  W. 
Hunter,  Adjutant-General  Gordon's  division;  Colonel  Carr,  In- 
spector-General Breckinridge's  division,  captured  near  Cross  Keys, 
Valley  of  Virginia ;  Major  Brethard,  artillery ;  Major  S.  V.  South- 
all,  Adjutant-General  of  Artillery,  wounded  at  Monocacy;  Captain 
Percy,  Inspector  of  Artillery  ;  Major  Moorman,  of  artillery ;  Lieu- 
tenant Long,  Engineer  Corps,  killed  at  Cedar  creek  while  rallying 
fugitives ;  Lieutenant  Hobson,  of  artillery,  killed  at  Monocacy ; 
Dr.  McGuire,  Medical  Director  of  Early's  corps;  Dr.  Strath,  Chief 
Surgeon  of  Artillery;  Major  Turner,  Chief  Quartermaster  of  Artil- 
lery; Major  Armstrong,  Chief  Commissary  of  Artillery.  Besides 
these  there  are  many  others,  whose  names  are  not  in  my  posses- 
sion, worthy  of  the  highest  distinction. 

In  operations  of  the  character  above  described  long  lists  of 
casualties  may  naturally  be  expected,  in  which  the  names  of  the 
bravest,  noblest  and  truest  are  sure  to  be  found.  While  it  is  im- 
possible for  me  to  make  separate  mention  of  these,  memory  dic- 
tates the  names  of  Rodes  and  Ramseur.  From  Richmond  to  the 
memorable  campaign  of  the  Wilderness  they  bore  a  conspicuous 
part,  and  their  names  rose  high  on  the  roll  of  fome.  Rodes  fell  in 
the  battle  of  Winchester,  at  the  head  of  his  splendid  division,  and 
Ramseur  was  mortally  wounded  at  Cedar  creek  in  his  heroic  at- 
tempt to  retrieve  the  fortune  of  the  day.  Their  fall  was  a  noble 
sacrifice  to  the  cause  for  which  they  fought,  and  their  memory  will 
ever  remain  green  in  the  hearts  of  their  countrymen. 

A.  L.  Long. 


■  Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  123 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park,  Twelfth  Alabama  Reg-iiiient. 

[Continued  from  February  Number.] 

March  7th  to  12th^  1865 — A  number  of  prisoners,  mainly  from 
the  privates'  pen,  have  signified  a  wilhngness  to  take  the  hated  oath 
of  allegiance,  and  are  now  kept  in  separate  barracks,  clothed  in 
blue  suits  and  given  better  rations.  The}'-  are  called  ''Galvanized" 
men,  and  sometimes  "  Company  Q."  These  weak  and  cowardly 
men  are  willing  to  betray  their  own  country  and  people,  and  swear 
to  support  a  government  which  they  can  but  detest.  Such  men 
could  not  have  been  of  any  real  value  to  the  South,  but  rather 
skulking  nuisances,  and  they  are  to  be  pitied  as  well  as  despised. 
They  are  either  ignorant  and  deluded,  or  actuated  by  self-interest 
or  want  of  principle.  They  regard  their  personal  comfort  and  safety 
more  than  the  good  of  their  relatives  and  friends  and  their  native 
land.  Many  prisoners  seem  to  have  thrown  aside  all  modesty.  We 
have  to  wash  our  hands,  faces  and  feet  in  the  sluggish  ditch-water 
which  runs  through  the  campus,  and  a  good  many  strip  to  their 
waists  and  bathe  themselves,  utterly  regardless  of  the  presence  of 
hundreds  of  fellow  prisoners  passing  constantly  near  them.  The 
water  is  brackish  and  covered  with  green  scum.  Men  stand  in  a 
row  along  the  banks,  and  all  wash  at  one  time.  The  dirty  off- 
scouring  from  each  man  flows  to  his  neighbor,  and  is  used  again. 
Some  throw  back  the  water  with  their  hands  and  seek  a  cleaner 
supply.     The  whole  scene  is  sickening. 

Beer,  made  of  fermented  corn  meal  and  cheap  or  mean  molasses, 
and  weak  lemonade  are  sold  at  various  stands,  made  of  boxes,  in 
the  pen,  and  are  bought  by  those  able  to  do  so.  I  doubt  their 
cleanliness,  and  have  touched  but  few  glasses.  Want  of  proper 
medicine  and  attention,  combined  with  boiled  fresh  beef  and  thin, 
watery  soup,  keep  many  ill  with  constant  diarrhoea.  There  are  no 
night- vessels,  and  at  all  times  of  these  cold,  wintry  nights  officers 
are  forced  to  go  to  the  rear,  several  hundred  feet  distant.  Fresh 
boiled  beef,  without  vegetables,  seems  to  cause  and  aggravate  the 
very  prevalent  disease.  The  Yankee  surgeons  know  it,  but  order 
no  change  of  diet.  Such  meanness  is  despicable  in  its  littleness 
and  barbarity.  It  is  known  that  Ahl  and  Wolfe  have  spies  among 
the  prisoners,  who  mingle  freely  with  them,  seek  their  confidence 
and  then  basely  betray  them.  They  listen  to  and  watch  every 
one,  and  promptly  act  the  ignoble  parts  of  eavesdroppers  and  tale- 

124  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

bearers.  Think  of  a  Government  that  will  thus  establish  a  cunning 
and  cruel  system  of  espionage  over  helpless  victims,  writhing  under 
their  strong,  relentless  grasp  !  Surely  the  Confederate  War  Secre- 
tary would  not  descend  to  such  a  small  business  as  Secretary 
Stanton  does !  Sentinels  walk  on  the  parapet  above  the  lofty- 
fence  which  separates  the  pens  of  the  officers  and  privates,  and 
can  watch  both  pens  from  their  elevated  positions.  But  despite 
their  vigilance  notes  are  frequently  thrown  over  the  parapet,  and 
communication  is  thus  kept  up  across  the  intervening  barrier. 
These  notes  are  tied  to  a  small  rock,  or  piece  of  coal,  and  some- 
times a  prisoner  is  struck  on  the  face  or  person,  causing  some  in- 
jury or  hurt ;  but  no  one  gets  angry  at  the  unintentional  blow,  and 
the  note  is  promptly  delivered  to  the  party  addressed.  The  notes 
from  the  privates  abound  in  complaints  against  SchcepfF,  Ahl, 
Wolfe  and  their  guards,  and  of  great  scarcity  of  rations.  Their 
treatment  must  be  hard  and  cruel. 

March  \?>th  to  15th — About  100  officers  and  1,000  men  have  been 
sent  off  for  exchange,  and  500  officers  arrived  from  Fort  Pulaski, 
near  Savannah,  and  Hilton  Head,  South  Carolina.  These  sickly, 
limping,  miserable  looking  men  were  chosen  from  the  prisoners 
last  August  to  be  sent  to  Sullivan's  Island  near  Charleston,  and 
placed  under  fire  of  the  Confederate  batteries,  in  retaliation,  it  was 
said,  for  the  placing  of  Federal  prisoners  in  the  city  under  the  fire 
of  the  Yankee  batteries.  The  Yankees  had  been  shelling  the  city, 
killing  women  and  children,  and  the  Confederate  General,  to  put  a 
stop  to  such  brutalit}^,  threatened  to  expose  his  prisoners  to  the  tire 
if  it  were  not  discontinued.  At  first,  in  May,  fifty  officers  were 
chosen  by  lot  and  sent  to  Charleston,  but  finding  General  Beauregard 
had  not  put  his  threat  into  execution,  they  were  exchanged.  Then? 
in  August,  600  more  were  sent,  and  subjected  to  the  harshest  treat- 
ment, exposed  in  the  sickly,  malarial  season  to  the  severest  hard- 
ships. For  forty-three  days  they  lived  on  ten  ounces  of  meal  and 
four  ounces  of  pickles  per  day.  Not  a  vegetable  nor  a  pound  of 
meat  was  issued  to  them,  and  consequentl}'-  that  depressing  and 
dreaded  disease  (scurvy)  became  general  among  them.  Their  lean, 
emaciated  persons  were  covered  with  livid  spots  of  various  sizes, 
occasioned  by  effusion  of  blood  under  the  cuticle.  They  looked 
pale,  languid  and  low  spirited,  and  suffered  from  general  exhaustion, 
pains  in  the  limbs,  spongy  and  bleeding  gums.  All  this  was  caused 
by  their  rigid  confinement  and  want  of  nourishing  food.  They 
were  not  given  food  sufficient  to  supply  the  elements  necessary  to 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  125 

repair  the  natural  waste  of  the  system.  Nearly  one  out  of  every 
six  died  from  this  inhuman  treatment,  and  on  their  arrival  at  Fort 
Delaware,  for  the  second  time,  over  one  hundred  out  of  five 
hundred  were  sent  to  the  hospital.  The  feet  and  legs  of  many 
were  so  drawn  by  the  fearful  disease  as  to  compel  them  to  walk  on 
their  toes,  their  heels  being  unable  to  touch  the  ground,  and  they 
used  either  sticks  in  each  hand,  or  a  rude  crutch,  sometimes  two  of 
them,  to  aid  them  in  hobbling  along.  Several,  unable  to  walk  at 
all,  were  carried  on  stretchers  to  the  hospital.  Our  hard  fare  and 
rough  treatment  at  Fort  Delaware  has  been  princely  compared 
Avith  that  inflicted  upon  these  scurvy-afflicted  Fort  Pulaski  sufferers. 
Captain  Thomas  W.  Harris,  a  Methodist  minister,  of  the  Twelfth 
Georgia  infantry  ;  Lieutenant  W.  H.  Chew,  of  Seventh  Georgia 
cavalry — both  old  collegemates  of  mine;  Captain  A.  C.  Gibson,  of 
the  Fourth  Georgia ;  Captain  J.  W.  Fannin,  of  the  Sixty-first  Ala- 
bama, formerly  a  private  in  my  company,  and  Captain  L.  S.  Chit- 
wood,  of  Fifth  Alabama,  among  the  new  arrivals,  are  all  old 
acquaintances  and  friends  of  mine.  Fift3'-nine  officers  and  several 
hundred  men,  belonging  to  Wharton's  command  in  the  Valley  of 
Virginia,  captured  by  Sheridan,  were  brought  to  the  fort,  and 
several  officers  from  Fort  La  Fayette,  including  General  R.  L.  Page, 
arrived  soon  after.  The  latter  were  captured  at  Fort  Morgan,  near 

March  IQth — Miss  Eliza  Jamison,  my  fair  unknown  friend  of 
Baltimore,  sent  me  five  dollars,  promised  to  correspond  with  me 
herself,  and  enclosed  a  bright,  sparkling  letter,  full  of  wit  and 
humor,  from  a  young  lady  friend  of  hers,  signed  "  Mamie,"  offering 
to  "  write  to  me  once  in  awhile  to  cheer  me  in  my  prison  life." 
Miss  Eliza  Jamison  thus  describes  "Mamie":  "She  is  full  of 
mischief  and  fun,  but  very  discreet  and  particular.  She  is 
small,  has  very  dark  hair,  beautiful  black  and  very  expres- 
sive eyes,  small  and  pretty.  Her  nose  is  large  and  her  worst 
feature.  She  is  smart  and  entertaining,  and  I  think  one  of  the 
nicest  little  bodies  in  the  world ;  I  am  sure  you  will  think  the 
same."  "  Mamie "  writes  fluently  and  elegantly,  and  tells  me  she 
recently  lost  her  youngest  brother,  twenty  years  old,  in  the  Southern 
army.  She  will  not  allow  Miss  Jamison  to  give  me  her  address, 
which  is  really  tantalizing.  Mr.  J.  W.  Fellows,  of  Manchester,  New 
Hampshire,  writes  he  has  sent  me  twenty-five  dollars,  but  it  has 
never  been  received.  Such  a  handsome  remittance  would  be  a 
God-send  to  me  now.     I  suppose  the  letter  examiner  pocketed  it. 

126  Southei'n  Historical  Society  Papers. 

March  17th  and  18th. — Captain  Browne,  Captain  Hewlett,  Lieu- 
tenant Arrington  and  I  changed  our  quarters  to  Division  27,  and 
are  messing  together.  Twenty-seven  is  known  as  the  "  Kentucky- 
division,"  as  most  of  its  inmates  are  from  that  State  and  belonged 
to  Morgan's  cavalry,  having  been  captured  during  the  famous  Ohio 
raid,  and  for  awhile  confined  in  the  Ohio  State  Penitentiary,  their 
heads  shaved,  and  dressed  in  felon's  garb.  A  majority  of  them 
are  of  fine  personal  appearance,  intelligent,  social  and  well  dressed. 
They  receive  money  from  relatives  at  home,  and  live  well  from  the 
sutler's  stores.  Lieutenant  William  Hays,  of  Covington,  Ky., 
better  known  as  "  Doctor  "  Hays,  having  been  a  practicing  physi- 
cian at  home,  is  chief  of  the  division.  He  has  lost  one  eye,  but  is 
a  handsome  man,  very  polite,  and  universally  popular.  He  acts 
as  postmaster  also.  We  luckily  found  bunks  next  to  a  window  on 
the  second  tier,  and  quite  near  the  stove,  in  the  centre  of  the  room. 
The  light  from  the  window  is  excellent  for  reading  and  writing 
purposes,  and  I  shall  not  lose  the  opportunity.  On  the  other  side 
of  the  window  are  the  bunks  of  Lieutenant  Joe  G.  Shackelford 
and  Lieutenant  H.  C.  Merritt,  of  the  Third  Kentucky  cavalry, 
Avith  Lieutenant  J.  D.  Parks  and  Lieutenant  S.  P.  Allensworth,  of 
Second  Kentucky  cavalry.  Shackelford  is  just  across  from  my 
bunk.  He  is  a  tall,  well  built,  plain  spoken,  honest  fellow.  He 
has  been  in  prison  over  twenty  months,  but  remains  unterrified 
and  resolute  in  his  allegiance  to  the  Confederacy.  I  enjoy  his 
strong,  expressive  language  much.  Browne,  Arrington  and  Fannin 
play  chess  nearly  all  day.  I  play  it  very  indifferently,  and  prefer 
reading.  Colonel  R.  C.  Morgan,  a  younger  brother  of  General 
John  H.  Morgan,  Captain  C.  C.  Corbett,  a  Georgian  in  the  Four- 
teenth Kentucky  cavalry.  Lieutenant  M.  H.  Barlow  (the  wit  of 
the  room),  and  Lieutenant  I.  P.  Wellington,  both  of  the  Eighth 
Kentucky  cavalry,  are  among  the  inmates  of  27.  Colonel  R.  W. 
Carter,  of  the  First  Virginia  cavalry,  a  large,  military-looking  man, 
and  Captain  R.  T.  Thom,  of  General  Page's  staff,  are  also  inmates 
of  the  division.  Captain  David  Waldhauer,  of  the  Jeff.  Davis 
legion  from  Savannah,  and  commander  of  the  "Georgia  Hussars," 
occupies  a  bunk  near  mine.  He  has  lost  his  right  arm.  I  find 
him  to  be  a  very  agreeable  gentleman.  Lieutenant  J.  E.  Way,  of 
the  same  cavalry  legion,  is  with  Captain  Waldhauer.  He  is  a 
very  amiable  and  modest  officer. 

March  19th. — To  my  surprise  I  received  a  letter  from  Abe  Good- 
game,  a  mulatto  slave  belonging  to  Colonel  Goodgame  of  my  regi- 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  127 

ment,  who  was  captured  in  the  Valley,  and  is  now  a  prisoner  con- 
fined at  Fort  McHenry,  having  positively  refused  to  take  the  oath. 
He  asks  me  to  write  to  his  master  when  I  am  exchanged,  and  tell 
him  of  his  whereabouts,  and  that  he  is  faithful  to  him.  I  replied 
to  Abe  in  an  encouraging  way,  and  showed  his  letter  to  several 
officers  of  my  brigade.  The  blatant  Abolitionists  of  the  North 
would  scarcely  be  convinced  of  the  truth  of  this  negro  slave's 
fidelity  to  his  master,  if  they  were  to  see  it.  They  are  totally  ig- 
norant of  the  real  status  of  the  divine  institution  of  slavery,  and 
would  be  shocked  at  such  an  evidence  of  love  for  and  faithfulness 
to  his  master  as  this  slave  exhibits.  Abe  is  an  honest,  industrious 
negro,  and  I  am  sorry  for  him.  His  captors,  not  understanding 
nor  appreciating  his  devotion  to  principle  and  affection  for  his 
master  and  his  Southern  home,  will,  I  fear,  treat  him  with  great 
severity,  work  him  unmercifully  and  feed  him  scantily.  I  have 
not  heard  a  word  nor  received  a  line  from  home  since  my  capture. 
To-day,  five  long,  weary,  dreary,  miserable  months  ago,  occurred 
the  battle  of  Winchester,  and  I  have  not  heard  from  my  beloved 
mother  since  then.  I  know  letters  are  written  to  me,  but  no  doubt 
they  are  destroyed  through  the  whims  and  caprice  of  some  venom- 
ous clerk,  who  wickedly  throws  them  aside  or  burns  them.  All 
letters  written  or  received  by  jDrisoners  are  opened  and  examined 
by  some  careless  and  heartless  upstart  official,  who  has  or  assumes 
full  power  and  authority  to  destroy  any  he  may  whimsically  ob- 
ject to.* 

*  Louisiana  "  Confederate  "  will  please  accept  my  most  gi-atef ul  thanks  for  the  handsome 
and  highly-appreciated  present  received  safely  from  New  Orleans,  January  22d,  ultimo.  It 
was  sweet  and  most  welcome.  K.  E.  P. 

128  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Letter  from  General  A.  S.  Jolmstoii. 

[Anything  from  the  lamented  hereof  Shiloh  will  be  read  with  interest,  and 
the  forthcoming  memoir  of  him  by  his  gifted  son  (Colonel  William  Preston 
Johnston)  is  looked  for  with  peculiar  pleasure,  in  the  hope  that  it  will  contain 
much  of  the  inner  life  of  the  great  chieftain. 

The  following  autograph  letter  to  General  Cooper  is  of  historic  value  as 
showing  the  condition  of  things  in  Kentucky,  in  October,  1861,  and  General 
Johnston's  opinions  as  to  what  the  future  movements  of  the  enemy  would 

Headquarters  Western  Department, 

Bowling  Green,  Ky.,  October  17, 1861, 

General — I  informed  you  by  telegraph  on  the  12th,  that  in  con- 
sequence of  information  received  from  General  Buckner  of  the 
advance  of  the  enemy  in  considerable  force,  I  had  ordered  forward 
all  my  available  force  to  his  support.  Hardee's  division  and  Terry's 
regiment  have  arrived  here;  and  in  advance  our  force  may  be  esti- 
mated at  twelve  thousand  men.  Correct  returns  cannot  be  obtained 
until  after  abetter  organization.  Two  Tennessee  regiments  (Stanton's 
from  Overton  county)  and  one  from  Union  city  are  yet  to  arrive, 
and  may  reach  this  in  two  or  three  days,  and  give  an  increase  of 
about  two  thousand  men. 

I  cannot  expect  immediately  any  additional  force  under  the  call 
of  last  month  on  the  Governors  of  Tennessee  and  Mississippi. 

The  men  will  doubtless  present  themselves  promptly  at  the  ren- 
dezvous, but  I  cannot  suppose  any  considerable  portion  will  be 

When  I  made  the  call,  I  hoped  that  some  might  come  armed.  I 
cannot  now  conjecture  how  many  will  do  so. 

The  call  was  made  to  save  time,  and  in  the  hope  that  by  the 
time  they  were  organized  and  somewhat  instructed,  the  Confederate 
Government  would  be  able  to  arm  them. 

As  at  present  informed,  I  think  the  best  effort  of  the  enemy  will 
be  made  on  this  line,  threatening  perhaps  at  the  same  time  the 
communications  between  Tennessee  and  Virginia,  covered  by  Zol- 
licoflfer,  and  Columbus,  from  Cairo  by  the  river,  and  Paducah  by 
land,  and  may  be  a  serious  attack  on  one  or  the  other,  and  for  this 
their  command  of  the  Ohio  and  all  the  navigable  waters  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  better  means  of  land  transportation,  give  them  great 
facilities  of  concentration. 

As   my  forces   at  neither   this  nor  either   of  the   other   points 

Letter  from  General  A.  S.  Johnston.  129 

threatened  are  more  than  sufficient  to  meet  the  force  in  front,  I 
cannot  weaken  either  until  the  object  of  the  enemy  is  fully  pro- 

You  now  know  the  efforts  I  anticipate  from  the  enemy  and  the 
line  on  which  the  first  blow  is  expected  to  fall,  and  the  means 
adopted  by  me  with  the  forces  at  my  disposal  to  meet  him. 

I  will  use  all  means  to  increase  my  force  and  spare  no  exertions 
to  render  it  effective  at  every  point ;  but  I  cannot  assure  you  that 
this  will  be  sufficient,  and  if  reinforcements  from  less  endangered 
or  less  important  points  can  be  spared,  I  would  be  glad  to  receive 

I  am,  sir,  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

(Signed)  A.  S.  Johnston, 

General  Confederate  States  Army. 
•General  S.  Cooper,  Adjutant  and  Inspector  General,  Richmond. 

130  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Maryland  Troops  in  the  Confederate  Service. 

By  Lamak  Hollyday. 

The  July  (1876)  number  of  the  Southern  Historical  Society 
Papers  contains  a  letter  from  General  J.  A.  Early  on  the  "  Relative 
Strength  of  the  Armies  of  Generals  Lee  and  Grant,"  in  which  he 
says  "that  State  (Maryland)  furnished  to  the  Confederate  army 
only  one  organized  regiment  of  infantry  for  one  year,  and  several 
companies  of  artillery  and  cavalry  which  served  through  the  whole 

The  Confederate  roster,  also  published  in  the  October  number  of 
same  Papers,  gives  credit  for  only  one  regiment  of  infantry,  and 
makes  no  mention  whatever  of  either  cavalry  or  artillery, 

These  statements,  coming  from  such  high  authority,  are  calcu- 
lated to  do  great  injustice  to  as  gallant  soldiers  of  the  Confederate 
army  as  either  shouldered  a  musket,  straddled  a  horse  or  rode  on 
a  caisson.  Maryland  was  represented  during  the  whole  war,  except 
probably  for  a  few  months,  by  an  organized  infantry  command, 
which  won  a  name  for  gallantry  and  discipline  second  to  none  in 
the  army,  and*proved  themselves  worthy  descendants  of  the  Mary- 
land line  of  Revolutionary  fame. 

The  following  comprise  the  Maryland  organizations  in  the  Con- 
federate service,  independent  of  several  companies  of  infantry  and 
several  companies  of  cavalry,  merged  into  regiments  of  other 
States : 

First  infantry — Colonel  Arnold  Elzey,  promoted  to  Brigadier 
and  Major-General ;  Colonel  George  H.  Steuart,  promoted  to  Briga- 
dier-General ;  Colonel  Bradley  T.  Johnson,  promoted  to  Brigadier- 

Second  infantry — Lieutenant-Colonel  Joseph  R.  Herbert. 

First  cavalry — Lieutenant-Colonel  Ridgeley  Brown,  killed;  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel G.  W.  Dorsey. 

Second  cavalry — Major  Harry  Gilmore. 

First  battery — Captain  R.  fenowden  Andrews,  promoted  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel ;  Captain  W.  F.  Dernent. 

Second  battery — Captain  J.  B.  Brockenborough,  promoted  Major; 
Captain  W.  H.  Griffin. 

Third  battery — Captain  H.  B.  Latrobe,  promoted  March  1st, 
1863;  killed  at  Vicksburg,  Mississippi,  June  22d,  1863;  Captain 
John  B.  Rowan,  promoted  June  30th,  1863;  killed  before  Nash- 

Maryland  Troops  in  the  Confederate  Service.  131 

ville,  Tennessee,  December  16th,  1864 ;  Captain  William  L.  Ritter, 
promoted  December  16th,  1864,  on  the  battle-field  before  Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

Fourth  battery — Captain  William  Brown,  killed;  Captain  W. 
S.  Chew. 

First  Maryland  infantry — The  First  Maryland  infantry  was  or- 
ganized in  June,  1861,  and  shortly  after  their  organization  were 
complimented  by  General  J.  E.  Johnston,  in  the  following  special 
order : 

Headquarters,  Winchester,  June  22,  1861. 
Special  Order. 

The  Commanding  General  thanks  Lieutenant-Colonel  Steuart 
and  the  Maryland  regiment  for  the  faithful  and  exact  manner  in 
which  they  carried  out  his  orders  of  the  19th  instant  at  Harper's 
Ferry.  He  is  glad  to  learn  that,  owing  to  their  discipline,  no  pri- 
vate property  was  injured  and  no  unoffending  citizen  disturbed. 
The  soldierly  qualities  of  the  Maryland  regiment  will  not  be  for- 
gotten in  the  day  of  action. 

By  order  of  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston. 

W.  H.  Whiting, 
Inspector-  General. 

General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  in  his  letter  to  Mr.  J.  Thomas  Scharf 
under  dat^  of  November  5th,  1873,  published  in  the  Baltimore 
Chronicle^  thus  speaks  of  the  First  Maryland's  participation  in  the 
battle  of  the  first  Manassas: 

"At  the  battle  of  the  first  Manassas  the  First  Maryland  regiment 
contributed  greatlj''  to  the  success  of  that  battle,  by  checking  the 
flanking  movement  of  the  Federals  until  Early's  brigade  could  get 
into  position  to  outflank  them.  The  officers  and  men  of  that  Ma- 
ryland regiment  behaved  with  much  gallantry  on  that  occasion ; 
and  afterwards,  while  on  duty  in  front  of  Munson's  Hill,  near  Al- 
exandria, and  while  in  winter  quarters  about  Centreville,  they  were 
noted  for  their  discipline  and  good  behavior." 

The  regiment  served  under  General  Jackson  in  his  ever-memo- 
rable Valley  campaign,  and  were  thus  spoken  of  by  that  General 
in  his  official  report: 

"In  a  short  time  the  Fifty-eighth  Virginia  regiment  became  en- 
gaged with  a  Pennsylvania  regiment  called  the  Bucktails,  when 
Colonel  Johnson,  of  the  First  Maryland  regiment,  coming  up  in 
the  hottest  period  of  the  fire,  charged  gallantly  into  his  flank  and 
drove  the  enemy,  with  heavy  loss,  from  the  field,  capturing  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Kane,  commanding." 

132  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

General  Ewell,  also,  in  his  official  report  of  the  Valley  campaign, 
speaks  of  them  in  the  following  highly  complimentary  language: 

"The  history  of  the  Maryland  regiment,  gallantly  commanded 
hy  Colonel  Bradley  T.  Johnson,  during  the  campaign  of  the  Valley 
would  be  the  history  of  every  action  from  Front  Royal  to  Cross  Keys. 
On  the  6th,  near  Harrisonburg,  the  Fifty-eighth  Virginia  regiment 
was  engaged  with  the  Pennsylvania  Bucktails,  the  fighting  being 
close  and  bloody.  Colonel  Johnson  came  up  with  his  regiment  in 
the  hottest  period,  and,  by  a  dashing  charge  in  flank,  drove  the 
enemy  off  with  heavy  loss,  capturing  Lieutenant-Colonel  Kane, 
commanding.  In  commemoration  of  this  gallant  conduct,  I  or- 
dered one  of  the  captured  bucktails  to  be  appended,  as  a  trophy, 
to  their  flag.  The  action  is  worthy  of  acknowledgment  from  a 
higher  source,  more  particularly  as  they  avenged  the  death  of  the 
gallant  General  Ashby,  who  fell  at  the  same  time.  Four  color- 
bearers  were  shot  down  in  succession,  but  each  time  the  colors 
-were  caught  before  reaching  the  ground;  and  were  finally  borne 
by  Corporal  Daniel  Shanks  to  the  close  of  the  action.  On  the  8th 
instant,  at  Cross  Keys,  they  were  opposed  to  three  of  the  enemy's 
regiments  in  succession." 

The  order  of  General  Ewell,  directing  that  one  of  the  buck- 
tails  captured  by  the  regiment  should  be  appended  to  their  colors, 
is  as  follows: 

Headquarters  Third  Division. 
General  Orders,! 
No.  30.  i 

In  commemoration  of  the  gallant  conduct  of  the  First  Maryland 
regiment  on  the  6th  of  June,  when,  led  by  Colonel  Bradley  T. 
Johnson,  they  drove  back,  with  loss,  the  Pennsylvania  Bucktail 
Rifles,  in  the  engagement  near  Harrisonburg,  Rockingham  county, 
Va.,  authority  is  given  to  have  one  of  the  bucktails  (the  insignia  of 
the 'Federal  regiment)  appended  to  the  color-staff"  of  the  First  Ma- 
ryland regiment. 

By  order  of  Major-General  Ewell. 

James  Barbour, 
Assistant  Adjutant- Gowal. 

As  soon  as  the  Valley  campaign  was  over  the  regiment  was  or- 
dered to  Staunton,  to  muster  out  two  companies  whose  term  of 
service  had  expired,  and  to  receive  a  new  company.  They  had  not 
been  there  long  before  they  were  ordered  to  again  join  the  main 
army,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  Seven  Days'  fights  before 
Richmond;  after  which  they  went  to  Charlottesville;  from  thence 
to  Gordonsville,  where,  in  August,  1862,  they  were  mustered  out 
of  the  service,  some  of  the  men  joining  new  infantry  companies 


Maryland  Troops  in  the  Confederate  Service.  133 

which  were  then  forming,  while  others  entered  the  cavalry  and  ar- 
tiller3\  The  total  length  of  service  of  the  First  regiment  was  four- 
teen to  sixteen  months. 


The  Second  Maryland  infantry  was  organized  in  the  fall  of  1862, 
and  numbered  six  companies.  Two  other  companies  joined  them 
afterward,  one  in  about  two  months  and  the  other  about  a  year 
after  their  organization.  They  were  in  service  up  to  the  surrender 
of  General  Lee  at  Appomattox. 

During  the  fall  and  winter  of  1862-3  they  were  attached  to 
General  Jones'  cavalry  brigade,  and  were  on  duty  in  the  Valley  of 
Virginia;  being  constantly  on  the  move,  and  made  two  very  se- 
vere marches  to  Moorefield  in  West  Virginia.  In  June,  1863,  they 
joined  General  Early  at  Kernstown,  and  opened  the  battle  at  that 
point  preparatory  to  attacking  Winchester.  That  General,  in  his 
official  report  of  the  Gettysburg  campaign,  thus  mentions  this  fact: 

"I  found  Lieutenant-Colonel  Herbert,  of  the  Maryland  line, 
with  his  battalion  of  infantry,  the  battery  of  Maryland  artillery, 
and  a  portion  of  the  battalion  of  Maryland  cavalry,  occupying  the 
ridge  between  Bartonsville  and  Kernstown,  and  engaged  in  occa- 
sional skirmishing  with  a  portion  of  the  enemy,  who  had  taken 
position  near  Kernstown.  *  *  *  I  ^ill  here  state  that  when 
our  skirmishers  had  advanced  to  Bower's  Hill,  Major  Goldsborough, 
of  the  Maryland  battalion,  with  the  skirmishers  of  the  battalion 
had  advanced  into  the  outskirts  of  the  town  of  Winchester ;  but 
fearing  that  the  enemy  would  shell  the  town  from  the  main  fort,  I 
ordered  him  back.  *  *  j  niust  also  commend  the  gallantry  of 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Herbert  and  Major  Goldsborough,  of  the  Mary- 
land line,  and  their  troops." 

General  Ewell  also,  in  his  official  report  of  the  Gettysburg  cam- 
paign, gives  additional  evidence  of  the  existence  of  the  command. 
He  says:  "On  the  13th,  I  sent  Early's  division  and  Colonel  Brown's 
artillery  battalion  (under  Captain  Dance)  to  Newtown,  on  the 
Valley  pike,  where  they  were  joined  by  the  Maryland  battalion  of 
infantry,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Herbert,  and  the  Baltimore  light 
artillery.  Captain  Griffin." 

Immediately  after  the  battle  of  Winchester,  the  Second  Maryland 
joined  General  George  H.  Steuart's  brigade,  and  took  an  active  and 
distinguished  part  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  assisted  in  the  cap- 
ture of  the  Federal  breastworks  at  Gulp's  Hill,  which  they  held  all 

134  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

of  the  night  of  2d  July  and  a  part  of  the  next  day,  losing  in  killed 
and  wounded  during  the  engagement  more  than  half  their  number. 

Again,  at  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  June  3d,  1864,  they  covered 
themselves  with  glory.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  day  the  fight  took 
place  General  Lee  telegraphed  the  Secretary  of  War  as  follows : 
"  General  Finnegan's  brigade  of  Mahone's  division  and  the  Mary- 
land battalion  of  Breckinridge's  command  immediately  drove  the 
enemy  out  with  severe  loss."  General  Breckinridge  also,  in  a  letter 
dated  January  6th,  1874,  and  published  in  Scharf's  "Chronicles  of 
Baltimore,"  thus  mentions  the  Second  Maryland's  participation  in 
the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor :  "  When  I  crossed  over  from  the  Shen- 
andoah Valley  in  May,  1864,  and  joined  General  Lee  on  the  North 
Anna,  near  Hanover  Junction,  a  battalion  of  Maryland  infantry 
was  sent  to  me,  and  it  remained  under  my  command  until  I  re- 
turned to  the  Valley  in  the  following  month.  It  had  seen  rough 
service,  and  I  think  all  the  field  officers  were  absent  from  disabling 
wounds.  While  with  me  it  was  commanded  by  Captain  Crane. 
I  had  occasion  to  observe  this  battalion  along  the  North  Anna,  on 
the  Tottopotomy,  and  in  a  series  of  other  engagements  of  greater  or 
less  importance,  ending  with  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor  early  in 
June,  and  I  take  pleasure  in  saying  that  its  conduct  throughout 
was  not  merely  creditable,  but  distinguished.  Not  being  incorpo- 
rated in  any  brigade,  it  came  more  frequently  under  my  eye,  and 
I  presently  fell  into  the  habit  of  holding  it  in  hand  for  occasions 
of  special  need.  For  instance,  at  Cold  Harbor,  where  a  point  in 
my  line  was  very  weak,  and  was  actually  broken  for  a  time  by 
General  Hancock's  troops,  the  Maryland  battalion  and  Finnegan's 
Florida  brigade  (the  latter  borrowed  from  General  Hoke  for  the 
occasion)  aided  decisively  to  restore  the  situation,  and  behaved 
with  the  greatest  intrepidity.  *  *  Not  in  courage  only,  but  also 
in  discipline,  tone  and  all  soldierly  qualities  they  were  equal  to  any 
troops  I  saw  during  the  war." 

The  following  appeared  in  the  Richmond  Sentinel  a  few  days  after 

the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor: 

Near  Richmond,  June  6th,  1864. 

Mr.  Editor — The  public  have  already  been  informed,  through 
the  columns  of  the  public  journals,  of  the  great  results  of  the  late 
engagements  between  the  forces  of  General  Lee  and  General  Grant; 
but  they  have  not  yet  learned  the  particulars,  which  are  always 
most  interesting,  and  in  some  instances,  owing  to  the  confusion 
which  generally  attends  large  battles,  they  have  been  misinformed 
on  some  points.     It  is  now  known  by  the  public  that  the  enemy 

Maryland  Troops  in  the  Confederate  Service.  135 

were  momentarily  successful  in  one  of  their  assaults  on  the  lines 
held  by  Major-General  Breckinridge's  division,  which  might  have 
resulted  in  disaster  to  our  cause.  It  will  be  interesting  to  all  to 
know  what  turned  disaster  into  victory,  and  converted  a  triumphant 
column  into  a  flying  rabble.  The  successful  assault  of  the  enemy 
was  made  under  cover  of  darkness.  Before  the  morning  star  had  been 
hid  by  the  light  of  the  sun,  they  came  gallantly  forward  in  spite 
of  a  severe  fire  from  General  Echols'  brigade,  and  in  spite  of  the 
loss  of  many  of  their  men  who  fell  like  autumn  leaves,  until  the 
ground  was  almost  blue  and  red  with  their  uniforms  and  blood. 
They  rushed  in  heavy  masses  over  our  breastworks.  Our  men,  con- 
fused by  the  suddenness  of  the  charge,  and  borne  down  by  the 
rush  of  the  enemy,  retreated,  and  all  now  seemed  to  be  lost.  At 
this  juncture  the  Second  Maryland  infantry,  of  Colonel  Bradley  T. 
Johnson's  command,  now  in  charge  of  Captain  J.  Parrar  Crane, 
were  roused  from  their  sleep.  Springing  to  their  arms,  they  formed 
in  a  moment  and,  rushing  gallantly  forward,  poured  a  deadly  fire 
into  the  enemy  and  then  charged  bayonets.  The  enemy  were,  in 
turn,  surprised  at  the  suddenness  and  vim  of  this  assault.  They 
gave  back,  they  became  confused,  and  General  Finnegan's  forces 
coming  up,  they  took  to  flight;  but  not  until  nearly  a  hundred 
men  were  stretched  on  the  plain,  from  the  fire  of  the  Second  Mary- 
land infantry,  and  many  others  captured.  Lieutenant  Charles  B. 
Wise,  of  Company  B,  now  took  possession  of  the  guns  which  had 
been  abandoned  by  our  forces,  and  with  the  assistance  of  some  of 
his  own  men  and  some  of  General  Finnegan's  command,  poured 
a  deadly  fire  into  the  retreating  column  of  the  enemy.  Thus  was 
the  tide  of  battle  turned,  and  this  disaster  converted  into  a  success. 
I  am  informed  that  the  whole  force  of  the  enemy  which  came 
within  our  lines  would  have  been  captured,  had  it  not  been  for  the 
mistake  of  an  officer  who  took  the  enemy  for  our  own  men  and 
thus  checked  for  a  few  moments  the  charge  of  the  Second  Mary- 
land infantry.  I  take  pleasure  in  narrating  these  deeds  of  our 
Maryland  brethren,  and  doubt  not  you  will  join  in  the  feeling. 

A  Virginian. 

The  following  letter  from  Brigadier-General  William  McComb 
will  give  a  general  outline  of  the  history  of  the  Second  Maryland 
from  Cold  Harbor  to  Appomattox,  and  show  the  part  they  took  in 
the  closing  scenes  of  our  struggle  for  independence : 

GoRDONSViLLE,  VIRGINIA,  December  16,  1876. 
Mr.  Lamar  Hollyday  : 

Dear  Sir — I  am  glad  to  learn  you  propose  writing  an  article 
for  the  Southern  Historical  Papers  on  the  Maryland  soldiers  of 
the  Confederate  States  Army. 

It  affords  me  pleasure  to  give  you  some  information  of  a  command 
so  worthy  of  notice  in  your  article  as  the  Second  Maryland  infantry. 

136  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

The  command  reported  for  duty  to  the  commanding  officer  of 
Archer's  brigade,  about  the  20th  June,  1864.  General  Archer  at 
that  time  was  a  prisoner  at  Johnson's  Island,  and  from  exposure  there 
contracted  a  disease  which  resulted  in  his  death  in  the  fall  of  1864. 
In  his  death  the  writer  lost  one  of  his  warmest  friends,  Maryland 
one  of  her  most  gallant  sons,  the  brigade,  the  best  commander  it 
ever  had,  and  the  Confederacy,  one  of  the  bravest  officers  in  the 
army — one  competent  to  fill  any  position  in  the  corps.  He  could 
see,  decide  and  act  with  as  much  alacrity  as  any  officer  I  ever  knew. 
The  writer  had  the  honor  of  commanding  the  brigade  the  greater 
part  of  the  time  during  his  absence  and  sickness,  and  was  pro- 
moted to  take  his  place  after  his  death,  and  consequently  had  a 
good  opportunity  of  observing  the  conduct  of  the  Second  Maryland 
infantry.  Many  of  the  officers  and  men  had  been  either  killed  or 
disabled  before  their  connection  with  our  brigade,  and  these  officers 
were  worthy  of  much  praise  for  the  thorough  discipline  the  com- 
mand had  received.  The  majority  of  the  rank  and  file  were  gentle- 
men and  had  the  pride  necessary  for  making  good  soldiers.  This 
was  proven  by  their  gallant  conduct  on  many  hard  fought  battle 
fields,  as  at  "  Squirel  Level"  the  day  the  gallent  General  John 
Pegram  was  killed,  and  the  morning  the  lines  south  of  Petersburg 
were  broken,  particularly  in  the  latter  engagement,  when  over  one- 
half  of  General  Heth's  division  had  been  withdrawn  from  the  line 
the  day  before  to  reinforce  the  line  south  of  Hatcher's  Run,  leaving 
our  soldiers  deployed  in  the  main  works  at  about  five  paces ;  yet 
even  under  these  trying  circumstances  the  Second  Maryland  and 
the  Tennessee  troops  composing  the  brigade  held  every  foot  of  line 
entrusted  to  them  until  they  received  orders  to  evacuate  it.  A  part 
of  said  line  was  broken  on  the  left,  but  was  retaken  in  less  than 
thirty  minutes  by  the  Second  Maryland,  First,  Seventh  and  Four- 
teenth Tennessee  regiments,  and  the  writer  is  happy  to  say  that 
when  the  order  was  given  (by  General  Cooke,  commanding  the 
division)  to  retreat,  there  was  not  the  least  confusion,  although 
the  only  means  of  escape  was  to  swim  the  military  dam  on 
Hatcher's  Run.  The  entire  brigade  (except  those  disabled)  swam 
across  or  crossed  on  trees,  and  were  ready  for  duty  in  the  next  en- 
gagement, and  were  ready  to  fight  their  way  out  at  Appomattox 
-  Courthouse  if  the  word  had  been  given ;  but  there,  as  elsewhere, 
they_were  willing,  as  they  ever  had  been,  to  obey  to  the  letter  every 
command  given  by  our  great  and  honored  chief,  Robert  E.  Lee. 
*  *  *  *  Trusting  this  communication  may  be  of  service  to 
you,  I  remain,  yours  truly, 

William  McComb. 

first  maryland  cavalry. 

The  First  Maryland  cavalry  was  organized  in  November,  1862, 
with  four  companies,  under  the  command  of  Major  Ridgeiy  Brown 
(afterwards  Lieutenant-Colonel).     Subsequently  they  were  joined 

Maryland  Troops  in  the  Confederate  Service.  137 

by  three  other  companies.  They  served  throughout  the  Avar  with 
great  honor,  and  after  cutting  their  way  through  the  Federal  lines 
at  Appomattox,  finally  disbanded  about  the  28th  of  April,  1865. 

The  following  letter  from  Brigadier-General  Munford  explains 

Clovekdale,  Botetourt  County.  Virginia, 
April  28th,  18G5. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Dorsey, 

Commanding  First  Maryland  Cavalry  : 

I  have  just  learned  from  Captain  Emack  that  your  gallant  band 
was  moving  up  the  Valley  in  response  to  my  call.  I  am  deeply 
pained  to  say  that  our  army  cannot  be  reached,  as  I  have  learned 
that  it  has  capitulated.  It  is  sad,  indeed,  to  think  that  our  country's 
future  is  all  shrouded  in  gloom.  But  for  you  and  your  command 
there  is  the  consolation  of  having  faithfully  done  your  duty. 

Three  years  ago  the  chivalric  Brown  joined  my  old  regiment 
with  twenty-three  Maryland  volunteers,  with  light  hearts  and  full 
of  fight.  I  soon  learned  to  admire,  respect  and  love  them  for  all 
those  qualities  which  endear  soldiers  to  their  officers.  They  re- 
cruited rapidly,  and  as  they  increased  in  numbers,  so  did  their  re- 
putation and  friends  increase,  and  they  were  soon  able  to  form  a 
command  and  take  a  position  of  their  own.  Need  T  say,  when  I 
see  that  position  so  high  and  almost  alone  among  soldiers,  that  my 
heart  swells  with  pride  to  think  that  a  record  so  bright  and  glorious 
is  in  some  part  linked  with  mine?  Would  that  I  could  see  the 
mothers  and  sisters  of  every  member  of  your  battalion,  that  I 
might  tell  them  how  nobly  you  have  represented  your  State  and 
maintained  our  cause.  But  you  will  not  be  forgotten;  the  fame 
you  have  won  will  be  guarded  by  Virginia  with  all  the  pride  she 
feels  in  her  own  true  sons,  and  the  ties  which  have  linked  us  to- 
gether memory  will  preserve.  You  who  struck  the  first  blow  in 
Baltimore,  and  the  last  in  Virginia,  have  done  all  that  could  be  asked 
of  you,  and  had  the  rest  of  our  officers  and  men  adhered  to  our 
cause  with  the  samedevotion,  to-day  we  would  be  free  from  Yankee 
thraldom.  I  have  ordered  the  brigade  to  return  to  their  homes, 
and  it  behooves  us  now  to  separate.  With  my  warmest  wishes  for 
your  welfare,  and  a  hearty  God  bless  you,  I  bid  you  farewell. 

Thomas  T.  Munford, 
Brigadier- General  commanding  Division. 


The  Second  Maryland  cavalry  was  organized  in  the  spring  of 
1863,  under  command  of  Major  Harry  Gilmore,  with  three  com- 
panies, three  more  joining  before  the  close  of  the  war — making  a 
total  of  six  companies. 

138  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 


The  First  Maryland  Artillery  was  organized  in  the  summer  of 
1861,  under  command  of  Captain  R.  Snowden  Andrews,  and  served 
during  the  whole  war  in  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  After 
Captain  Anderson  was  promoted,  the  battery  was  more  generally 
known  as  "Dement's  battery,"  Captain  W.  T.  Dement  being  its 
commander.  The  following  extract  from  General  Ewell's  official 
report  of  the  Gettysburg  campaign  will  show  of  what  material  this 
battery  was  composed : 

"Lieutenant  C.  S.  Contee's  section  of  Dement's  battery  was  placed 
in  short  musket  range  of  the  enemy  on  the  15th  June"  (at  Win- 
chester), "and  maintained  its  position  until  thirteen  of  the  sixteen 
men  in  the  two  detachments  were  killed  and  wounded,  when  Lieu- 
tenant John  A.  Morgan,  of  the  First  North  Carolina  regiment,  and 
Lieutenant  R.  H.  McKim,  A.  D.  C.  to  Brigadier-General  George  H. 
Steuart,  volunteered  and  helped  to  work  the  guns  till  the  surrender 
of  the  enemy." 

The  Second  Maryland  {'^Baltimore  LigW^)  Artillery  was  organized 
early  in  the  fall  of  1861,  under  the  command  of  Captain  J.  B. 
Brockenborough,  who  was  promoted  to  Major  in  September,  1862. 
After  this  Captain  W.  H.  Griffin  had  command  of  it.  They  served 
in  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  to  the  close  of  the  war,  and  were 
looked  upon  as  one  of  the  best  batteries  in  the  service. 

The  Third  Maryland  Artillery  was  organized  in  January,  1862,  at 
Richmond,  Virginia,  under  command  of  Captain  H.  B.  Latrobe. 
They  were  sent  to  the  Western  army,  and  served  till  the  close  of 
the  war.  They  aided  very  materially  in  the  capture  of  the  iron- 
clad Federal  steamer  Indianola,  on  the  Mississippi  river.  Major 
J.  L.  Brent,  who  commanded  the  expedition  against  the  steamer, 
says,  in  his  official  report,  a  "detachment  from  the  Third  Maryland 
artillery  were  in  the  expedition,  and  acted  with  courage  and  discip- 
,  line  when  under  fire." 

The  Fourth  Maryland  ("  Chesapeake ")  Artillery  was  organized  in 
the  spring  of  1862,  under  command  of  Captain  William  Brown, 
who  was  killed  at  Gettysburg,  after  which  Captain  Chew  took  com- 
mand. They  served  in  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  and  took 
a  prominent  part  in  the  gallant  defence  of  Fort  Gregg,  near  Peters- 
burg, an  account  of  which  is  published  in  the  January  (1877) 
number  of  the  Society  Papers. 

Two-thirds  of  Breathed's  battery  were  Mary  landers,  and  it  was 
generally  spoken  of  as  a  Maryland  command,  but,  as  a  gallant 
member  of  the  battery  says,  they  were  glad  to  get  any  recruit 

Maryland  Troops  in  the  Confederate  Service.  139 

"whose  nerves  were  steady  and  head  level."  From  returns  in  the 
Adjutant-General's  office,  Richmond,  in  the  early  part  of  1863, 
there  had  been  mustered  into  the  service  in  all  the  States  from  19,- 
000  to  21,000  citizens  of  Maryland.  These  facts  were  obtained  from 
the  office  at  that  time  by  Major-General  I.  R.  Trimble.  From  this 
time  until  the  close  of  the  war  this  number  was  being  frequently 
added  to.  These  men  were  all  volunteers  in  the  highest  sense.  The 
difficulties  they  had  to  encounter  in  running  the  blockade  deterred 
many  a  stout  heart  from  making  the  effort ;  in  fact,  many  who  did 
make  the  attempt  were  captured  by  the  Federal  forces.  At  a  very 
early  period  of  the  war  Maryland  was  overrun  with  Federal  soldiers, 
who  guarded  every  avenue  to  the  South,  and  it  was  a  very  hard 
matter  to  keep  the  "underground  railway"  in  operation.  Large 
sums  were  paid  to  get  through — in  some  instances  one  hundred 
dollars  and  more.  A  party  who  was  living  in  New  York  when  the 
war  broke  out  was  one  month  in  making  his  way  from  that  city  to 
Richmond ;  for  three  days  was  hid  in  a  swamp  on  the  Eastern 
Shore  of  Maryland,  sleeping  at  night  in  a  potato  hole  or  liouse  dug 
in  the  ground,  and  finally,  in  the  attempt  to  cross  the  Potomac 
river,  was  intercepted  and  shot  at  by  some  Yankees  in  a  launch  from 
a  Federal  gunboat.  He  however  escaped  and  jeached  the  Virginia 
shore  in  safety,  losing  all  his  baggage,  and  the  boat  in  which  he 
crossed  was  captured. 

Many  persons  have  said  if  the  Marylanders  were  so  anxious  to 
enlist  in  the  Confederate  service,  why  did  they  not  do  so  when 
General  Lee's  army  was  in  their  State.  It  must  be  remembered 
that  the  army  only  went  into  the  western  part  of  the  State,  which 
was  to  Maryland  the  same  as  West  Virginia  was  to  Virginia,  there 
being  a  large  Union  element  in  both  sections,  and  the  Federal  forces 
took  special  precaution  to  prevent  recruits  coming  up  from  the 
balance  of  the  State,  where  the  devotion  of  the  people  to  the  Con- 
federate cause  was  undoubted,  as  evidenced  by  the  large  Federal 
force  which  was  stationed  there  during  the  whole  war  to  keep  them 
in  subjection. 

If  all  these  facts  are  carefully  looked  at  and  well  considered,  it 
will  be  seen  that  Maryland  did  her  duty  as  well  as  could  have  been 
expected  ""with  her  surroundings,  and  as  Mr.  Jefferson  Davis  in 
a  letter,  published  in  "  Scharfs  Chronicles  of  Baltimore,"  says,  "  the 
world  will  accord  to  them  peculiar  credit,  as  it  always  has  done  to 
those  who  leave  their  hearthstones  to  fight  for  principle  in  the 
land  of  others."  Lamar  Hollyday. 

Baltimore,  Maryland. 

140  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Comments  on  tlie  First  Yoliime  of  Count  of  Paris'  Civil  War  in 


By  General  J.  A.  Early, 

[The  following  paper  needs  no  editorial  introduction,  as  evers^thing  from 
the  pen  of  this  able  military  critic  attracts  attention,  is  read  with  interest, 
and  is  noted  as  of  higli  historic  value.  We  trust  that  it  will  be  followed  by- 
papers  from  the  same  able  pen  on  the  succeeding  volumes  of  the  Count  of 
Paris'  histor}'.] 

History  of  the  Civil  War  in  America.  By  the  Comte  rte  Paris.  Translated,  with  the  approval 
of  the  author,  by  Louis  F.  Taslstro.  Edited  by  Henry  Coppee,  LL.  D.  Volume  I.  Phila- 
delphia :    Joseph  H.  Coates  &,  Co.    1875. 

In  reviewing  the  history  of  the  regular  army  of  the  United 
States,  the  author,  on  page  24,  volume  I,  makes  the  following  state- 

"The  cavalry,  which  was  dishancled  after  the  war  of  1812,  only 
dates,  with  the  first  regiment  of  dragoons,  from  the  year  1832.  The 
second  was  created  in  1836,  the  third  in  1846,  as  also  the  mounted 
rifiemen,  which  being  formed  solely  to  serve  in  the  Mexican  war, 
made  the  campaign  on  foot,  notwithstanding  their  appellation  of 
mounted  riflemen.  In  1855  Congress  passed  a  law  authorizing  the 
formation  of  two  new  regiments  of  cavalry,  and  Mr.  Jefferson 
Davis,  then  Secretary  of  War,  took  advantage  of  the  fact  that  they 
had  not  been  designated  by  the  title  of  dragoons  to  treat  them  as  a 
different  arm,  and  to  fill  them  with  his  creatures,  to  the  exclusion 
of  regular  officers  whom  he  disliked." 

It  was  the  third  dragoons  which  was  formed  to  serve  only  during 
the  Mexican  war,  and  that  regiment  was  disbanded  at  the  close  of 
that  war.  The  "mounted  rifles,"  though  formed  about  the  same 
time,  was  formed  as  a  permanent  legiment,  and  was  continued  in 
the  service,  with  that  distinctive  appellation,  until  August  the  3d, 
1861,  when  it  was  designated  the  "third  cavalry."  The  three 
mounted  regiments,  therefore,  in  the  service  in  1855,  when  the  first 
and  second  cavalry  were  formed,  were  the  first  and  second  dra- 
goons and  the  mounted  rifles.  By  the  act  of  Congress  of  August 
3d,  1861,  the  first  and  second  dragoons  were  designated  respectively 
the  first  and  second  cavalry,  the  mounted  rifles  the  third  cavalry, 
and  the  first  and  second  cavalry  respectively  the  fourth  and  fifth 

The  term  "cavaliy,"  in  common  parlance,  includes  all  mounted 
troops,  but  in  military  phrase  "dragoons,"  "mounted  rifles"  and 
"cavalry"  originally  constituted  different  arms  of  the  service,  be- 

Comments  on  Count  of  Pa7'iii^  Civil  War  in  America.  141 

cause  they  were  armed  differently — dragoons,  with  muskets  and 
sabres,  to  serve  on  foot  or  on  horseback,  as  occasion  might  require; 
mounted  riflemen,  with  rifles,  to  move  on  horseback  with  celerity, 
but  really  to  serve  on  foot  in  action ;  and  cavalry,  with  sabres  and 
pistols — or  short  carbines — to  serve  on  horseback  in  action  and  in 
the  pursuit.  Such  was  the  case  when  the  two  regiments  of  dra- 
goons, the  mounted  rifle  regiment  and  the  two  cavalry  regiments 
were  respectively  organized.  The  modern  improvements  in  fire- 
arms, and  especially  the  introduction  of  breech-loaders,  have  ren- 
dered useless  the  distinction  between  the  different  kinds  of  mounted 
troops,  as  they  have  destroyed  the  distinction  between  heavy  and 
light  infantry  and  riflemen  serving  on  foot.  When,  therefore,  the 
two  regiments  of  cavalry  were  formed  in  1855,  they  were  really 
formed  as  and  intended  to  be  a  distinctive  arm  of  the  service. 

The  statement  that  Mr.  Davis,  as  Secretary  of  War  in  1855,  filled 
the  new  regiments  of  cavalry  "with  his  creatures,,^''  is,  perhaps,  a 
mistranslation  of  the  phrase  in  the  original  French.  The  term 
■"creatures,"  as  used  in  the  translation,  would  be  generally  accepted 
by  all  English-speaking  people  as  a  term  of  reproach,  indicating 
that  the  persons  appointed  by  Mr.  Davis  were  his  dependents,  syco- 
phants and  parasites — men  who  had  no  claim  to  respect  themselves, 
but  were  subject  to  his  will  and  control.  To  speak  of  a  man  as 
the  creature  of  the  Almighty  Creator  conveys  no  reproach,  but  to 
call  him  the  creature  of  another  man,  is  to  apply  to  him  one  of  the 
most  opprobrious  epithets  in  the  English  language.  It  is  therefore 
probable  that  the  translator,  in  rendering  the  French  phrase  into 
English,  while  giving  the  literal  version,  has  failed  to  observe  the 
diflference  between  the  idiom  of  the  two  languages.  It  is  presumed 
that  the  idea  intended  to  be  conveyed  by  the  author  was,  that  the 
■appointees  of  Mr.  Davis  were  of  his  own  selection;  for  it  is  hardly 
to  be  supposed  that  he  intended  to  intimate  that  such  men  as 
■Generals  George  B.  McClellan,  Edwin  V.  Sumner,  Wm.  H.  Emory, 
John  Sedgwick  and  George  H.  Thomas,  of  the  Federal  army,  and 
Generals  Albert  Sidney  Johnston,  Robert  E.  Lee,  Joseph  E.  John- 
.ston,  Wm.  J.  Hardee  and  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  of  the  Confederate  army, 
all  of  whom  were  among  the  original  appointees  to  the  two  regi- 
ments of  cavalry  organized  in  1855,  were  the  creatures  of  Mr.  Jef- 
ferson Davis,  in  the  sense  in  which  that  term  would  be  understood 
by  Englishmen  and  Americans. 

The  idea  that  Mr.  Davis,  in  filling  the  appointments  for  the  new 
regiments,  was  influenced  by  dislike  of  the  officers  of  the  regular 

142  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

army,  is  a  novel  one.  The  complaint  against  him  as  President  of 
the  Confederacy  was  quite  common,  that  in  his  appointments  to 
the  army  he  was  too  much  influenced  by  his  partiality  for  the 
officers  of  the  old  army,  and  especially  for  the  graduates  of  West 

When  the  first  dragoons  was  organized  in  1833  (not  1832),  a  ci- 
vilian, who  had  served  with  distinction  as  colonel  of  the  regi- 
ment of  "Mounted  Rangers,"  formed  for  service  in  the  Black  Hawk 
war,  was  made  its  colonel,  and  all  the  other  officers  were  appointed 
by  selection,  a  considerable  number  being  taken  from  civil  life. 
When  the  second  dragoons  was  formed  in  1836,  the  lieutenant-col- 
onel was  taken  from  the  pay  department,  and  the  major,  and 
nearly,  if  not  quite  all  of  the  company  officers  were  taken  from 
civil  life.  In  the  case  of  the  eighth  infantry,  formed  in  1838,  the 
colonel  was  appointed  by  selection,  and  perhaps  the  most  of  the 
other  officers  by  promotion  from  the  other  infantry  regiments ;  and 
this  is  the  sole  case  in  the  history  of  the  United  States  army  in 
which  the  appointments  to  a  new  regiment  were  made  entirely 
from  among  the  officers  already  in  service.  When  the  mounted 
rifles  was  formed  in  1846,  the  colonel  and  most  of  the  other  officers 
were  civilians,  many  of  whom  had  come  into  service  in  the  Mexi- 
can war  as  officers  of  volunteers. 

When  the  two  regiments  of  cavalry  were  authorized  to  be  formed 
in  1855,  it  was  with  the  understanding  that  all  the  field  officers 
and  one-half  of  the  company  officers  should  be  taken  from  the 
army,  while  the  other  half  of  the  company  officers  should  be  taken 
from  civil  life.  This  arrangement  was  probably  adopted  in  order 
to  propitiate  the  politicians,  and  insure  the  passage  of  the  bill 
through  Congress.  The  power  and  duty  of  making  the  appoint- 
ments in  fact  devolved  on  Mr.  Pierce,  the  then  President,  but  he 
no  doubt  entrusted  to  Mr.  Davis,  an  educated  and  experienced  sol- 
dier, the  task  of  making  the  selections  from  the  army.  How  he 
performed  that  task  will  be  seen  from  the  following  list  of  his  ap- 
pointees who  bore  a  part  in  the  late  war: 

First  Cavalry. 

Colonel — 

Edwin  V.  Sumner,  Major-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army, 
commanding  corps  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac. 

Lieutenant-  Colonel — 

Joseph  E.  Johnston,  General  Confederate  States  army. 

Comments  on  Count  of  Paris'  Civil  War  in  America.  143 

Majors — 

Wm.  H.  Emory,  Major-General  Volunteers  and  corps  commander 

United  States  army. 
John  Sedgwick,  Major-General  Volunteers  and  corps  commander 

Army  of  Potomac. 

Captains — 

Delos  B.  Sackett,  Inspector-General  United  States  army. 
Thomas  J.  Wood,  Major-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
George  B.  McClellan,  Major-General  commanding  United  States 

army  and  Army  of  the  Potomac. 
Samuel   D.  Sturgis,  Brigadier-General  Volunteers,  United  States 

*Wm.  D.  DeSaussure,  Colonel  Confederate  States  army. 
*Wm.  S.  Walker,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
*George  T.  Anderson,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
Robert  S.  Garnett,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States   army — 

killed  in  action. 

First  Lieutenants — 

Wm.  N.  R.  Beale,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
George  H.  Steuart,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
James   Mcintosh,   Brigadier-General    Confederate  States   army — 

killed  in  action. 
Robert  Ransom,  Major-General  Confederate  States  army. 
Eugene  A.  Carr,  Brigadier- General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
*Alfred  Iverson,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
*Frank    Wheaton,   Brigadier-General   Volunteers,  United    States 


Second  Lieutenants — 

David  S.  Stanley,  Major-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
James  E.  B.  Stuart,  Major- General  Confederate  States  army — mor- 
tally wounded  in  action. 
Elmer  Otis,  Major  First  Cavalry  and  Colonel  by  brevet,  United 

States  army. 
James  B.  Mclntyre,  Major  Third  Cavalry  and  Colonel  by  brevet. 

United  States  army. 
*Eugene  W.  Crittenden,  Major  Fifth  Cavalry,  United  States  army. 
tAlbert    V.   Colburn,    Lieutenant-Colonel    on    staff   of   General 

fFrancis  L.  Vinton,  Brigadier-General  Volunteers,  United  States 

fGeorge  D.  Bayard,  Brigadier-General  Volunteers,  United  States 

army — killed  in  action. 
fL.  L.,  Major-General  Confederate  States  army, 
t Joseph  H.  Taylor,  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  A.  A.  General  United 

States  army. 

144  Southern  Iliswrical  Society  Papers. 

Second  Cavalry. 
Colonel — 

Albert  Sidney  Johnston,  General  Confederate  State  army — killed 
in  battle. 

Lieutenant-  Colonel — 

Eobert  E.  Lee,  General  Confederate  States  army. 

Majors — 

Wm.  J.  Hardee,  Lieutenant-General  Confederate  States  arm3^ 
George  H.  Thomas,  Major-General  United  States  army,  command- 
ing the  Army  of  the  Cumberland  and  Department  of  Ten- 

Captains — 

Earl  Van  Dorn,  Major-General  Confederate  States  array. 
Edmund  Kirby  Smith,  General  Confederate  States  army. 
James  Oakes,  Brigadier-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
Innis  N.  Palmer,  Major-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
George  Stoneman,  Major-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
*Albert  G.  Brackett,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Second  Cavalry  and  Col- 
onel by  brevet.  United  States  army. 
;{;Charles  J.  Whiting,  Major  Second  Cavalry,  United  States  army. 

First  Lieutenants — 

Nathan  G.  Evans,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
Richard  W.  Johnson,  Brigadier-General  Volunteers,  United  States 

Joseph  H.  McArthur,  Major  Third  Cavalry  United  States  army. 
Charles  W.  Field,  Major-General  Confederate  States  army. 
Kenner  Gerrard,  Brigadier-General  Volunteers,  United  States  army. 
*Walter  H.  Jenifer,  Colonel  Confederate  States  army. 
*Wm.  B.  Royall,  Major  Fifth  Cavalry,  Colonel  by  brevet,  United 

States  army. 

Second  Lieutenants — 

George  B.  Cosby,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
William  W.  Lowe,  Brigadier-General   Volunteers,  United  States 

John  B.  Hood,  General  Confederate  States  army. 
^Junius  B.  Wheeler,  Major  Engineers  and  Professor  of  Engineering 

and  the  Science  of  War  at  West  Point. 
fA.  Parker  Porter,  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  staff,  United  States  army. 
■fWesley  Owens,  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  staff.  United  States  army, 
t James  P.  Major,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army. 
fFitzhugh  Lee,  Major-General  Confederate  States  army. 

(Those  marked  with  *  taken  from  civil  life — with  f  graduates  of 

Comments  on  Count  of  Paris'  Civil  War  in  America.  145 

West  Point  1855  and  1856— with  ;{;  formerly  in  the  army,  but  taken 
from  civil  life ;  all  the  others  taken  from  the  army.) 

These  two  regiments,  from  the  appointments  made  during  Mr. 
Davis'  administration  of  the  War  Department,  furnished  to  the 
United  States  army  during  the  war — 
9  Major-Generals, 
9  Brigadier-Generals, 
1  Inspector-General,  and 
12  Field  and  staff  officers. 

31  in  all. 

Among  the  major-generals  was  one  commander-in-chief  of  the 
army,  and  afterwards  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac;  one  commander 
of  an  army  in  Tennessee,  and  three  corps  commanders. 

They  furnished  to  the  Confederate  army — 

5  Full  Generals, 

1  Lieutenant-General, 

6  Major-Generals, 

10  Brigadier-Generals,  and 

2  Colonels. 

24  in  all. 

There  were  three  lieutenants — P.  Stockton  and  J.  R.  Church, 
first  cavalry,  and  J.  T.  Sharf,  second  cavalry — in  Confederate  States 
army,  but  there  is  no  record  of  their  rank,  probably  on  the  staff. 

In  addition,  the  following  persons  appointed  second  lieutenants 
declined,  preferring  to  remain  in  other  branches  of  the  service : 

George  B.  Anderson,  Brigadier-General  Confederate  States  army — 
mortally  wounded  in  battle;  N.  Bowman  Switzer,  Colonel  Volun- 
teers, United  States  Army,  now  Major  Second  Cavalry  and  Briga- 
dier-General by  brevet. 

Does  the  whole  army  besides,  as  it  was  at  the  beginning  of  the 
war,  present  such  a  brilliant  record  as  that  presented  by  Mr.  Davis' 
appointees  to  the  first  and  second  cavalry  ? 

It  is  very  manifest  that,  in  performing  the  duty  assigned  him, 
Mr.  Davis  filled  those  two  regiments  with  officers  of  the  very  best 
military  talent  that  the  army  afforded. 

And  of  his  appointees,  there  are  at  present  in  the  United  States 

army : 

On  the  retired  list — 

Thomas  J.  Wood,  as  Major-General. 
Oeorge  Stoneman,  as  Major-General. 
Richard  W.  Johnson,  as  Major-General. 
Joseph  H.  McArthur,  as  Major. 

146  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

In  active  service — 

D.  B.  Sackett,  Colonel  and  Inspector-General. 

J.  N.  Palmer,  Colonel  Second  Cavalry,  and  Brigadier-General  by 

William.  H.  Emory,  Colonel  Fifth  Cavalry,  and  Major-General  by 

James   Oakes,   Colonel  Sixth  Cavalry,  and  Brigadier-General  by 

S.  D.  Sturgis,  Colonel  Seventh   Cavalry,   and  Major-General  by 

Frank  Wheaton,  Colonel  Second  Infantry,  and  Major-General  by 


D.  S.  Stanley,  Colonel  Twenty-second  Infantry,  and  Major-General 

by  brevet. 
A.  G.  Brackett,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Second  Cavalry,  and  Colonel  by 

E.  A.  Carr,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Fifth  Cavalry,  and  Major-General 

by  brevet. 
Elmer  Otis,  Major  First  Cavalry,  and  Colonel  by  brevet. 
William  B.  Royall,  Major  Fifth  Cavalry,  and  Colonel  by  brevet. 
Joseph   H.   Taylor,  Major,  Adjutant   General's   Department,  and 

Colonel  by  brevet. 
Junius  B.  Wheeler,  Professor  of  Engineering  and  Sciences  of  War 

at  West  Point,  Colonel  by  brevet. 

The  foregoing  exposition  shows  how  unjust,  both  to  Mr.  Davis 
and  the  officers  appointed  at  his  instance,  is  the  stricture  contained 
in  the  extract  from  the  book  of  the  Comte  de  Paris,  taken  in  its 
very  mildest  form.  If  the  passage  in  French  imports  what  the 
English  translation  does,  then  it  is  apparent  that  the  Comte  has 
been  the  victim  of  a  shameful  imposition  by  his  informant,  or  he 
has  been  exceedingly  careless  in  ascertaining  his  facts  and  most 
reckless  in  his  assertions. 

On  page  73,  the  author,  in  speaking  of  the  employment  of  the 
army  on  the  frontier  at  the  commencement  of  secession,  says : 
"  It  was  in  the  midst  of  this  active  and  instructive  life  that  the 
news  of  the  disruption  of  the  Union  reached  the  American  army. 
The  perfidious  foresight  of  the  late  Secretary  of  War,  Mr.  Floyd  J 
had  removed  the  whole  of  this  army  far  from  the  States,  while  his  I 
accomplices  in  the  South  were  preparing  to  rise  against  the  Fede- 
ral authority.  The  soldiers  had  been  honored  with  the  belief  that 
they  would  remain  faithful  to  their  flag.  Under  a  multitude  of 
pretexts,  the  Federal  forts  and  arsenals  had  been  dismantled  by 
the  very  men  whose  first  duty  was  to  watch  over  the  general  inte- 
rests of  the  nation;  and  the  garrisons  which  had  been  withdrawn! 


Comments  on  Count  of  Paris^  Civil  War  in  America.  147 

from  them,  to  be  scattered  over  Texas,  had  been  placed  under  the 
command  of  an  officer  who  seemed  to  have  been  onl}'  selected  for 
the  purpose  of  betraying  them." 

In  the  chapter  on  "  The  Federal  Volunteers,"  page  187,  he  says : 
"  The  Federal  Government,  therefore,  was  required  by  law  to  arm 
and  equip  the  volunteers;  but,  as  it  stood  in  need  of  everything 
at  the  moment  when  all  had  to  be  created  at  once — as  its  arsenals, 
which  would  have  been  insufficient  for  the  emergency  even  if  well 
supplied,  had  been  plundered  by  the  instigators  of  rebellion,  and 
could  not  even  furnish  a  musket,  a  coat,  or  a  pair  of  shoes  for  the 
improvised  defenders — most  of  the  States  themselves  undertook  to 
furnish  those  outfits  for  troops  which  they  raised." 

In  the  chapter  on  "The  Material  of  War,"  pages  307-8,  he  says: 
"The  Confederate  Government  could  not  count  upon  the  industry 
and  commerce  of  the  Rebel  States  to  supply  its  troops  with  provi- 
sions, equipments  and  arms  to  the  same  extent  as  its  adversary. 
But  at  the  outset  of  the  war  they  possessed  a  very  great  advan- 
tage. As  we  have  stated  elsewhere,  Mr.  Floyd,  Secretary  of  War 
under  President  Buchanan,  had  taken  care,  a  few  weeks  before  the 
insurrection  broke  out,  to  send  to  the  South  all  the  arms  which  the 
Government  possessed.  He  thus  forwarded  one  hundred  and  fif- 
teen thousand  muskets,  which,  being  added  to  those  already  in  the 
arsenals  of  Charleston,  Fayetteville,  Augusta,  Mount  Vernon,  Baton 
Rouge,  etc.,  secured  a  complete  armament  for  the  Confederate 
armies  of  superior  quality." 

Here  again  the  author  manifests  the  exceeding  carelessness  he 
has  exhibited  in  ascertaining  his  facts. 

The  army  of  the  United  States  had  always  been  very  small  in 
time  of  peace,  and  after  1855,  up  to  the  beginning  of  the  war,  con- 
sisted of  only  eight  regiments  of  infantry,  four  regiments  of  artiL 
lery,  and  five  mounted  regiments,  numbering  about  ten  or  eleven 
thousand  men  in  all.  The  great  bulk  of  that  army  had  been  em- 
ployed on  the  Western  frontier  as  a  protection  against  the  Indians 
from  time  immemorial,  and  Governor  Floyd,  as  Secretary  of  War, 
made  no  change  in  the  policy  of  the  Government  in  that  respect. 
General  Twiggs,  the  officer  alluded  to  as  having  been  selected  for 
the  purpose  of  betraying  the  troops  placed  under  him,  had  been 
on  frontier  duty  during  the  greater  part  of  his  military  life,  and 
had  been  in  command  in  Texas  from  a  period  dating  long  before 
secession  was  contemplated.  The  troops  under  him  that  are  rep- 
resented as  having  been  withdrawn  from  the  Federal  forts  and  ar- 

148  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

senals,  to'  be  scattered  over  Texas,  consisted  mainly  of  the  Second 
cavahy,  which  had  been  in  Texas  since  1856 — very  shortly  after 
its  organization.  If  the  author  had  taken  the  trouble  to  look  at 
Mr.  Buchanan's  message  to  Congress,  of  January  8th,  1861,  he 
would  have  found  in  reference  to  the  capture  of  the  forts  and  arse- 
nals in  some  of  the  Southern  States  this  statement:  "This  pro- 
perty has  long  been  left  without  garrisons  and  troops  for  its  protec- 
tion, because  no  person  doubted  its  security  under  the  flag  of  the 
country  in  any  State  of  the  Union.  Besides,  our  small  army  has 
scarcely  been  sufficient  to  guard  our  remote  frontier  against  Indian 
incursions."  The  truth  of  these  statements  of  Mr.  Buchanan  were 
of  easy  verification,  if  the  author  had  taken  the  trouble  to  make 
the  proper  inquiries  before  making  such  grave  charges  as  he  has 
recorded  in  a  work  in  which  he  claims  to  have  observed  "the 
strictest  impartiality." 

He  has  also  recorded  as  historical  facts  the  absurd  statements  of 
unscrupulous  partizans,  made  for  the  purpose  of  inflaming  the 
passions  of  the  Northern  populace,  that  the  arsenals  had  been 
plundered  of  all  the  arms  belonging  to  the  Government  by  Gover- 
nor Floyd,  and  that  said  arms  had  been  sent  South.  He  says  "  he 
has  examined  with  equal  care  the  documents  that  have  emanated 
from  both  parties."  If  this  be  true,  then  it  follows,  in  reference  to 
this  subject  of  the  removal  of  arms,  that  he  has  given  very  little 
attention  to  what  has  emanated  from  either  party.  He  has  en- 
tirely overlooked  two  reports  made  by  Mr.  Benjamin  Stanton, 
of  Ohio,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Military  Aflairs,  to  the 
House  of  Representatives,  one  on  the  9th  of  January,  1861,  and 
the  other  on  the  16th  of  February,  1861,  disproving  of  the  charges 
that  were  made  in  regard  to  the  sending  of  arnre  South  for  the 
purpose  of  aiding  the  Secessionists.  The  majority  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  was  then  Republican,  with  a  Republican 
Speaker,  and  Mr.  Stanton  and  a  majority  of  his  committee  were 
Republicans,  and  of  course  with  no  bias  to  induce  them  to  mis- 
state the  facts  to  screen  Governor  Floyd. 

From  those  reports,  and  the  evidence  accompanying  them,  it  ap- 
pears that  the  United  States  had  on  hand  in  its  arsenals  at  the 
North — mostly  at  Springfield — 499,554  muskets  of  the  old  percus-^ 
sion  and  flint-lock  patterns,  and  under  orders  given  by  Governor 
Floyd  in  December,  1859 — several  months  before  Mr.  Lincoln  was| 
nominated,  and  when  the  Democratic  party  was  confident  of  car- 
rying the  next  presidential  election — 105,000  of  these  muskets  were 

Comments  on  Count  of  Paris'  Civil  War  in  America.  149 

removed  to  arsenals  in  the  South,  which  were  comparatively  empty, 
and  at  the  same  time  there  were  removed  to  the  same  arsenals 
10,000  old  percussion  rifles.  These  constituted  the  115,000  muskets 
which  the  author  says  "secured  a  complete  armament  for  the  Con- 
federate armies  of  superior  quality,"  and  left  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment "in  need  of  everything  at  the  moment  when  all  had  to  be 
created  at  once,"  though  there  was  still  about  400,000  of  the  same 
kind  of  arms  left  in  Northern  arsenals.  It  also  appears  that  in 
1860,  under  the  law  for  arming  the  militia,  8,423  muskets  and 
1,728  long-range  rifles  were  distributed  among  the  States,  and  the 
Southern  States  received  of  the  muskets  2,091,  and  of  the  rifles 
758,  making  2,849  in  the  aggregate,  though  of  the  States  which 
were  among  the  first  to  secede  several  received  none  of  either 
kind  of  arms.  Mr.  Stanton,  in  his  report,  says:  "There  are  a  good 
deal  of  rumors,  and  speculations,  and  misapprehensions,  as  to  the 
true  state  of  facts  in  regard  to  this  matter." 

It  does  not  appear  that  any  cannon  were  sent  South  by  Governor 
Floyd,  but  it  appears  that  about  the  20th  of  December,  1860,  he 
gave  orders  for  the  guns  necessary  for  the  armament  of  the  forts 
on  Ship  Island  and  at  Galveston  to  be  sent  to  these  forts.  The 
orders  were,  however,  countermanded  by  his  successor  before  they 
were  carried  into  effect  or  a  single  gun  had  been  sent. 

The  author  has  very  probably  adopted  as  true  some  statements 
of  General  Scott's,  made  after  he  had  become  a  dotard,  though  it 
is  not  believed  that  even  he  went  to  the  extent  of  asserting  that 
the  United  States  had  not  "a  musket,  a  coat,. or  a  pair  of  shoes  for 
the  improvised  defenders." 

If  the  United  States  did  not  have  arms  to  issue  to  the  volunteers, 
and  the  States  h^d  to  furnish  them,  where  did  the  latter  get  them 
from  ?  None  of  the  States  had  any  manufactory  of  arms,  and  if 
they  had  to  buy  them,  was  their  credit  any  better  than  that  of  the 
Federal  Government?  The  statement  of  the  author  in  regard  to 
the  inability  of  the  Federal  Government  to  furnish  a  musket  to  its 
defenders,  is  calculated  to  provoke  a  smile  even  from  General 
Sherman,  who  has  commended  the  book  for  "its  spirit  of  fairness 
and  candor." 

That  the  Federal  army,  at  the  first  battle  of  Manassas,  was  far 
better  armed  and  equipped  than  the  Confederate  army  which  it 
encountered,  is  a  proposition  that  does  not  admit  of  dispute.  The 
former  army  had  a  portion  of  its  troops  armed  with  minnie  mus- 
kets and  long-range  rifles,  while  its  artillery  was  more  numerous 

150  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

and  of  much  better  quality  than  ours.  The  Confederate  troops  at 
that  battle  were  armed  almost  entirely  with  smooth-bore  muskets, 
most  of  which  had  been  altered  to  percussion  from  flint  locks, 
though,  perhaps,  there  were  a  few  rifles  that  had  been  rescued 
from  the  flames  at  Harper's  Ferry.  All  of  the  artillery  used  there 
by  us,  except  a  few  guns  brought  by  the  Washington  Artillery 
from  New  Orleans,  was  furnished  by  Virginia,  and  consisted 
mainly  of  the  old-fashioned  iron  smooth-bore  six-pounders,  for 
which  caissons  had  to  be  improvised  by  using  the  wheels  and  beds 
of  ordinary  wagons.  The  greater  portion,  if  not  all  of  the  per- 
cussion caps  used  by  us  in  the  battle,  had  been  manufactured  with 
a  machine  procured  and  put  in  operation  in  Richmond,  by  the 
Chief  of  Ordnance  of  Virginia,  after  the  secession  of  that  State. 
The  duty  had  been  devolved  on  me  to  organize  and  arm  the  Vir- 
ginia troops  mustered  into  the  service  at  Lynchburg,  and  I  there 
organized,  armed  and  sent  to  Manassas  two  regiments  of  infantry 
and  one  of  cavalry,  besides  several  companies  of  infantry  that 
were  sent  to  other  regiments.  The  infantry  was  armed  with  muskets, 
without  cartridge  boxes,  bayonet  scabbards  or  belts,  and  the  cavalry 
was  armed  partly  with  double-barrel  shot  guns,  collected  from  the 
surrounding  country,  and  partly  with  old  flint-lock  horseman 
pistols,  which  were  altered  to  percussion  under  my  orders,  while 
the  only  sabres  that  could  be  procured  for  the  men  consisted  of  a 
variety  of  old  patterns  of  that  weapon  collected  from  some  com- 
panies belonging  to  former  militia  organizations.  Upon  applica- 
tion to  the  Confederate  Ordnance  Department  at  Richmond,  I 
found  that  it  had  neither  cartridge-boxes,  &c.,  nor  cavalry  arms  to 
furnish  to  me.  Cartridge-boxes,  belts  and  bayonet  scabbards  were 
not  issued  to  my  own  regiment  until  a  day  or  tw6  before  the  en- 
gagement at  Blackburn's  ford,  on  the  18th  of  July,  and  they  were 
issued  to  a  part  of  the  regiment  on  the  morning  of  that  day,  hav- 
ing been  manufactured  subsequent  to  the  arrival  of  the  regiment 
at  Manassas. 

If  about  such  facts  as  those  referred  to  in  tlie  extracts  given  and 
commented  on — to  wit:  the  character  of  the  appointments  made  by 
Mr.  Davis  to  the  two  regiments  of  cavalry  in  1855,  the  purpose  of 
the  employment  of  the  troops  on  the  Western  frontier  in  1860,  the 
sending  of  arms  to  the  South,  and  the  relative  state  of  preparation 
of  the  two  governments  for  the  war — the  author  is  so  much  at  fault, 
when  the  evidence  to  disprove  all  his  statements  was  easily  at- 
tainable, how  can  we  expect  him  to  arrive  at  correct  conclusions 

Comments  on  Chant  of  Paris'  Civil  War  in  America.  151 

when  he  treats  of  the  points  in  dispute  in  regard  to  the  merits  of 
the  controversy  tliat  led  to  the  war,  or  in  regard  to  the  events  of 
the  war  itself  ? 

Notwithstanding  his  own  declaration  that  "  he  has  endeavored 
to  preserve  throughout  his  narrative  the  strictest  impartiality," 
and  that  of  the  editor  of  the  English  version  of  his  book,  that  "he 
has  produced  a  book  displaying  careful  research,  cool  judgment, 
and  a  manifest  purpose  to  be  just  to  all,"  it  is  very  apparent  that 
he  has  adopted  as  his  own  the  extreme  views  of  the  most  embit- 
tered of  the  Northern  Radical  Republicans  in  regard  to  the  South- 
ern people,  the  character  of  the  government  framed  by  the  authors 
of  the  Constitution,  the  merits  of  the  controversy  that  led  to  the 
war,  and  the  events  of  that  war,  so  far  as  he  has  undertaken  to  re- 
late them. 

Upon  the  subject  of  slavery,  he  has  formed  his  opinions  as  to 
the  character  and  conduct  of  the  slaveholders  and  the  condition  of 
the  slaves,  from  the  work  of  fiction  entitled  "Uncle  Tom's  Cabin," 
by  Mrs.  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe,  that  literary  ghoul  who  has 
shocked  the  moral  sense  of  all  decent  people  in  England  and 
America  by  exhuming  and  gloating  over  that  horrible  story  about 
Byron  and  his  sister,  which,  even  if  true,  should  have  been  allowed 
to  rest  in  that  oblivion  into  which  it  had  sunk;  and  the  diary  of 
Fanny  Kimble,  the  actress,  who,  in  order  to  vent  her  spleen  upon 
the  husband  from  whom  she  had  parted,  undertook  to  calumniate 
the  people  among  whom  he  had  been  born.  The  Comte  de  Paris 
adopts  without  question  the  statements  of  these  two  female  writers, 
one  of  whom  knew  nothing  and  the  other  very  little  of  the  practi- 
cal operation  of  slavery  in  the  South ;  but  he  gives  no  considera- 
tion to  such  testimony  as  the  published  letters  of  Miss  Murray,  an 
English  lady  of  real  refinement  and  culture— once  Maid  of  Honor 
to  Queen  Victoria,  who  visited  the  United  States  with  strong  pre- 
judices against  slavery,  but,  after  a  sojourn  of  some  months  on 
Southern  plantations,  changed  her  views,  and  gave  an  account  of 
the  physical  and  moral  condition  of  the  slaves  entirely  different 
from  that  given  by  Mrs.  Stowe  and  Miss  Fanny  Kimble. 

Considering  the  source  from  which  he  seems  generally  to  have 
obtained  the  facts  whereon  to  base  his  opinions,  it  is  not  a  matter 
of  much  surprise  that  his  book  should  contain  such  passages  as 
the  following:  "It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  States  which  de- 
fended the  Union  in  1S61  are  those  that  had  made  the  greatest 
sacrifices  to  establish  it,  while  those  that  raised  the  standard  of 

152  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

rebellion  against  it  are  also  those  that  had  the  least  right  to  call 
themselves  its  founders."    Page  7. 

In  speaking  of  the  slave  of  a  good  master,  he  says:  "In  short, 
his  owner  will  take  care  of  him,  will  not  impose  any  labor  above 
his  strength,  and  will  administer  to  his  material  wants  in  a  satis- 
factory manner,  precisely  as  he  will  do  for  the  animals  that  are 
working  by  his  side  mider  one  common  lash.  But,  in  order  that 
he  may  enjoy  this  pretended  good  fortune,  he  has  to  be  reduced  to 
the  moral  level  of  his  fellow-slaves  and  have  the  light  of  intelli- 
gence within  him  extinguished  forever;  for  if  he  carries  that  divine 
spark  in  his  bosom  he  will  be  unhappy,  for  he  will  feel  that  he  is 
a  slave."     Page  80. 

If  the  Comte  de  Paris  really  believes  that  this  picture  represents 
the  true  condition  of  the  negro  slave,  under  the  most  favorable  cir- 
cumstances, what  must  he  think  of  his  Northern  friends,  who  in 
March,  1867,  less  than  two  years  after  the  abolition  of  slavery  by 
the  result  of  the  war,  enacted  the  Reconstruction  Laws,  by  which 
they  disfranchised  a  large  portion  of  the  white  people  of  the  South, 
and  that  the  most  experienced  and  intelligent,  and  conferred  suf- 
frage on  the  recently  emancipated  slaves — by  which  the  latter  were 
entrusted  with  the  formation  of  constitutions  and  governments  for 
all  the  Southern  States?  What  does  he  think  of  the  fact  that  some 
of  those  emancipated  slaves,  within  whom  "the  light  of  intelli- 
gence "  had  been  "  extinguished  forever,"  have  even  occupied  seats 
•in  the  House  of  Representatives  and  in  the  Senate  of  the  United 
States?  Nay,  what  can  he  think  of  the  further  fact,  that  the  votes 
of  the  negroes  of  South  Carolina,  Florida  and  Louisiana  (where 
they  are  certainly  more  ignorant  and  depraved  than  in  other  part 
of  the  South),  as  ascertained  and  declared  by  certain  returning 
boards,  composed  in  one  case  of  half  negroes,  have  recently  settled 
the  question  of  the  election  of  a  President  of  the  United  States, 
against  a  majority  of  at  least  one  million  of  the  white  votes  of  the 
country  ? 

Either  he  must  be  mistaken  in  his  estimate  of  the  effects  of 
slavery  on  the  negro's  mental  and  moral  faculties,  or  the  people 
whom  he  so  admires,  and  whom  he  exalts  so  far  above  the  people  of 
the  South  in  refinement,  morals,  education,  intelligence  and  civili- 
zation, must  be  the  most  unmitigated  villains  in  this  wicked  world 
of  ours. 

In  speaking  of  the  classes  into  which  he  alleges  slavery  divided 
the  people  of  the  South,  he  says  of  the  class  which  he  designates 

Comments  on  Count  of  Pans'  Civil  War  in  America.  15(> 

as  "common  whites":  "This  was  the  jplebs  romana,  the  crowds  of 
clients  who  parade  with  ostentation  the  title  of  citizen,  and  only- 
exercise  its  privilege  in  blind  subserviency  to  the  great  slave- 
holders, who  were  the  real  masters  of  the  country.  If  slavery  had 
not  existed  in  their  midst,  they  would  have  been  workers  and 
tillers  of  the  soil,  and  might  have  become  farmers  and  small  pro- 
prietors. But  the  more  their  poverty  draws  them  nearer  to  the 
inferior  class  of  slaves,  the  more  anxious  are  they  to  keep  apart 
from  them,  and  they  spurn  work  in  order  to  set  off  more  ostenta- 
tiously their  qualities  of  freemen."     Page  87. 

Eeally  it  is  hard  to  conceive  from  what  source  the  Comte  could 
have  derived  this  information.  The  census  of  1860  shows  that  in 
all  the  slave  States,  except  South  Carolina  and  Mississippi,  the 
white  population  exceeded  not  only  the  slaves,  but  the  entire  col- 
ored population,  and  in  some  of  them  very  largely — the  white 
population  in  the  eleven  States  that  regularly  seceded  being 
5,447,199,  the  free  colored  132,760,  and  the  slaves  3,521,110,  while 
in  Kentucky  and  Missouri  the  white  population  was  from  four  to 
eight  times  the  number  of  slaves.  Now  it  is  well  known  that  the 
slaveholders  constituted  a  very  small  minority  of  the  white  popu- 
lation. How  was  it,  then,  that  the  non-slaveholding  whites  sub- 
sisted at  all,  if  they  owned  no  land  and  would  not  work  ?  Does 
the  Comte  mean  to  intimate  that  the  large  slaveholders  fed  and 
clothed  all  the  whites  who  were  not  slaveholders?  And  yet  his 
American  editor  says:  "In  a  large  and  philosophic  view  of  Ameri- 
can institutions  he  has  rivalled  DeTocqueville." 

To  point  out  all  the  numerous  errors  of  opinion,  speculation  and 
fact  contained  in  the  published  volume  of  his  "History,"  would 
be  an  interminable  task,  and  I  will  close  my  notice  of  the  author's 
mistakes  by  calling  attention  to  one  more  statement  on  pages 
141-2.  He  says:  "The  seceders  on  their  side  had  not  lost  a  mo- 
ment in  Virginia.  They  were  in  possession  of  Richmond  when 
the  convention  was  in  session;  they  surrounded  it,  threatening 
their  opponents  with  death,  and  extorted  from  it  the  ordinance  of 
secession,  which,  however,  was  passed  by  a  vote  of  only  eighty- 
eight  to  fifty-five." 

I  was  a  member  of  the  Virginia  Convention  which  adopted  the 
ordinance  of  secession,  and  voted  against  its  passage;  and  this  is 
the  first  that  I  have  ever  learned  of  the  convention  having  been 
surrounded  by  the  secessionists,  or  of  the  extortion  of  the  ordinance 
from  it  by  threats  of  death  or  of  any  other  violence.     That  ordi- 


154  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

nance  was  extorted  from  the  convention,  however,  but  it  was  by 
the  proclamation  of  Abraham  Lincoln,  and  his  threat  of  a  war  of 
coercion  in  the  seceded  States — a  war  that  the  great  bulk  of  the 
opponents  of  secession  in  the  convention  believed  to  be  unwar- 
ranted by  the  constitution. 

The  Comte  de  Paris,  in  a  letter  to  his  American  publishers, 
which  immediately  follows  his  preface,  says : 

"I  trust  that  my  account  of  these  great  events  will,  at  least,  not 
provoke  a  too  bitter  controversy;  for  if  I  have  been  obliged  to 
judge  and  censure,  I  have  done  so  without  any  personal  or  partial 
feeling  against  any  one,  with  a  sincere  respect  for  truth  and  a  keen 
sense  of  the  responsibility  which  I  assumed." 

I  am  disposed  to  give  him  credit  for  entire  sincerity  in  this  dec- 
laration, but  I  must  be  permitted  to  say  that  the  most  embittered 
partizan  of  the  North  could  not  have  done  greater  injustice  to  the 
South,  in  a  statement  of  the  causes  that  led  to  the  late  war,  than 
he  has  done  in  the  part  of  his  history  that  has  been  published. 

As  his  book  contains  statements  about  the  people  of  the  South 
that  I  know  to  be  entirely  without  foundation,  and  that  every  can- 
did man,  even  at  the  North,  would  declare  to  be  so,  and  as  he  has 
also  made  strictures  upon  the  character  of  the  Southern  people, 
their  cause  and  their  conduct,  that  are  exceedingly  harsh  and  un- 
just, he  must  pardon  me  for  saying  that  it  is  very  apparent  that  he 
has  not  had  access  to  truthful  sources  of  information,  or,  if  he  has 
had  access  to  such  sources,  he  has  turned  from  them  to  adopt  as 
his  conclusions  the  most  unfounded  slanders  of  our  bitterest  and 
most  prejudiced  enemies.  If  he  desires  to  continue  his  "History 
of  the  Civil  War  in  America,"  and  to  produce  a  work  of  real  his- 
toric value,  he  had  better  consign  to  the  flames  all  that  he  has  so 
far  published,  and  begin  his  task  de  novo,  after  devoting  his  atten- 
tion to  a  thorough  investigation  of  the  history  of  the  American 
people,  the  character  of  their  governments — State  and  Federal — the 
causes  that  led  to  the  late  conflict,  and  the  events  that  attended 
that  conflict;  for  it  is  impossible  to  eliminate  from  the  first  part  of 
his  work  the  innumerable  errors  which  it  contains  without  writing 
the  whole  over  again.  If  he  should  succeed  better  with  his  future 
volumes,  and  make  them  accurate,  to  attach  them  to  the  first 
would  present  a  most  incongruous  conjunction  of  truth  and  error. 

J.  A.  Early. 

The  Last  Confederate  Surrender.  155 

The  Last  Confederate  Surrender. 

By  Lt.-Geu.  Richard  Taylor. 

[The  following  is  one  of  a  series  of  "chapters  of  unwritten  liistory*'  now- 
being  published  in  the  Philadelphia  Weekly  Times.  Our  readers  will  thank 
lis  for  republishing  this  paper  of  our  distinguished  soldier.] 

To  write  an  impartial  and  unprejudiced  account  of  exciting  con- 
temporary events  has  always  been  a  difficult  task.  More  especi- 
ally is  this  true  of  civil  strife,  which,  like  all  "family  jars,"  evolves 
a  peculiar  flavor  of  bitterness.  But  slight  sketches  of  minor  inci- 
dents, by  actors  and  eye-witnesses,  may  prove  of  service  to  the  fu- 
ture writer,  who  undertakes  the  more  ambitious  and  severe  duty 
of  historian.     The  following  '"memoir  pour  servir"  has  this  object: 

In  the  summer  of  1SG4,  after  the  close  of  the  Red  river  cam- 
paign, I  was  ordered  to  cross  the  Mississippi  and  report  my  arrival 
on  the  east  bank  by  telegraph  to  Richmond.  All  the  fortified  posts 
on  the  river  were  held  by  the  Federals,  and  the  intermediate  por- 
tions of  the  stream  closely  guarded  by  gunboats  to  impede  and,  as 
far  as  possible,  prevent  passage.  This  delayed  the  transmission  of 
the  order  above-mentioned  until  August,  when  I  crossed  at  a  point 
just  above  the  mouth  of  the  Red  river.  On  a  dark  night,  in  a 
small  canoe,  with  horses  swimming  alongside,  I  got  over  without 
attracting  the  attention  of  a  gunboat  anchored  a  short  distance  be- 
low. Woodville,  Wilkinson  county,  Mississippi,  was  the  nearest 
place  in  telegraphic  communication  with  Richmond.  Here,  in  re- 
ply to  a  dispatch  to  Richmond,  I  was  directed  to  assume  command 
of  the  Department  of  Alabama,  Mississippi,  etc.,  with  headquarters 
at  Meridian,  Mississippi,  and  informed  that  President  Davis  would, 
at  an  early  day,  meet  me  at  Montgomery,  Alabama.  The  military 
situation  was  as  follows:  Sherman  occupied  Atlanta,  Hood  lying 
some  distance  to  the  southwest;  Farragut  had  forced  the  defences 
of  Mobile  bay,  capturing  Fort  Morgan,  etc.,  and  the  Federals  held 
Pensacola,  but  had  made  no  movement  into  the  interior. 


Major-General  Maury  commanded  the  Confederate  forces  garri- 
soning Mobile  and  adjacent  works,  with  Commodore  Farrand,  Con- 
federate Navy,  in  charge  of  several  armed  vessels.  Small  bodies  of 
troops  were  stationed  at  different  points  through  the  department, 
and  Major-General  Forrest,  with  his  division  of  cavalry,  was  in 
northeast  Mississippi.  Directing  this  latter  officer  to  move  his 
command  across  the  Tennessee  river,  and  use  every  effort  to  inter- 
rupt Sherman's  communications  south  of  Nashville,  I  proceeded 
to  Mobile  to  inspect  the  fortifications;  thence  to  Montgomery,  to 
meet  President  Davis.  The  interview  extended  over  many  hoiirs, 
and  the  military  situation  was  freely  discussed.     Our  next  meeting 

156  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

was  at  Fortress  Monroe,  where,  during  his  confinement,  I  obtained 
permission  to  visit  him.  The  closing  scenes  of  the  great  drama 
succeeded  each  other  with  startling  rapidity.  Sherman  marched, 
unopposed,  to  the  sea.  Hood  was  driven  from  Nashville  across 
the  Tennessee,  and  asked  to  be  relieved.  Assigned  to  this  duty  I 
met  him  near  Tupelo,  North  Mississippi,  and  witnessed  the  melan- 
choly spectacle  presented  by  a  retreating  army.  Guns,  small  arms 
and  accoutrements  lost,  men  without  shoes  or  blankets,  and  this  in 
a  winter  of  unusual  severity  for  that  latitude.  Making  every  effort 
to  re-equip  this  force,  I  suggested  to  General  Lee,  then  command- 
ing all  the  armies  of  the  Confederacy,  that  it  should  be  moved  to 
the  Carolinas,  to  interpose  between  Sherman's  advance  and  his 
(Lee's)  lines  of  supply,  and,  in  the  last  necessity,  of  retreat.  The' 
suggestion  was  adopted,  and  this  force  so  moved.  General  WilsoUy 
with  a  well  appointed  and  ably  led  command  of  Federal  cavalry, 
moved  rapidly  through  North  Alabama,  seized  Selma,  and  turning 
east  to  Montgomery,  continued  into  Georgia. 

General  Canby,  commanding  the  Union  armies  in  the  Southwest, 
advanced  up  the  Eastern  shore  of  Mobile  bay,  and  invested  Span- 
ish fort  and  Blakely,  important  Confederate  works  in  that  quarter. 
After  repulsing  an  assault,  General  Maury,  in  accordance  with  in- 
structions, withdrew  his  garrisons  in  the  night  to  Mobile,  and  then 
evacuated  the  cit}^  falling  back  to  Meridian,  on  the  line  of  the 
Mobile  and  Ohio  railway.  General  Forrest  was  drawn  in  to  the 
same  point,  and  the  little  army,  less  than  eight  thousand  of  all 
arms,  held  in  readiness  to  discharge  such  duties  as  the  waning  for- 
tunes of  the  "cause"  and  the  honor  of  its  arms  might  demand. 


Intelligence  of  Lee's  surrender  reached  us.  Staff  officers  from 
Johnston  and  Sherman  came  across  the  country  to  inform  Canby 
and  myself  of  their  "convention."  Whereupon,  an  interview  was 
arranged  between  us  to  determine  a  course  of  action,  and  a  place 
selected  ten  miles  north  of  Mobile,  near  the  railway.  Accompanied 
by  a  staff  officer,  Colonel  William  M.  Levy  (now  a  member  of 
Congress  from  Louisiana),  and  making  use  of  a  "hand  car,"  I 
reached  the  appointed  spot,  and  found  General  Canby  with  a  large 
escort,  and  many  staff  and  other  officers.  Among  these  I  recog- 
nized some  old  friends,  notably  General  Canby  himself  and  Admi- 
ral James  Palmer.  All  extended  cordial  greetings.  A  few  mo- 
ments of  private  conversation  with  Canby  led  to  the  establishment 
of  a  truce,  to  await  further  intelligence  from  the  North.  Forty- 
eight  hours'  notice  was  to  be  given  by  the  party  desiring  to  termi- 
nate the  truce.  We  then  joined  the  throng  of  officers,  and  although 
every  one  present  felt  a  deep  conviction  that  the  last  hour  of  the 
sad  struggle  approached,  no  allusion  was  made  to  it.  Subjects, 
awakening  memories  of  the  past,  when  all  were  sons  of  a  loved, 
united  country,  were,  as  by  the  natural  selection  of  good  breeding, 
chosen.     A  bountiful  luncheon  was  soon  spread,  and  I  was  invited 

The  Last  Confederate  Surrender.  157 

to  partake  of  patis,  champagne-frappe,  and  other  "delights,"  which 
to  me  had  long  been  as  lost  arts.  As  we  took  our  seats  at  table,  a 
military  band  in  attendance  commenced  playing  "Hail  Columbia." 
Excusing  himself.  General  Canby  walked  to  the  door.  The  music 
ceased  for  a  moment,  and  then  the  strain  of  "  Dixie  "  was  heard. 
Old  Froissart  records  no  gentler  act  of  "  courtesie."  Warmly 
thanking  General  Canby  for  his  delicate  consideration,  I  asked  for 
*'Hail  Columbia,"  and  proposed  we  should  unite  in  the  hope  that 
our  Columbia  would  soon  be,  once  more,  a  happy  land.  This  and 
other  kindred  sentiments  were  duly  honored  in  "frapi)e,"  and  after 
much  pleasant  intercourse,  the  party  separated. 


The  succeeding  hours  were  filled  with  a  grave  responsibility, 
which  could  not  be  evaded  or  shared.  Circumstances  had  appointed 
me  to  watch  the  dying  agonies  of  a  cause  that  had  fixed  the  atten- 
tion of  the  world.  To  my  camp,  as  the  last  refuge  in  the  storm, 
came  many  members  of  the  Confederate  Congress.  These  gentle- 
men were  urged  to  go  at  once  to  their  respective  homes,  and,  by 
precept  and  example,  teach  the  people  to  submit  to  the  inevitable, 
obey  the  laws,  ancl  resume  the  peaceful  occupations  on  which  so- 
ciety depends.  This  advice  was  followed,  and  with  excellent  effect 
on  public  tranquility. 

General  Canby  dispatched  that  his  government  disavowed  the 
Johnston-Sherman  convention,  and  it  would  be  his  duty  to  resume 
hostilities.  Almost  at  the  sanip  instant  came  the  news  of  Johnston's 
surrender.  There  was  no  room  for  hesitancy.  Folly  and  madness 
combined  would  not  have  justified  an  attempt  to  prolong  a  hope- 
less contest. 

General  Canby  was  informed  that  I  desired  to  meet  him  for  the 
purpose  of  negotiating  a  surrender  of  my  forces,  and  that  Comn^o- 
dore  Farrttnd,  commanding  the  armed  vessels  in  the  Alabama  river, 
desired  to  meet  Rear  Admiral  Thatcher  for  a  similar  purpose. 
Citronville,  some  forty  miles  north  of  Mobile,  was  the  appointed 
place,  and  there  in  the  early  days  of  May,  1865,  the  great  war  vir- 
tually ended. 

After  this,  no  hostile  gun  was  fired,  and  the  authority  of  the 
United  States  was  supreme  in  the  land.  Conditions  of  surrender 
were  speedily  determined,  and  of  a  character  to  soothe  the  pride 
of  the  vanquished  ;  officers  to  retain  side-arms,  troops  to  turn  in 
arms  and  equipments  to  their  own  ordnance  officers,  so  of  the 
quartermaster  and  commissary  stores;  the  Confederate  cotton  agent 
lor  Alabama  and  Mississippi  to  settle  his  accounts  with  the  Treasury 
Agent  of  the  United  States;  muster  rolls  to  be  prepared,  etc.;  trans- 
portation to  be  provided  for  the  men.  All  this  under  my  control 
and  supervision.  Here  a  curious  incident  may  be  mentioned.  _  At 
an  early  period  of  the  war,  when  Colonel  Sidney  Johnston  retired 
to  the  south  of  Tennessee  river,  Isham  G.  Harris,  Governor  of 
Tennessee,  accompanied  him,  taking,  at  the  same  time,  the  coin 

158  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

from  the  vaults  of  the  State  Bank  of  Tennessee,  at  Nashville.  This 
coin,  in  the  immediate  charge  of  a  bonded  officer  of  the  bank,  had 
occasioned  much  solicitude  to  the  Governor  in  his  many  wander- 
ings. He  appealed  to  me  to  assist  in  the  restoration  of  the  coin  to 
the  bank.  At  my  request,  General  Canby  detailed  an  officer  and 
escort,  and  the  money  reached  the  bank  intact.  This  is  the  Gov- 
ernor Harris  recently  elected  United  States  Senator  by  his  State. 


The  condition  of  the  people  of  Alabama  and  Mississippi  was  at 
this  time  deplorable.  The  waste  of  war  had  stripped  large  areas 
of  the  necessaries  of  life.  In  view  of  this,  I  suggested  to  General 
Canby  that  his  troops,  sent  to  the  interior,  should  be  limited  to  the 
number  required  for  the  preservation  of  order,  and  be  stationed  at 
points  where  supplies  were  more  abundant.  That  trade  would  soon 
be  established  between  soldiers  and  people — furnishing  the  latter 
with  currency,  of  which  they  were  destitute — and  friendly  relations 
promoted.  These  suggestions  were  adopted,  and  a  day  or  two  there- 
after, at  Meridian,  a  note  was  received  from  General  Canb}^,  inclosing 
copies  of  orders  to  Generals  Granger  and  Steele,  commanding  army 
corps,  by  which  it  appeared  these  officers  were  directed  to  call  on 
me  for  and  conform  to  advice  relative  to  movements  of  their  troops. 
Strange,  indeed,  must  such  confidence  appear  to  statesmen  of  the 
"  bloody-shirt "  persuasion.  In  due  time.  Federal  staff-officers 
reached  my  camp.  The  men  were  paroled  and  sent  home.  Public 
property  was  turned  over  and  receipted  for,  and  this  as  orderly  and 
quietly  as  in  time  of  peace  between  officers  of  the  same  service. 

What  years  of  discord,  bitterness,  injustice  and  loss  would  not 
our  country  have  been  spared  had  the  wounds  of  war  healed  "  by 
first  intention  "  under  the  tender  ministrations  of  the  hands  that 
fought  the  battles !  But  the  task  was  allotted  to  ambitious  partisans, 
most  of  whom  had  not  heard  the  sound  of  a  gun.  As  of  old,  the 
Lion  and  the  Bear  fight  openly  and  sturdily — the  stealthy  Fox 
carries  off  the  prize. 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  159 

Edittirial  Ifat^agraphs. 

Colonel  Jones'  Confederate  Roster  is  concluded  in  this  number. 
We  repeat  that  before  publishing  it  in  separate  book  form,  the  author  will 
throuo^hly  revise  and  correct  it,  and  it  will  be  esteemed  a  favor  if  any  one 
detecting  errors  or  omissions,  will  at  once  write  to  tliis  office,  or  direct  lo 
Colonel  Charles  C.  Jones,  Jr.,  Box  5549,  New  York  city. 

Renewals  have  been  steadily  coming  in  ;  but  we  are  compelled  to  drop 
from  our  mailing  list  the  names  of  a  number  of  subscribers  from  whom  we 
have  not  yet  heard.  We  beg  that  our  subscribers  will  not  only  renew 
promptly  themselves,  but  that  they  will  use  their  influence  to  induce  others 
to  do  so. 

New  Subscribers  are  being  added  to  our  list  in,  perhaps,  as  large  num- 
bers as  we  could  expect  these  '•  hard  times."  But  we  are  anxious  to  extend 
the  sphere  of  our  usefulness  by  greatly  increasing  our  subscription  list,  and 
we  beg  our  friends  to  help  us  in  this.  It  can  be  done  verj^  easily  if  each  sub- 
scriber will  endeavor  to  add  another  to  our  list. 

Agents  are  very  much  needed  by  us  to  push  our  work  in  every  commu- 
nity. To  energetic,  efficient,  reliable  agents,  who  will  make  us  fi-equent 
reports  and  prompt  returns  for  all  subscribers  secured  (and  we  want  none 
others),  we  can  pay  a  liberal  commission.  And  we  would  be  obliged  to  our 
friends  for  any  help  they  may  afford  us  in  securing  suitable  agents. 

"The  Houdon  Statue,  its  History  and  Value,"  is  the  title  of  a 
pamphlet  by  Sherwin  McRae,  Esq.,  which  was  published  by  order  of  the 
Senate  of  Virginia,  and  for  a  copy  of  which  we  are  indebted  to  Col.  James 
McDonald,  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth.  The  author  discusses,  ably  and 
exhaustively,  "  Washington— his  person  as  represented  by  the  artists ;" 
gives  a  full  history  of  the  Houdon  Statue,  and  shows  beyond  all  reasonaJjle 
doubt  that  not  Stuart's  portrait,  nor  any  one  of  the  many  other  pictures 
taken  of  him,  but  Houdon's  Statue  is  the  true  likeness  of  Washington ; 
and  that  wlien  Lafayette  said,  after  seeing  this  noble  work  of  art,  that  it  was 
^'A  facsimile  of  Washington'' s  pirsoa^''''  he  but  expressed  the  conviction  of 
all  who  were  familiar  with  the  great  original. 

Virginia  is  indeed  fortunate  in  having  in  her  State  Capitol  this  splendid 
work  of  art,  which  is,  at  the  same  time,  a  facsimile  of  the  person  of  her 
illustrious  son  who  led  to  a  successful  issue  the  first  Great  Rebellion ;  and 

160  Southern  historical  Society  Pape7's. 

we  should  see  to  it  that  Yankee  enterprise  is  not  pennittod  to  pahn  off  some 
otlier  picture  as  tlie  true  likeness  of  tlie  "Father  of  IIi<  Country." 

The  genius  of  our  talented  artist  (Valentine)  has  produced  busts  wliich  are 
exact  copies  of  the  Houdon  Statue,  and  we  should  ri^-Joice  to  see  tiiese  scat- 
tered widely  through  the  land. 

And  now  we  want  a  facsimile  (not  an  ideal)  of  our  second  Washington — 
the  chieftain  of  the  second  "  Great  Rebellion '" — the  immortal  Lee,  who,  while 
not  successful,  will  be  written  down  in  history  as  deserving  success,  and  will 
live  forever  in  tlie  hearts  of  all  true  lovers  of  liberty.  We  have  this_/ac- 
simile  in  Valentine's  splendid  recmnhent Jigxire  at  Lexington,  and  hope  to 
have  it  also  when  tlie  "Lee  Monument  Association"  shall  have  completed 
tlieir  work,  and  placed  their  equestrian  statue  at  Richmond. 

Contributions  to  our  Archives  are  still  gratefully  appreciated. 
Among  others  we  acknowledge  the  following  : 

From  Graves  Reufroe^  Esq.,  of  Talladega,  Alabama — "History  and  De- 
bates of  the  Convention  of  the  People  of  Alabama,"  begun  in  Montgomery 
January  7th,  1861,  by  Hon.  William  R.  Smith,  one  of  the  delegates  from 
Tuscaloosa.  This  book  contains  the  speeches  made  in  secret  session,  and 
many  State  papers  of  interest  and  value,  and  is  a  highly  prized  addition  to 
our  library,  as  well  as  a  renewed  evidence  of  the  interest  taken  in  our  work 
by  our  young  friend,  Mr.  Reufroe. 

From  Mcjor  Powhatan  Ellis,  of  Gloucester  county,  Virginia — Hardee's 
Tactics  (Confederate  Edition)  published  at  Jackson,  Mississippi,  ISGl;  a 
bundle  of  war  papers,  and  a  number  of  issues  of  the  Richmond  PT/wg' and 
other  papers  for  1865.  These  papers  contain  a  large  number  of  important 
official  reports,  and  other  matters  of  great  interest  and  value,  and  Major 
Ellis  has  placed  the  Society  under  obligation  for  these  as  well  as  for  previous 

From  J.  F.  Mayer,  Riclimond — "Tlie  Unveiling  of  Divine  Justice  in  the 
Great  Rebellion  :  A  Sermon  by  Rev.  T.  H.  Robinson,  of  Harrisburg,  Pennsyl- 
vania." This  production  is  valuable  as  a  specimen  of  the  barkings  of  the 
"blood-hounds  of  Zion."  "Rifle  and  Light  Infantry  Tactics,"  an  edition 
of  Hardee  published  at  Jackson,  Mississippi,  in  1861. 

From  A.  Barron  Holmes,  Esq.,  Charleston,  South  Carolina — "Gregg's 
History  of  the  Old  Cheraws  " ;  "  Gibbes'  Documentary  History  of  South 
Carolina,"  1781-82;  "History  of  the  South  Carolina  Jockey  Club,"  by  Dr. 
John  B.  Irving;  "The  Pleiocene  Fossils  of  South  Carolina,"  by  M.  Tuomey 
and  F.  S.  Holmes;  The  Post  Pleiocene  Fossils  of  South  Carolina,"  by  F.  S. 
Holmes.  (These  copies  of  Profesor  Holmes'  great  work  are  now  out  of  print, 
as  the  drawings,  lithographs,  etc.,  were  all  "  confiscated  "  in  Philadelphia 
soon  after  the  breaking  out  of  the  late  war.) 

From  Hon.  James  Lyons,  Richmond — His  letter  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States  in  July,  1869,  in  relation  to  his  right  to  registration  and  voting 
in  the  Virginia  election  of  1869. 



m  II 

Yol.  III. 

Riclimond,  Ta.,  April,  1877. 

No.  4. 

Report  of  Major- General  Carter  L.  Steyenson  of  the  Tennessee 


[We  print  the  following  report  from  General  Stevenson's  own  MS.  Its 
value  is  increased  by  the  fact  that  this  account  of  the  operations  of  the 
division  of  this  accomplished  soldier  on  that  memorable  campaign  has  never 
before  been  published  in  any  form,  so  far  as  we  know.] 

Headquarters  Stevenson's  Division, 
"■In  the^field,'"  January  20th,  1865. 

Major — I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  of  the 
operations  of  my  division  during  the  recent  campaign  in  Tennes- 

The  march  from  Palmetto  to  the  front  of  Columbia  was  without 
incident  worthy  of  mention,  except,  perhaps,  the  demonstration 
upon  Resaca,  Georgia,  in  which  my  command  acted  with  spirit  in 
the  skirmishing  which  resulted  in  driving  the  enemy  within  their 
works.  My  loss  was  numerically  insignificant  at  this  point,  but 
amongst  the  killed  was  numbered  the  gallant  soldier  and  genial 
gentleman,  Colonel  F.  K.  Beck,  Twenty-third  Alabama  regiment. 
By  his  fall  my  division  lost  a  chivalrous  soldier  and  his  native 
ytate  one  of  her  worthiest  sons. 

Upon  our  arrival  in  front  of  Columbia,  my  position  in  line  was 
assigned  from  the  right  of  the  Mount  Pleasant  pike,  the  front  of 
the  division  in  line  of  battle.  The  investment  was  characterized 
by  nothing  of  interest,  as  far  as  my  division  was  concerned.  A 
desultory  skirmish  fire  was  kept  up  most  of  the  time.  My  losses 
here  were  few. 

On  the  night  of  the  27th  November,  my  scouts  reported  that 
there  were  indications  that  the  enemy  were  evacuating  Columbia. 
I  immediately  increased  the  number  of  scouts,  and  about  an  hour 
before  day  sent  forward  the  Eighteenth  and  Third  Tennessee  regi- 
ments (consolidated),  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
W.  R.  Butler,     He  found  the  reports  of  the  scouts  to  be  correct, 

162  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

and  occupied  the  town  without  opposition.  I  then  moved  forward 
my  division,  except  Cumming's  brigade  (commanded  on  the  cam- 
paign by  Colonel  E.  P.  Watkins,  Fifty-sixth  Georgia),  which,  by 
General  Lee's  order,  was  sent  down  the  river  to  press  those  of  the 
enemy  who  had  taken  that  route,  and  endeavor  to  save  the  railroad 
bridge,  which,  however,  had  been  fired  before  their  arrival.  In  the 
fort  at  Columbia  we  secured  a  large  amount  of  howitzer  and  small 
arm  amunition  and  two  siege  howitzers.  Colonel  Butler  had  im- 
mediately upon  gaining  possession  of  the  town  sent  a  force  to  the 
ford  of  Duck  river.  The  enemy's  skirmishers  were  found  to  be  in 
large  force  on  the  opposite  bank  and  the  enemy  in  position  behind 
works  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  river.  He  immedi- 
ately moved  down  his  command,  and  skirmished  with  them 
briskly.  The  Sixtieth  North  Carolina,  coming  up  soon  after,  was 
sent  further  up  the  bank  of  the  river  to  a  point  from  which  they 
obtained  a  flanking  fire  upon  the  enemy.  This  drove  them  back  from 
the  immediate  bank  of  the  river.  Orders  were  soon  after  received 
to  discontinue  the  skirmishing.  On  the  night  of  that  day,  General 
Hood,  with  Cheatham's  and  Steuart's  corps  and  Johnson's  division 
of  Lee's  corps,  crossed  Duck  river  some  miles  above  Columbia,  and 
pushed  for  the  enemy's  rear,  leaving  General  Lee,  with  Clayton's 
and  my  division  to  occupy  the  enemy  in  front  until  he  should 
have  reached  his  position,  then  to  force  a  crossing  of  the  river  and 
attack  the  enemy  as  he  attempted  to  extricate  himself.  The  greater 
part  of  the  next  day  was  spent  in  preparations  for  this  movement. 
The  bank  of  the  river  was  quite  steep  on  the  side  held  by  the 
enemy.  A  pontoon  boat,  in  charge  of  Captain  Ramsay,  engineer, 
was  taken  down  the  river  under  a  galling  fire,  launched,  and  could 
there,  under  the  cover  of  our  artiller}^  and  skirmish  fire,  be  used 
without  much  exposure  in  ferrying  our  troops.  This  was  done 
with  all  practicable  rapidity,  the  troops  as  they  crossed  forming 
under  the  cover  of  the  steep  bank  to  which  I  have  alluded.  About 
an  hour  before  sunset  I  had  succeeded  in  crossing  three  (3)  regi- 
ments of  Pettus'  brigade,  Brigadier- General  Pettus  in  command. 
The  Twentieth  Alabama  regiment  (Colonel  I.  M.  Dedman)  of  his 
brigade  had  previously  been  sent  up  the  bank  of  the  river  to  obtain 
a  flanking  fire  upon  the  enemy,  and  the  Thirtieth  Alabama  (Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel J.  K.  Elliott)  was  retained  on  the  Columbia  side  to 
cover  the  ford  in  case  of  any  failure.  Everything  being  made 
ready,  I  directed  General  Pettus  to  advance,  and  his  command 
dashed  forward  at  the  word,  driving  the  enemy  before  them  by  a 

General  Stevenson's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaiifn.         1G3 

charge  which  elicited  the  warmest  admiration  of  all  who  witnessed 
it.  Their  loss  was  slight ;  that  of  the  enemy  so  considerable  that 
to  explain  the  affair,  the  commander  of  the  enemy  saw  fit  to  attri- 
bute to  an  entire  division  an  attack  made  by  three  (3)  of  its  regi- 
ments. Having  driven  the  enemy  within  their  main  line,  General 
Pettus  halted,  selected  a  position  to  prevent  the  enemy  from  inter- 
rupting the  laying  of  the  pontoons,  and  was  subsequently  rein- 
forced by  the  rest  of  his  brigade  and  by  Holtzclavv's  brigade  of  Clay- 
ton's division.  The  pontoon  bridge  was  then  laid  with  all  practi- 
cable expedition.  During  the  night  General  Pettus  reported  that 
the  enemy  was  retiring,  and  he  following  with  his  skirmishers. 
This  was  as  anticipated,  and  orders  had  already  been  given  by 
General  Lee  to  have  everything  in  readiness  to  move,  coupled  with 
the  statement  that  General  Hood  had  advised  him  that  he  was  be- 
tween the  enemy  and  Nashville,  near  Spring  Hill.  At  daybreak  1 
put  my  division  in  motion,  in  rear  of  Clayton's.  Upon  arriving  at 
•  Spring  Hill,  we  were  informed  that  from  some  cause,  which  has 
not  been  explained,  the  enemy  had  been  suflered  to  pass  unat- 
tacked  along  the  road  commanded  by  the  troops  which  the  Com- 
manding General  took  with  him.  We  were  then  ordered  to  push 
on  to  Franklin.  My  division  was  halted  about  dusk  in  three  miles 
of  that  place,  and  took  no  part  in  the  battle.  During  the  night 
the  division  was  put  in  position,  preparatory  to  an  assault,  which 
it  was  announced  was  to  be  made  by  the  entire  arm}''  at  daybreak. 
The  enemy,  however,  evacuated  the  town  before  the  hour  for  the 
assault.  We  then  advanced  to  within  a  few  miles  of  Nashville, 
and  threw  up  a  line  of  works — my  position  being  on  the  right  and 
left  of  the  Franklin  pike.  Several  new  lines  were  built,  but  my 
I)Osition  with  regard  to  the  pike  remained  unchanged. 

Until  the  opening  of  the  battles  around  Nashville,  nothing  of 
interest  transpired  in  my  command,  except  the  part  taken  by  my 
skirmishers,  commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  B.  l^ibb.  Twenty- 
third  Alabama,  in  a  demonstration  made  b}'  Lee's  corps.  The 
enemy's  skirmishers  were  driven  by  a  greatly  inferior  force  from 
all  of  their  entrenched  positions.  My  skirmishers  were  handsomely 
handled,  and  did  their  work  with  a  dash  and  gallantry  which 
deserve  praise.  Just  before  this  demonstration.  Palmer's  brigade 
(consolidated  from  Brown's  and  Reynold's  old  brigades),  was  de- 
tached and  ordered  to  report  to  Major-General  N.  B.  Forrest  in 
front  of  Murfreesboro'.  It  remained  so  detached  from  the  division 
until  it  reached  Bear  creak,  on  this  side  of  Barton's  station. 

164  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

On  the  15th  of  December  the  battle  in  front  of  Nashville  opened. 
Except  some  unimportant  skirmishing,  my  division  took  no  part 
in  that  day's  fight;  although  its  position  was  frequently  shifted, 
and  the  line  greatly  attenuated,  to  fill  vacancies  in  the  works 
caused  by  the  withdrawal  of  the  troops.  On  the  next  day  the 
enemy  advanced  early  in  heavy  force  in  front  of  the  new  line, 
which  we  had  constructed  late  the  previous  night,  my  division 
extending  its  entire  length,  part  of  it  in  two  and  part  in  one  thin 
rank,  from  a  short  distance  to  the  left  of  the  Franklin  pike.  The 
skirmishers  of  the  right  of  Lee's  corps,  Clayton's  and  mine  main- 
tained their  positions  so  well,  though  in  small  force,  that,  in  their 
subsequent  accounts,  the  enemy  have  seen  fit  to  magnify  the  affair 
with  them  into  a  desperate  assault  by  two  corps  upon  our  first  line, 
Tivhich  was  finally  successful,  but  attended  with  heavy  loss.  Soon 
afterward  their  forces  advanced  to  the  assault,  principally  upon  a 
part  of  General  Clayton's  line  and  upon  Pettus'  brigade  of  my  di- 
vision— exposing,  in  their  assault  upon  Pettus,  their  flank  to  a  fire 
from  Cumming  s  brigade.  Their  success  the  previous  day  had  em- 
boldened them,  and  they  rushed  forward  with  great  spirit,  only  to 
1)6  driven  back  with  dreadful  slaughter.  Finding  at  last  that  they 
€0uld  make  no  impression  upon  our  lines,  they  relinquished  their 
attempts,  and  contented  themselves  with  keeping  up  an  incessant 
fire  of  small  arms  at  long  range,  and  an  artillery  fire  which  I  have 
never  seen  surpassed  for  heaviness,  continuance  and  accuracy. 
This  state  of  things  continued  until  evening — doing,  however,  but 
little  damage,  my  men  keeping  closely  in  the  trenches,  and  per- 
fectly cool  and  confident. 

Towards  evening  General  Lee  sent  me  information  "that  things 
were  going  badly  on  the  left,"  and  that  "it  might  be  necessary  to 
retire  under  cover  of  the  approaching  night."  I  at  once  hurried 
off  orders  for  the  artillery  horses — which  had  been  removed  some 
distance  to  the  rear  to  protect  them  from  the  fire  of  the  enemy's 
artillery,  under  which  they  could  not  have  lived  half  an  hour — to 
be  brought  up.  [It  is  proper  to  observe  that  about  the  middle  of 
the  day  mist  and  rain  arose,  which  entirely  prevented  my  seeing 
anything  that  was  going  on  beyond  my  own  line.]  The  messen- 
gers had  hardly  gone  for  the  horses  before  the  break  which,  com- 
mencing some  distance  beyond  the  left  of  Lee's  corps,  extended  to 
my  line.  Seeing  it,  the  men  on  my  left  commenced  leaving  the 
works;  but,  at  the  call  of  their  officers,  returned  at  once,  and  held 
the  line  until  the  enemy  were  in  fifty  steps  of  them  on  their  flank 

General  Stevenson's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaign.         1G5 

and  pouring  a  fire  into  them  from  the  flank  and  rear.  When  tlie 
true  situation  of  affairs  became  apparent,  and  it  was  evident  that 
the  whole  army,  with  the  exception  of  my  division  and  Clayton's, 
had  been  broken  and  scattered,  the  order  for  their  withdrawal  was 
given — an  eff"ort  being  made  to  deploy  skirmishers  from  my  left 
brigade,  at  right  angles  to  the  works,  to  cover  in  some  measure  the 
movement.  Amidst  the  indescribable  confusion  of  other  troops, 
and  with  the  enemy  pouring  in  their  fire  upon  their  flank  and 
from  the  front  (having  rushed  towards  the  break  and  then  forward, 
when  they  perceived  that  the  troops  on  my  left  had  broken),  it  was 
impossible  to  withdraw  the  command  in  order,  and  it  became  con- 
siderably broken  and  confused.  Many  of  them  were  unable  to 
get  out  of  the  trenches  in  time  and  were  captured.  All  this  hap- 
pened in  as  short  a  time  as  it  has  taken  to  describe  it.  The  artil- 
lery horses  of  Rowan's  battery  on  the  left  of  my  line  could  not  be 
brought  up  in  time,  and  one  of  the  guns  of  Cuput's  battery  was 
lost  by  being  driven  at  full  speed  against  a  tree  and  the  carriage 
broken.  The  different  brigade  and  regimental  commanders  had 
sent  off"  their  horses,  there  being  no  protection  for  them  near  the 
breastworks,  and  being  thus  unable  to  move  about  more  rapidly 
than  the  men,  were  prevented  from  reforming  their  commands  as 
quickly  as  could  have  been  desired  and  extricating  them  from  the 
throng  of  panic-stricken  stragglers  from  other  commands  who 
crowded  the  road.  This  was  done  at  last,  and  the  line  of  march 
taken  up  for  Franklin.  On  the  way  I  received  orders  from  General 
Lee  to  leave  Pettus"  brigade  at  Hollow  Tree  Gap,  to  assist  in  bring- 
ing up  the  rear,  and  to  proceed  with  Cumming's  brigade  and  bi- 
vouac near  the  battle-field  at  Franklin,  leaving  guards  upon  the 
road  to  stop  the  stragglers  of  the  army.  The  next  morning,  by 
General  Lee's  order,  I  returned  with  Cumming's  brigade  to  Frank- 
lin, and  was  there  joined  by  General  Pettus  with  his  brigade,  which 
had  that  morning  before  reaching  Franklin  captured  a  stand  of 
colors.  Soon  after  crossing  the  Harpeth,  Lieutenant-General  Lee 
was  wounded.  When  about  three  miles  from  Franklin,  General 
Lee  moved  off"  with  the  rest  of  the  corps,  and  directed  me  to  take 
command  of  the  cavalry,  commanded  by  Brigadier-General  Chal- 
mers, which,  with  my  division,  was  to  constitute  the  rear-guard. 

The  enemy  did  not  press  us  heavily  until  we  arrived  near  John- 
son's house,  five  or  six  miles  north  of  Spring  Hill.  Here  I  formod 
my  line,  having  about  seven  hundred  (TOO)  intantry,  with  the  cav- 
alry on  my  flanks.     The  enemy  advanced  rapidly  upon  mo,  at- 


166  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

tacking  me  in  front.  I  found  it  impossible  to  control  the  cavalry, 
and,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  force  on  the  left,  for  a  short  time, 
to  get  them  into  action.  I  may  as  well  state  that  at  this  point,  as 
soon  as  the  enemy  engaged  us  heavily,  the  cavalry  retired  in  dis- 
order, leaving  my  small  command  to  their  fate.  The  enemy,  per- 
ceiving the  shortness  of  my  line,  at  once  threw  a  force  around  my 
left-flank,  and  opened  fire  upon  it  and  its  rear.  This  was  a  critical 
moment,  and  I  felt  great  anxiety  as  to  its  effect  upon  my  men,  who, 
few  in  numbers,  had  just  had  the  shameful  example  of  the  cavalry 
added  to  the  terrible  trial  of  the  day  before.  I  at  once  ordered 
Colonel  Watkins  to  prepare  to  retire  fighting  by  the  flank,  and 
General  Pettus  to  move  in  line  of  battle  to  the  rear,  with  a  regi- 
ment thrown  at  right  angles  to  his  flank,  thus  forming  three  (3) 
sid-es  of  a  square.  Watkins  drove  the  enemy  in  his  front  in  con- 
fusion, moved  at  the  order  which  was  given  on  the  instant  of  suc- 
cess by  the  flank,  and  charged  those  on  his  flank  and  drove  them 

I  halted  again  in  about  half  a  mile,  formed  a  line  upon  each 
side  of  the  pike,  Pettus  on  the  right,  Watkins  on  the  left,  each 
with  a  regiment  formed  on  his  flank  perpendicularly  to  his  line  to 
the  rear,  and  having  made  these  dispositions  moved  agaii  to  the 
rear.  The  enemy  soon  enveloped  us  in  front,  flanks  and  rear, 
but  my  gallant  men,  under  all  their  charges,  never  faltered,  never 
suffered  their  formation  to  be  broken  for  an  instant,  and  thus  we 
moved  driving  our  way  through  them,  fighting  constantly  until 
within  a  short  distance  of  Spring  Hill,  where  we  found  that 
Major-General  Clayton,  hearing  of  our  situation,  had  turned  and 
moved  back  to  our  assistance.  Here  I  halted  for  a  time,  and 
Holtzclaw's  brigade  of  Clayton's  division  was  formed  upon  Wat- 
kins' left  flank  in  the  manner  which  I  have  described.  While  here 
the  enemy  made  several  attacks,  and  opened  upon  us  with  artillery, 
but  were  readily  repulsed.  This  was  some  time  after  dark.  We 
finally  moved  off,  and  after  marching  about  a  mile  further,  finding 
that  the  enemy  had  evidently  become  disheartened  and  abandoned 
his  attacks,  I  placed  the  whole  command  again  upon  the  pike  and 
marched  in  the  ordinary  manner  until  I  reached  the  bivouac  of 
the  remainder  of  the  corps. 

I  desire  here  to  record  my  acknowledgments  to  the  officers  and 
men  of  Holtzclaw's  brigade,  commanded  on  the  occasion  by  Colo- 
nel Jones,  for  the  timely  aid  which  they  so  gallantly  afforded. 
Lieutenant-General  Lee  was  pleased  to  acknowledge,  in  grateful 

General  Sterensoii's  Report  of  the  Tennessee  Campaign.         1G7 

and  complimentary  terms,  the  services  of  my  division  upon  this 
occasion,  and  I  make  no  vain  boast  when  I,  too,  thank  them  for 
their  conduct,  and  declare  that  never  did  a  command  in  so  perilous 
a  position  extricate  itself  by  the  force  of  more  admirable  coolness, 
determination  and  unflinching  gallantry. 

On  that  night  I  was   directed  by   Lieutenant-General  Lee   to 
assume  command  of  his  corps  during  his  disability. 

I  am  greatly  indebted  to  my  staff:  Major  John  J.  Reeve,  Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General;  Surgeon  H.  M.  Crupton,  Medical  Director; 
Major  J.  E.  McEleath,  Assistant  Quartermaster ;  Major  J.  H.  F. 
Mayo,  C.  S.;  Major  H.  M.  Mathews,  Ordnance  Officer;  Captain  G.  D. 
Wise,  Assistant  Inspector-General ;  Captain  Charles  Vidor,  Assistant 
Quartermaster ;  Lieutenant  H.  T.  Botts,  Aid-de-Camp ;  Lieutenant 
G.  A.  Hayard,  Aid-de-Camp;  also  Captain  W.  H.  Sikes,  Forty- 
fifth  Tennessee  regiment,  and  Lieutenant  W.  E.  McElwee,  Twenty- 
sixth  Tennessee  regiment,  temporarily  on  duty  at  my  headquarters, 
for  their  most  efficient  and  valuable  services,  and  for  their  untiring 
efforts  to  assist  me  during  this  arduous  and  trying  campaign. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  very  respectfully, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

C.  L.  Stevenson, 

Major-  General. 
Major  J.  W.  Ratchp'ORD, 

Assistant  Adjutant- General,  Lee's  Corps. 


168  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

The  Peace  Commission  of  1865.  \ 

By  Hon.  R.  M.  T.  Hunter. 

[We  have  already  published  in  the  Southern  Magaziiie  a  paper  from  Judge 
Campbell  on  the  Hampton  Roads  Conference.  The  following,  from  the  pen 
of  the  distinguished  Vice-President  of  our  Society,  has  recently  appeared  in  the 
Philadelphia  Weekly  Times  as  one  of  their  series  of  "chapters  of  unwritten 
history,"  but  our  readers  will  thank  us  for  reproducing  it.] 

At  the  beginning  of  the  year  1865,  the  country  had  become 
much  exhausted  by  the  exertions  and  ravages  of  the  war.  Scarce 
a  household  but  had  lost  some  member  of  its  family  in  the  bloody 
conflicts  of  the  war,  to  whose  chances  parents  had  hitherto  con- 
signed the  lives  of  their  children  without  doubt  or  hesitation.  In 
General  Lee's  skill  and  patriotism  universal  confidence  was  reposed, 
and,  among  many  disposed  by  nature  to  be  sanguine,  hopes  of 
final  success  were  still  entertained.  But  among  the  considerate, 
and  those  who  had  staked  and  lost  both  family  and  fortune  in  the 
war,  feelings  of  despondency  were  beginning  to  prevail.  Particu- 
larly was  this  the  case  among  the  older  class  of  legislators.  The 
vacant  ranks  in  our  armies  were  no  longer  promptly  filled,  as  at 
the  commencement  of  the  war,  and  an  exhibit  of  our  resources, 
made  by  Judge  Campbell,  our  Assistant  Secretary  of  "War,  to 
General  Lee,  exhibited  only  a  beggarly  account  of  empty  regiments. 
Propositions  to  call  out  boys  of  not  more  than  sixteen  years  of  age, 
and  to  place  negroes  in  the  army,  were  already  being  discussed. 
The  prospects  of  success  from  such  expedients  were  regarded  as 
poor,  indeed.  The  chances  for  the  fall  of  Fort  Fisher  seemed  im- 
minent, as  well  as  that  of  the  complete  closure  of  the  ports  through 
which  we  had  been  bringing  into  the  Confederacy  food,  clothing 
and  munitions  of  war.  These  dangers,  beginning  to  be  visible, 
were  producing  a  most  depressing  effect  on  our  Confederate  Con- 
gress. When  these  sources  of  supply  should  be  cut  oft',  where  then 
would  be  our  resources  to  prolong  the  contest?  The  talk,  too,  for 
peace  began  to  be  more  earnest  and  open  than  it  had  been  hitherto. 
Influential  politicians  on  the  other  side,  formerly  of  great  weight 
in  the  party  contests  of  the  country,  and  still  bound  to  leading 
men  of  the  Confederacy  by  old  associations,  were  openly  exerting 
themselves  for  peace,  and  appealing  to  men  who  used  to  act  with 
and  confide  in  them  to  unite  with  and  work  with  them  to  procure 
a  peace.     F.  P.  Blair,  an  old  Democratic  leader  during  the  time  of 

The  Peace  Commission  of  1865.  169' 

General  Jackson's  election  to  the  Presidency  and  his  administration, 
and,  indeed,  through  the  whole  period  succeeding  it  up  to  the 
election  of  President  Lincoln,  adhered  to  the  Government  party, 
and  labored  earnestly  for  its  success.  Finding  that  things  were 
going  much  further  than  he  had  anticipated,  and  becoming  alarmed 
for  the  consequences,  he  interposed  earnestly  in  the  cause  of  peace, 
and  procured  the  opportunity  to  visit  Richmond,  where  he  saw 
many  old  friends  and  party  associates.  Here  his  representations 
were  not  without  effect  upon  his  old  Confederates  who  for  so  long 
had  been  in  the  habit  of  taking  counsel  with  him  on  public  affairs. 
He  said  what  seemed  to  many  of  us  to  have  much  truth,  that  the 
disparity  of  resources  was  so  great  in  favor  of  the  Federals  as 
would  make  a  much  further  resistance  on  the  part  of  the  Con- 
federacy impracticable.  The  United  States,  he  said,  if  necessary 
for  their  purpose,  could  empty  the  population  of  Europe  upon  the 
Southern  coasts  by  the  offer  of  the  lands  of  the  dispossessed 
Southern  landholders,  and  they  would  come  in  such  number  that 
any  attempt  at  resistance  would  be  hopeless.  If  the  resistance,, 
too,  were  protracted  much  further,  such  a  temper  would  be  exerted 
among  the  adherents  of  the  Government  that  they  would  not  object 
to  the  exchange,  but  be  quite  willing  for  it.  Believing  this  to  be 
the  disposition  of  our  opponents,  and  that  a  real  danger  was  to  be 
apprehended  from  a  continuance  of  the  war,  my  own  attention  was 
now  more  seriously  directed  to  peace  than  heretofore.  It  turned 
the  thoughts  of  many  Confederates  toward  peace  more  seriously 
than  ever  before  since  the  commencement  of  the  war.  But  the 
very  fjict  of  the  existence  of  such  disposition  on  the  part  of  the 
United  States  Government,  showed  how  small  were  the  chances  for 
a  peaceful  and  friendly  settlement  of  existing  differences  between 
the  parties. 


The  talk  about  peace  became  so  earnest  and  frequent  in  the 
capital  of  the  Confederacy,  and  the  indications  of  a  desire  for  it 
among  many  members  of  the  Confederacy  became  so  plain  and 
obvious,  that  President  Davis  and  his  friends  began  to  feel  that  it 
was  expedient  that  the  Confederate  Government  should  show  some 
desire  for  peace  on  fair  terms.  To  show  no  sense  of  responsibility 
for  the  terrible  conflict  then  waging,  and  no  desire  for  peace  on  any 
terms,  would  injure  the  Confederate  Government  in  the  eyes  of  its 
own  people.  The  intrinsic  difficulties  in  the  way  of  a  fliir  accom- 
modation were  scarcely  appreciated,  and  the  desire  for  change  so 

170  Southern  Historical  Society  Pa'pers. 

universal  in  the  human  heart  was  manifest.  Many  were  alarmed 
at  the  talk  of  conscribing  negroes,  and  mothers,  who  had  shrunk 
from  nothing  heretofore,  were  beginning  to  flinch  at  the  prospect 
of  seeing  their  bo3's  of  sixteen  years  of  age,  or  under,  exposed  to 
the  horrors  and  hardships  such  as  would  then  be  incurred  in  mili- 
tary service.  Accordingly,  the  President,  in  January,  1865,  deter- 
mined to  appoint  three  Commissioners  and  proposed  a  conference 
between  them  and  others  to  be  appointed  by  the  United  States 
Government,  on  the  subject  of  peace,  at  some  place  to  be  agreed 
upon  between  the  Governments.  The  persons  appointed  were  A. 
H.  Stephens,  Vice-President  of  the  Confederate  States,  Judge  John 
A.  Campbell,  Assistant  Secretary  of  War,  and  R.  M.  T.  Hunter, 
Confederate  Senator  from  the  State  of  Virginia.  These  were  ex- 
pected to  meet  President  Lincoln  and  Secretar}'  Seward  at  Old 
Point,  and  prepare  for  the  conference.  General  Lee  was  directed 
to  pass  the  Commissioners  through  his  lines  to  City  Point,  from 
which  place  it  was  supposed  that  General  Grant  would  transfer 
them  to  the  place  of  meeting  at  Old  Point.  Instructions  were 
delivered  to  them  directing,  among  other  things,  that  they  were  to 
treat  on  the  basis  of  "two  countries,"  thus  precluding  any  idea  of 
reunion,  a  provision  which  subsequently  gave  rise  to  difficulties  in 
arranging  the  meeting,  and  it  was  rumored  that  Mr.  Benjamin, 
Secretary  of  State,  foreseeing  this,  had  endeavored  in  vain  to  have 
it  stricken  out.  We  were  dispatched  at  once  to  Petersburg,  and  it 
having  gotten  out  that  a  Commission  of  Peace  was  on  its  way  to 
Norfolk,  we  were  received  everywhere  along  the  line  with  marks 
of  great  interest  and  curiosit3^  Of  course  we  did  nothing  volun- 
tarily to  create  expectations ;  and  seeing  no  prospect  of  negotiating 
for  a  settlement  of  the  difficulties  between  the  parties,  under  our 
instructions,  we  did  nothing  so  well  calculated  to  exasperate  the 
difference,  as  would  have  been  the  case  had  false  hopes  of  peace, 
wantonly  created,  been  unexpectedly  disappointed.  But  we  were 
not  insensible  to  the  manifestations  of  interest  in  the  question  in 
Petersburg,  or  that  Judge  Joynes,  on  taking  leave  of  us  said,  as  he 
shook  hands,  that  if  we  returned  with  any  fair  hope  of  peace,  we 
would  be  thanked  b}''  every  man,  woman  and  child  in  the  city. 


When  we  reached  Petersburg  an  intense  state  of  excitement  was 
soon  raised  in  regard  to  the  Commission.  This  excitement  was 
increased  by  unexpected  delays  in  passing  the  Commissioners  over 

Tlie  Peace  Commission  of  1865.  171 

the  enemy's  line.  This  delay  was  the  cause  of  some  wonder  to 
ourselves,  until,  in  subsequently  passing  over,  we  observed  the  lean 
state  of  General  Lee's  defences,  and  how  poorly  our  lines  were 
lined  with  defenders.  The  ground  between  the  two  armies  was 
covered  with  spent  minnie  balls,  and  it  was  obvious  that  if  no 
more  carnage  had  ensued  it  was  not  for  the  want  of  mutual  ill-will 
and  attempts  between  the  combatants.  A  short  time  brought  us  to 
the  river,  over  which  we  were  conducted  to  the  boat  which  received 
us,  and  subsequently  conducted  us  to  the  place  of  meeting.  Here 
we  were  courteously  received  by  General  Grant  and  his  officers, 
and  Ave  had  abundant  means  to  compare  the  resources  of  the  re- 
spective and  opposing  lines.  Many  of  the  officers  in  General 
Grant's  lines  loudly  expressed  their  desire  for  peace,  wishes  which 
we  did  not  hesitate  to  reciprocate.  Among  them^  was  General 
Meade,  who  told  us  he  was  near  being  arrested  in  Chicago  at  the 
commencement  of  the  war  for  expressing  such  desires,  and  the 
opinion  that  the  contest  would  result  like  the  Kilkenney  cat  fight; 
and  who  now,  said  he,  will  say  that  such  an  opinion  was  absurd  ? 
Some  of  us  said  he  had  heard  the  conjecture  that  General  Lee  had 
already  fought  as  many  pitched  battles  as  Napoleon  in  his  Italian 
campaigns.  General  Meade  said  he  did  not  doubt  but  he  had,  for 
many  of  his  skirmishes,  as  they  were  called,  would  have  ranked 
as  battles  in  Napoleon's  campaigns.  The  officers  were  courteous 
in  their  comments  on  their  enemies,  and  many  of  them  seemed 
mindful  of  old  acquaintanceship  and  old  ties.  But  soon  General 
Grant  began  to  receive  returns  to  his  telegrams  from  President 
Lincoln  and  Mr.  Seward.  A  copy  of  our  instructions  was  trans- 
mitted to  President  Lincoln,  and  now  commenced  our  troubles. 
The  President  and  his  secretary  answered  promptly  that  they  could 
not  negotiate  on  the  basis  of  two  countries.  President  Lincoln 
said  he  could  negotiate  on  no  hypothesis  but  one  of  reunion.  We 
were  bound  by  positive  instructions  on  our  side,  and  could  make 
no  relaxation  of  those  instructions  on  that  head.  As  these  diffi- 
culties seemed  to  increase  by  the  persistency  on  both  sides,  all 
parties  were  annoyed  by  the  hitch.  Not  only  General  Grant's 
officers,  but  we  ourselves  were  anxious  to  know  if  there  was  any 
chance  of  settlement  and  on  what  terms.  It  was  interesting  to  us 
to  know  whether  the  other  party  was  aware  of  our  real  situation, 
but  nothing  occurred  to  satisfy  us  on  that  point ;  and  yet  with  the 
system  of  spies  and  deserters  on  both  parts,  and  the  notoriety  of 
our  state  of  destitution  at  home,  it  seemed  impossible  to  suppose 

172  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

that  the  enemy  were  not  sufficiently  aware  of  our  condition  to 
make  their  knowledge  in  that  particular  an  important  element  in 
the  negotiation. 


As  the  difficulties  of  meeting  seemed  to  increase,  the  impatience 
of  the  bystanders  to  bring  the  parties  together  grew  very  rapidly. 
One  of  General  Grant's  officers  assured  us  that  Mrs.  Grant  had 
expressed  her  opinion  openly  that  her  husband  ought  to  send  us 
on,  and  permit  no  vital  difficulties  to  break  up  the  interview.  She 
said  we  were  known  to  be  good  men,  and  she  believed  that  our 
intentions  were  praiseworthy,  and  she  doubted  not  but  that  some- 
thing good  would  result  if  we  and  Mr.  Lincoln  could  be  brought 
together  ;  but  that  if  Mr.  Seward  were  allowed  to  intervene  between 
us  he  would  break  up  all  prospect  of  a  settlement  of  the  difficulties 
by  his  wily  tactics.  She  seemed  to  have  a  poor  opinion  of  his 
purposes  or  management.  She  impressed  us  very  favorably  by  her 
frankness  and  good  feelings,  but  somehow  the  difficulties  were 
removed,  and  after  a  delay  of  about  twenty-four  hours,  steam  was 
gotten  up  and  we  were  on  our  way  to  the  place  of  meeting.  We 
all  moved  under  some  excitement;  we  were  all  desirous  of  a  fair 
settlement,  and  neither  expected  nor  wished  unequal  advantages  or 
an  unfair  adjustment.  We  were  no  diplomatists,  unused  in  the 
practices  of  negotiation  ;  immense  events  might  be  in  store  for  us ; 
great  possibilities  of  change  ahead  of  us,  and  possibly  through  us 
seeds  might  be  sown  from  which  new  destinies  might  spring  or 
changes  effected  which  might  alter  the  course  of  empire  itself.  We 
would  probably  soon  know  what  would  be  the  effect  of  our  own 
action  or  how  it  would  result  for  our  country.  These  were  dreary 
thoughts  to  any  men,  but  particularly  to  those  who  felt  the  load  of 
a  peculiar  responsibility  for  the  turn  which  events  might  take. 
We  had  formed  no  particular  scheme  of  negotiatiorii,  no  definite 
line  of  policy  by  which  exciting  dispositions  on  both  sides  might 
be  molded  to  satisfactory  results.  Mr.  Stephens  seemed  possessed 
with  the  opinion  that  secession  might  be  recognized  as  a  conserva- 
tive remedy  by  the  Northern  population,  as  subsequent  conversa- 
tions proved.  He  made  it  evident,  too,  that  he  believed  the  Monroe  . 
doctrine  might  be  made  the  cement  of  union  among  our  populations. 
He  acted  on  the  principle  that  by  a  union  to  drive  the  French  out 
of  Mexico,  our  people  could  be  reunited  at  home.  The  extent  to 
which  he  carried  these  opinions  was  strange  indeed.  Judge  Camp- 
bell seemed  to  repose  his  hopes  on  an  armistice  to  be  formed  by 


The  Peace  Commission  of  1865.  173 

General  Grant  and  General  Lee,  and  certain  conditions  to  be 
declared  between  them  on  which  this  armistice  should  exist.  The 
intercourse  which  would  subsist  during  the  armistice,  it  was  thought, 
would  hurry  about  peace  and  good  feeling  and  the  renewal  of  old 
habits  of  communion,  and  profitable  trade  would  restore  good 
feeling  and  the  old  habits  of  trade,  and  bring  on  old  feelings 
generated  by  the  intercourse  dictated  by  self-interest  and  old  asso- 
ciation. It  was  believed,  too,  that  arrangements  brought  on  by 
General  Grant  and  General  Lee  to  restore  old  intercourse  would  be 
tolerated,  which  would  be  rejected  if  proposed  by  any  one  else. 


We  met  Mr.  Lincoln  and  Mr.  Seward  aboard  the  steamer,  and 
soon  the  conference  was  commenced  by  Mr.  Stephens,  who  seemed 
impressed  with  the  idea  that  secession  was  the  true  conservative 
remedy  for  sectional  difference,  and  appeared  to  be  animated  by 
the  hope  that  he  could  convince  the  President  and  Secretary  of 
the  truth  of  this  view.     Never  was  hope  more  mistaken.     Although 
polite,  neither  countenanced  the  idea  for  a  moment.     He  next 
proposed  another  subject  upon  which  he  seemed  to  rely  with  even 
more  confidence.     He  revived  the  old  Monroe  doctrine,  and  sug- 
gested that  a  reunion  njigbt  l>e  formed  on  the  basis  of  uniting  to 
drive  the  French  out  of  America,  and   uniting  to  organize  this 
continent  for  Americans.     This  was  received  with   even  less  favor 
than  I  expected.     Both  expressed  their  aversion  to  any  occupancy 
of  Mexico  by  the  French,  but  if  they  felt  any  doubt,  expressed 
none  as  to  the  capacity  of  the  United  States  Government  to  drive 
the  French  away.     Mr.  Blair,  while  in  Richmond,  talked  of  this  as 
a  probable  basis  of  reunion.     Mr.  Lincoln  was  evidently  afraid 
that  he  had  uttered  sentiments  for  which  he  could  not  be  responsi- 
ble, and   earnestly   disclaimed   having   authorized  his   mission — 
whether  this  was  true  I  had  my  doubts  then  and  now.     It  is  im- 
possible but  that  Mr.  Lincoln  must  have  felt  anxiety  on  the  subject 
of  peace.     If  he  knew  of  our  destitution  he  gave  no  sign  of  it,  but 
he  did  notipress  the  peace  as  I  had  supposed  he  would.     He  dis- 
tinctly affirmed  that  he  would  not  treat  except  on  the  basis  of 
reunion  and  the  abolition  of  slavery.     Neither  Lincoln  nor  Seward 
showed  any  wise  or  considerate  regard  for  the  whole  country,  or 
any  desire  to  make  the  war  as  little  disastrous  to  the  whole  country 
as  possible.     If  they  entertained  any  such  desires  they  made  no 
■  exhibition.     Their  whole  object  seemed  to  be  to  force  a  reunion 

174  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

and  an  abolition  of  slavery.  If  this  couM  be  done,  they  seemed 
to  feel  little  care  for  the  distress  and  suffering  of  the  beaten  party. 
Mr.  Lincoln,  it  is  true,  said  that  a  politician  on  his  side  had  declared 
that  $400,000,000  ought  to  be  given  by  way  of  compensation  to  the 
slaveholders,  and  in  this  opinion  he  expressed  his  concurrence. 
Upon  this  Mr.  Seward  exhibited  some  impatience  and  got  up  to 
walk  across  the  floor,  exclaiming,  as  he  moved,  that  in  his  opinion 
the  United  States  had  done  enough  in  expending  so  much  money 
on  the  war  for  the  abolition  of  slavery,  and  had  suffered  enough 
in  enduring  the  losses  necessary  to  carry  on  the  war.  "Ah,  Mr. 
Seward,"  said  Mr.  Lincoln,  "  you  may  talk  so  about  slavery,  if 
you  will ;  but  if  it  was  wrong  in  the  South  to  hold  slaves^  it  was 
wrong  in  the  North  to  carry  on  the  slave  trade  and  sell  them  to 
the  South  (as  it  is  notorious  that  they  did,  he  might  have  added), 
and  to  have  held  on  to  the  money  thus  procured  without  compen- 
sation, if  the  slaves  were  to  be  taken  by  them  again."  Mr.  Lincoln 
said,  however,  that  he  was  not  authorized  to  make  such  a  proposi- 
tion, nor  did  he  make  it.  It  was  evident  that  both  the  President 
and  Secretary  were  afraid  of  the  extreme  men  of  their  jDarty. 
Certain  objects  were  to  be  secured,  and  when  once  obtained  it  was 
no  consideration  with  their  party  whether  the  sufferings  of  the 
conquered  party  were  to  be  mitigated  or  any  relief  was  to  be  afforded. 
And  yet  to  statesmen  and  benevolent  men,  it  was  obvious  that  both 
parties  were  to  be  benefited  by  affording  the  conquered  party  some 
relief  for  their  prostration.  The  reaction  of  the  sufferings  of  the 
South  upon  the  North  has  been  obvious  enough  for  many  years. 
The  English  Government  in  its  scheme  of  West  India  emancipa- 
tion saw  the  necessity  of  some  relief  to  all  parts  of  the  country. 
It  ought  to  have  been  obvious  enough  to  wise  and  considerate 
statesmen  that  some  relief  was  the  policy  here,  too.  But  the  North, 
when  placed  in  power,  seemed  to  be  insensible  to  these  views,  and 
desired  to  punish  those  who  had  been  defeated  in  the  contest.  To 
do  this  they  seemed  willing  to  make  their  losses  irretrievable. 


The  armistice  was  promptly  opposed  by  the  President  and  Secre- 
tary of  State.  If  the  only  objects  were  to  re-establish  the  Union 
and  abolish  slavery,  they  were  right.  If,  however,  they  had  any 
desire  for  the  general  good,  and  to  procure  relief  for  parties  suffer- 
ing, as  ought  to  have  been  felt  by  men  fit  to  govern  such  a  country 
and  to  understand  its  wants,  their  views  would  have  been  different. 

The  Peace  Commission  of  1865.  175 

AVe  had  tried  to  intimate  to  General  Grant  before  we  reached  Old 
Point,  that  a  settlement  generally  satisfactory  to  both  sides  could 
be  more  easily  effected  through  him  and  General  Lee  by  an  armis- 
tice than  in  any  other  way.  The  attempt  was  in  vain.  Lee  had 
too  much  principle  probably  to  have  yielded  to  such  a  suggestion, 
and  if  Grant  would  have  suffered  no  principle  to  restrain  him  if 
he  had  seen  his  way  clear,  he  had  not  the  ability  to  weigh  truly 
his  responsibility  or  to  understand  his  opportunities.  Generals 
who  are  so  often  accused  and  blamed  for  usurping  power  often  see 
the  best  way  out  of  difficulties.  Had  Caesar  or  Napoleon  been  in 
command  of  the  Union  forces  there  is  little  doubt  but  that  some 
settlement  would  have  been  made  to  have  relieved  us  of  much  of 
our  difficulty.  When  a  general  knows  what  to  do  he  is  often  more 
reliable  than  the  politicians  in  civil  war.  England,  probably,  was 
better  managed  by  Cromwell  than  would  have  been  done  by  the 
general  voice  of  her  civilians.  Politicians  often  make  more  fatal 
inroads  on  the  bulwarks  of  national  liberty  than  military  com- 
manders. It  is  doubtful  whether  a  Government  formed  by  the 
Roman  Senate  would  have  been  better  than  Scylla's,  and  Napoleon's 
constitutions  were  probably  preferable  to  what  the  civilians  would 
have  given  them.  Civil  wars  often  produce  emergencies  which 
create  new  and  unexpected  wants,  and  in  these  I  have  no  doubt 
but  that  Napoleon  was  a  more  reliable  counsellor  than  Lieges. 
Complications  are  sometimes  produced  by  the  sword  that  can  only 
be  cut  by  the  sword.  In  this  very  case  some  compensation  for  the 
negroes  taken  away  would  have  been  both  just  and  politic. 
Through  a  truce  or  armistice  it  might  have  been  effected,  but 
otherwise  it  seems  not. 

With  regard  to  the  Monroe  doctrine,  out  of  which  I  feared  some 
complications  might  arise,  as  Blair  had  seemed  to  favor  it  very 
much,  I  took  occasion  to  say  to  Mr.  Lincoln  that  I  differed  much 
from  Mr.  Stephens,  and  so  in  my  opinion  did  many  of  our  people, 
who  would  be  found  unwilling  to  kindle  a  new  war  with  the  French 
on  any  such  pretence.  That  for  one  I  laid  no  such  claims  to  the 
right  of  exclusive  possession  of  the  American  continent  for  the 
American  people,  as  had  been  done  by  others.  That  many  of  us 
Avould  be  found  unwilling  to  have  a  war  upon  a  mere  question  of 
policy  rather  than  of  honor  or  right.  That  although  we  would 
hear  and  communicate  whatever  was  said  to  us  on  this  question, 
we  were  not  instructed  to  treat  upon  it.  Nor  for  one  was  I  pre- 
pared to  do  so.     I  asked  him,  however,  to  communicate  the  terms, 

176  Southern  Htsiorical  Society  Papers. 

if  any,  upon  which  he  would  negotiate  with  u?.  He  said  he  could 
not  treat  with  us  with  arms  in  our  hands ;  in  rebellion,  as  it  were, 
against  the  Government. 


I  did  not  advert  to  the  fact  that  we  were  with  arms  in  our  hands 
upon  this  occasion  when  we  came  to  treat  with  him,  but  I  replied 
this  had  been  often  done,  especially  by  Charles  I,  when  at  civil 
war  with  the  British  Parliament.  He  laughed,  and  said  that 
"Seward  could  talk  with  me  about  Charles  I,  he  only  knew  that 
Charles  I  had  lost  his  head."  I  said  not  for  that,  but  because  he 
made  no  satisfactory  settlement  at  all.  But  it  was  of  no  use  to 
talk  with  him  upon  this  subject.  It  was  evident  that  both  he  and 
:Seward  were  terribly  afraid  of  their  constituents.  They  would  hint 
at  nothing  but  unconditional  submission,  although  professing  to 
disclaim  any  such  demand.  Reunion  and  submission  seemed  their 
sole  conditions.  Upon  the  subject  of  a  forfeiture  of  lands,  Mr. 
Lincoln  said  it  was  well  known  that  he  was  humane  and  not  dis- 
posed to  exact  severe  terms.  It  was  then  that  I  expressed  myself 
more  freely  on  the  subject  of  the  negotiation  and  the  condition  of 
afiairs.  It  seemed,  I  said,  that  nothing  was  left  us  but  absolute 
submission  both  as  to  rights  and  property,  a  wish  to  impose  no 
unnecessary  sacrifice  on  us  as  to  landed  property  on  the  part  of 
one  branch  of  our  Government,  but  no  absolute  assurance  as  to 
this.  I  might  have  said  it  was  the  expression  of  an  absolute  de- 
termination not  to  treat  at  all,  but  to  demand  a  submission  as 
absolute  as  if  we  were  passing  through  the  Candine  forks. 

Such  a  rebuke  to  negotiation  after  a  civil  war  of  half  this  mag- 
nitude in  any  European  nation,  probably  would  have  called  down 
the  intervention  of  its  neighbors ;  nor  is  it  probable  that  the 
parties  to  a  civil  war  in  any  civilized  European  nation  could  have 
met  for  purposes  of  adjustment  without  some  plan  of  relief  or 
amelioration  on  the  part  of  the  stronger  in  favor  of  the  weaker. 
Mr.  Seward,  it  is  true,  disclaimed  all  demand  for  unconditional 
submission.  But  what  else  was  the  demand  for  reunion  and 
abolition  of  slavery,  without  any  compensation  for  negroes  or 
even  absolute  safety  for  property  proclaimed  to  have  been  forfeited? 

Cavalry  Operations  in  May,  18G3.  177 

Ciivalry  Operations  in  May,  1863— Report  of  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart. 

Headquarters  Cavalry  Division, 
Army  Northern  Virginia, 
*  May  8th,  1863. 

General — In  anticipation  of  the  detailed  reports,  I  have  the  honor 
to  submit  the  folloAving  sketch  of  the  operations  of  the  cavalry 
immediately  preceding  and  during  the  battles  of  the  Wilderness 
and  Chancellorsville, 

The  enemy  had  more  than  a  week  previously  concentrated  a 
large  body,  two  or  three  divisions  of  cavalry,  along  the  bank  of  the 
upper  Rappahannock,  whose  efforts  to  hold  a  footing  on  the  south 
bank  had  been  repulsed  with  loss  by  the  two  brigades  with  me, 
commanded  respectively  by  Brigadier-Generals  Fitzhugh  and  W. 
H.  F.  Lee.  Finally,  infantry  appeared  at  Kelly's  and  Rappahan- 
nock bridge,  but  were  so  inactive  that  there  was  nothing  inconsistent 
in  the  supposition  that  their  appearance  was  a  feint.  About  dark, 
however,  on  Tuesday  night  (28th),  the  enemy  crossed  below  the 
bend  of  the  river  at  Kelly's,  in  boats,  opposite  our  videttes,  and 
before  the  force  posted  to  defend  the  ford  could  be  sent  to  the  point, 
had  crossed  in  such  numbers  as  to  make  an  attempt  at  resistance 
futile.  The  part}^  crossing  at  once  threw  over  a  pontoon  bridge, 
and  moved  directly  up  the  river,  compelling  our  forces  to  abandon 
the  ford  at  Kelly's  and  separating  our  communication  with  the 
lower  pickets.  General  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  near  Brandy,  on  receiving 
this  intelligence,  sent  a  regiment  (Thirteenth  Virginia  cavalry)  at 
once  to  meet  the  advance  of  infantry,  which  was  checked  a  mile 
above  Kelly's.  I  received  information  of  this  move  about  9  P.  M. 
at  Culpeper,  and  made  arrangements  to  have  the  entire  cavalry  and 
artillery  force  in  Culpeper  on  the  ground  at  daylight — directing,  in 
the  meantime,  the  enemy  to  be  so  enveloped  with  pickets  as  to  see 
what  route  he  took  from  Kelly's  and  keep  him  in  check.  General 
W.  H.  F.  Lee  selected  a  fine  position  between  Brandy  and  Kelly's 
and  awaited  the  advance ;  General  Fitz.  Lee  being  held  in  reserve 
at  Brandy,  with  a  regiment  at  Stevensburg.  The  enemy  did  not 
advance  that  way  seriously,  though  Chambliss,  with  the  Thirteenth 
Virginia,  was  skirmishing  all  the  forenoon  with  the  enemy's  in- 

A  Prussian  officer  of  General  Carl  Schurz's  staff  was  captured, 
who  reported  that  two  corps  of  the  enemy  were  certainly  across  the 

178  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

river  :  how  many  more  were  to  follow,  he  did  dot  know.  He  esti- 
mated the  force  in  this  column  at  20,000  men.  He  seemed  frank 
and  candid,  as  well  as  communicative. 

About  1  P.  M.,  I  received  a  report  from  the  pickets  towards 
Madden's  that  the  enemy  was  moving  a  large  infantry  force  in  that 
direction.  Leaving  Chambliss  in  front  of  the  enemy  where  I  was, 
I  marched  the  remainder  of  the  command,  Fitz.  Lee  in  advance, 
directly  to  Madden's,  where  we  pierced  the  enemy's  column  while 
it  was  marching,  and  scattered  it,  taking  possession  of  the  road 
and  capturing  a  number  of  prisoners,  which  enabled  us  to  develope 
their  strength  and  designs,  as  we  captured  prisoners  from  three 
army  corps — Eleventh  (Howard's),  Twelfth  (Slocum's),  Fifth 
(Meade's)  ;  and  soon  after  learned  that  the  column  had  marched 
direct  for  Germana  ford. 

These  items  were  telegraphed  to  the  Commanding  General. 
Colonel  J.  Lucius  Davis,  near  Beaver  Dam,  had  been  telegraphed 
early  that  day  to  move  his  force  at  once  to  occupy  and  hold  the 
Rapidan  fords,  but  I  had  no  assurance  that  the  order  would  be 
obeyed  with  sufficient  promptness  to  accomplish  the  object;  and  as 
there  was  no  cavalry  on  the  left  flank  of  the  main  army,  it  was 
indispensably  necessary  to  move  around,  get  in  front  of  the  enemy 
moving  down  upon  Fredericksburg,  delay  him  as  much  as  possible, 
and  protect  our  left  flank.  Besides,  while  in  the  execution  of  this 
design,  I  received  instructions  from  the  Commanding  General  to 
give  necessary  orders  about  public  property  along  the  railroad,  and 
swing  round  to  join  his  left  wing,  delaying  the  enemy  as  much  as 
possible  in  his  march. 

The  brigade  of  General  Fitz.  Lee  was  put  en  route,  in  a  jaded  and 
hungry  condition,  to  Raccoon  ford,  to  cross  and  move  round  to  the 
enemy's  front.  General  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  with  the  two  regiments — 
Ninth  and  Thirteenth — under  his  command,  was  directed  to  move 
by  way  of  Culpeper,  to  take  up  the  line  of  the  upper  Rapidan,  and 
lookout  for  Gordonsville  and  the  railroad.  Couriers  had  been  by 
directions  sent  to  Eley's  and  Germana  to  notify  our  parties  there 
of  the  enemy's  advance,  but  were  captured  and  consequently  the 
parties  there  received  no  notice ;  but  by  the  good  management  of 
Captain  Collins,  however,  now  Major  of  Fifteenth  Virginia  cavalry, 
the  enemy  was  checked  for  some  time  at  Germana,  and  his  wagons 
and  implements  saved,  though  some  of  his  men  were  captured.  A 
strong  party  of  sharpshooters  was  left  to  hold  the  road  of  the 
enemy's  march  as  long  as  possible,  and  then  follow  us,  which  was 

Cavalry  Operations  in  May,  1863.  179 

done  till  the  enemy  advanced  about  eleven  at  night  and  compelled 
them  to  retire.  Dispatches  captured  showed  that  trains  of  wagons 
and  beef  cattle  accompanied  the  expedition,  and  the  men  were 
already  supplied  with  five  days'  rations  in  haversacks.  These  items 
placed  it  beyond  doubt  that  the  enemy  were  making  a  real  move- 
ment to  turn  Fredericksburg. 

Crossing  the  Rapidan  that  night,  the  main  body  of  cavalry  was 
halted  for  rest  a  few  hours,  having  marched  more  than  half  the 
night;  and  one  regiment  (Colonel  Owen's)  was  sent  on  to  get  be- 
tween the  enemy  and  Fredericksburg  and  impede  his  progress. 
Early  next  day  (Thursday,  30t-h),  Owen,  having  reached  the  Ger- 
mana  road  on  the  Fredericksburg  side,  kept  in  the  enemy's  front, 
while  the  remainder  kept  on  the  enemy's  right  flank,  and  opened 
on  his  column  en  route  at  Wilderness  tavern,  delaying  his  march 
till  12  M.,  and  causing  several  regiments  of  infantry  to  deploy  in 
line  of  battle  to  meet  us.  Hearing  that  the  enemy  had  already 
reached  Chancellorsville  b}^  the  Eley's  Ford  road,  I  directed  my 
march  by  Todd's  tavern  for  Spotsylvania  Courthouse.  Night 
overtook  us  at  Todd's  tavern,  and  being  anxious  to  know  what  the 
Commanding  General  desired  me  to  do  further,  I  left  the  command 
to  bivouac  here,  and  proceeded  with  my  staff  towards  his  head- 
quarters near  Fredericksburg;  but  had  not  proceeded  a  mile  before 
we  found  ourselves  confronted  by  a  party  of  the  enemy  double  our 
own,  directly  in  our  path.  I  sent  back  hastily  for  a  regiment, 
which,  coming  up  (Fifth  Virginia  cavalry.  Colonel  Tyler),  attacked 
and  routed  the  part3^  But  in  the  meantime  another  body  of  the 
enemy's  cavalry  came  iii  rear  of  the  Fifth.  Receiving  notice  of 
this,  I  gave  orders  to  withdraw  the  Fifth  from  the  road,  and  sent 
for  the  brigade  to  push  on  at  once.  This  was  done,  and  by  the 
bright  moonlight  a  series  of  charges  routed  and  scattered  this  ex- 
pedition, which  had  penetrated  to  within  a  mile  or  two  of  Spotsyl- 

It  has  been  since  ascertained  that  this  expedition  was  by  no 
means  an  insignificant  affair,  and,  but  for  the  timely  arrival  of  this 
cavalry  on  the  spot  and  its  prompt  and  vigorous  action,  might 
have  resulted  disastrously.  Artillery  as  well  as  trains  were  pass- 
ing Spotsylvania,  unprotected,  at  the  time.  With  very  little  rest, 
and  without  waiting  for  rations  or  forage,  this  noble  little  brigade, 
under  its  incomparable  leader,  Avas  in  the  saddle  early  next  morn- 
ing, and  moving  on  Jackson's  left  fiank  during  the  entire  day  (May 
1st),  swinging  around  to  the  left  to  threaten  the  enemy's  rear.     On 

180  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  morning  of  May  2cl,  the  cavahy  of  this  brigade  was  disposed 
so  as  to  clear  Jackson's  way  in  turning  the  enemy's  right  flank; 
this  was  done  in  the  most  successful  manner,  driving  off  the 
enemy's  cavalry  wherever  it  appeared,  and  enabled  Jackson  to 
suprise  the  enemy. 

In  the  subsequent  operations  attending  the  battle  and  glorious 
victory,  the  cavalry  did  most  essential  service  in  watching  our  flanks 
and  holding  the  Eley's  Ford  road  in  the  enemy's  rear,  Wickham 
and  Owen  being  on  the  extreme  right.  The  horse  artillery  kept 
pace,  and  in  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness  led  the  attack  of  artillery. 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  awarded  the  brave  men  who  thus 
bore  fatigue,  hunger,  loss  of  sleep,  and  danger  without  a  murmur. 

The  operations  of  Brigadier-General  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  with  his  hand- 
ful of  men,  are  embraced  in  the  memoranda  furnished  by  him. 
His  report  is  not  only  satisfactor}^  but  gives  evidence  of  sagacity 
and  good  conduct  throughout,  and  of  great  efficiency  on  the  part 
of  his  command. 

The  result  shows  that  the  disposition  made  of  these  two  com- 
mands was  absolutely  necessary.  Jones'  brigade  was  entirely  out 
of  reach,  and  Hampton  was  south  of  James  river  recruiting. 

That  Stoneman  with  a  large  cavalry  force  was  allowed  to  penetrate 
into  the  heart  of  the  State,  though  comj^aratively  harmless  in 
results,  is  due  to  the  entire  inadequacy  in  numbers  of  the  cavalry 
of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  The  enemy  has  confronted  us 
with  at  least  three  divisions  of  cavalry,  more  or  less  concentrated, 
which  we  opposed  with  one  division,  spread  from  the  Chesapeake 
to  the  Alleghan}^  yet  had  not  the  approach  of  a  battle  below  made 
it  necessary  to  divide  the  force  of  the  two  Lee's,  I  feel  very  confident 
it  would  have  been  prevented,  though  with  great  sacrifice  of  life> 
owing  to  disparity  of  numbers. 

With  the  Commanding  General,  who  is  aware  of  all  the  facts, 
we  are  content  to  rest  our  vindication,  if  the  pursuit  of  the  plain 
path  of  duty  needs  vindication. 

Most  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

(Signed)  J.  E.  B.  Stuart, 

Major- General. 
Brigadier-General  R.  H.  Chilton, 

A,  A.  and  I.  General^  Army  of  Nurtkern  Virginia. 

Cavalry  Operations  in  May,  1863.  181 

Memoranda  of  the  operations  of  Brigadier- General   W.  11.  F.  Lee's 
command  during  General  Stoneman's  raid  into  Virginia. 

Wednesday,  April  29th,  1863— Chambliss'  Thirteenth  Virginia 
cavalry,  with  one  piece  of  artillery,  was  left  at  Kelly's;  Payne,  with 
one  hundred  men  of  Second  North  Carolina  cavalry,  had  gone  to 
Germana ;  I,  with  the  Ninth,  went  to  Willis  Madden's  with  Gene- 
ral Stuart;  left  hira  that  night  and  went  to  Culpeper  Courthouse 
with  the  Ninth  Virginia  cavalry ;  Chambliss  joined  me  there  that 

Thursda}'-,  30th — Marched  from  Culpeper  to  Rapidan  station, 
with  Ninth  and  Thirteenth  Virginia  cavalry,  and  one  piece  of 
artillery ;  left  one  squadron  in  Culpeper,  which  fell  back  before  the 
enemy  and  joined  me  at  Rapidan ;  enemy  appeared  that  evening. 

Friday,  May  1st — Engaged  all  day  with  one  or  two  brigades  of 
cavalry ;  one  charge  made  by  Colonel  Beale,  with  one  squadron  to 
draw  them  out ;  took  30  prisoners,  but  could  not  bring  them  off — 
was  pressed  ver}^  hard;  had  orders  from  General  Lee  to  burn  the 
bridge,  and  fall  back  to  Gordonsville ;  burnt  the  bridge,  but  held 
my  position  all  day  ;  enemy  commenced  moving  towards  night  in 
force  on  my  left ;  withdrew  at  night  and  marched  towards  Gor- 

Saturday,  2d — Reached  Gordonsville  at  11  A.  M.;  heard  on  my 
arrival  that  a  large  body  of  the  enemy  was  at  Trevilian's  depot 
and  Louisa  Courthouse ;  sent  the  Ninth  Virginia  in  that  direction ; 
their  videttes  were  driven  in  by  the  enemy;  they  charged  and 
drove  them  three  miles,  killing  and  wounding  a  number,  and  took 
thirty-two  prisoners,  one  lieutenant;  my  loss  Avas  three  or  four 
wounded ;  four  prisoners  taken  represented  three  different  regiments ; 
went  to  their  assistance  with  Thirteenth  Virginia  and  two  pieces 
artillery ;  met  Colonel  Beale  falling  back ;  took  a  position  and  waited 
their  approach;  they  did  not  advance  ;  learned  that  General  Stone- 
man  with  his  whole  corps  was  at  Louisa  Couthouse,  moving  towards 
James  river;  supposed  his  object  was  to  tear  up  railroad;  they 
not  comming  on,  my  men  and  horses  being  worried  out  by  four 
days'  fighting  and  marching,  left  out  my  pickets  and  withdrew  to 

Sunday,  3d— Received  information  from  my  scouts  that  the 
enemy  were  leaving  Louisa  and  moving  in  direction  of  Columbia ; 
knowing  their  object  was  to  destroy  the  aqueduct,  I  started  after 
them;  arrived  there  at  night;  heard  they  had  left  in  a  great  hurry. 

182  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

pursued  all  night ;  at  day-break,  having  traveled  sixty  or  seventy 
miles,  and  the  enemy  being  three  hours  ahead  of  me,  halted:  my 
videttes  reported  enemy  about  one  mile  in  advance;  had  exchanged 
words,  and  they  said  they  belonged  to  Fifth  regulars ;  knew  the 
party  I  was  pursuing  was  Wyndham's. 

Monday,  4th — Started  forward  and  came  upon  him  drawn  up  in 
road ;  one  squadron  of  Ninth  cavalry  was  ahead,  a  few  hundred 
yards;  charged;  enemy  charged  at  same  time;  fought  hand  to 
hand  four  or  five  minutes ;  routed  the  party ;  killed  six ;  wounded 
a  number;  took  thirty-three  prisoners,  among  them  Captain  Owens 
and  Lieutenant  Buford.  Captain  Owens  reported  that  his  regiment 
was  not  all  present,  but  that  he  was  on  picket ;  that  General 
Buford  was  only  three  miles  distant.  My  horses  and  men  being 
jaded,  and  having  only  about  eigth  hundred  men,  I  determined  not 
to  pursue;  continued  back  to  Gordonsville,  having  traveled  seventy 
or  eighty  miles. 

Tuesday,  5th — Rested,  having  sent  out  scouting  parties  ;  heard 
by  telegram  from  Richmond  that  the  enemy  were  (Everywhere. 

Wednesday,  6th — Having  received  information  that  the  enemy 
were  recrossing  the  railroad,  moved  down  upon  his  left  flank ; 
came  upon  his  rear  at  North  Anna  river;  took  seventeen  or  eigh- 
teen prisoners ;  their  rear  guard  had  crossed  the  river  and  torn  up 
the  bridge.  It  had  been  raining  all  day  and  river  was  past  fording. 
Hearing' that  this  was  only  one  party,  and  that  another  column 
was  moving  lower  down,  went  in  that  direction ;  found  they  had 
all  crossed  North  Anna  river  and  destroyed  bridges  behind  them. 
Moved  that  night  in  direction  of  Louisa  Courthouse,  bivouacked 
within  three  miles  of  Courthouse. 

Thursday,  7th — Went  to  Trevilian's  depot ;  moved  at  3  P.  M. 
for  Orange  Courthouse ;  scouts  reported  that  enemy  had'  crossed 

(Signed)  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  Brigadier-General. 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  183 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park,  Twelfth  Alabama  Regiment. 

[Continued  from  March  Number.] 

March  20th,  1865 — I  have  suffered  severely  for  several  days  from 
cold  and  hoarseness,  with  an  occasional  fever,  and  Dr.  Hays,  Chief 
of  our  Division,  advised  and  obtained  an  order  for  my  transfer  to 
the  hospital.  I  reluctantly  consented  to  go,  for  I  had  a  feeling 
recollection  of  my  unkind  treatment  in  other  Yankee  prison  hos- 
pitals, and  shrank  from  a  renewal  of  my  very  unpleasant  acquaint- 
ance with  them.  Thoughts  of  Knowles  of  West's  Hospital,  and  of 
Heger  of  Point  Lookout  Hospital,  have  caused  me  to  dread  my 
treatment  at  the  Fort  Delaware  Hospital.  Growing  worse,  however, 
I  went,  and  was  registered  in  ward  11.  All  of  my  clothing  was 
taken  from  me,  and  I  was  clad  in  shirt  and  drawers  of  coarse 
texture,  belonging  to  the  hospital,  and  which  had  probably  been 
frequently  used  before  by  smallpox  and  other  diseased  patients. 
My  crutches  were  also  taken  from  me.  "  Doctor  "  Miller,  a  youth  of 
perhaps  twenty  years,  diagnosed  my  disease  and  pronounced  it 
"  remittent  fevor."  He  prescribed  pills.  Judging  by  Miller's  man- 
ners and  appearance,  he  must  be  some  medical  student  practicing 
to  gain  experience  solely,  or  he  has  but  recently  graduated.  The 
accommodations  are  as  good  as  could  be  expected  in  a  place  con- 
ducted without  regard  to  system,  and  where  the  patients  are  under 
the  charge  of  such  young  and  totally  inexperienced  physicians. 
At  the  head  of  each  bunk  or  bed  a  card  is  suspended  against  the 
the  wall,  having  on  it  the  name  and  rank  of  the  patient,  character 
of  his  disease,  and  number  of  his  bed.  Corn  mush,  without  salt 
or  milk,  composed  my  supper. 

March  list — Meals  are  quite  scanty  in  quantity  and  uninviting 
in  quality,  and  the  officers  from  Hilton  Head  and  Fort  Pulaski, 
afflicted  with  scurvy,  are  constantly  complaining  of  hunger,  and 
wishing  for  meal  hour  to  arrive.  Mush  made  of  yellow  corn  meal 
is  the  usual  supper.  The  poor  fellows  suffering  from  scurvy  are  a 
sad  sight,  as  they  walk  in  their  hospital  garb  of  shirt  and  drawers 
(which  are  oftentimes  either  too  large  and  long,  or  too  tight  and 
short  for  the  wearers),  from  their  beds  to  the  stove.  Their  legs  and 
feet  are  so  drawn  as  to  compel  them  to  walk  on  tiptoe,  their  heels 
being  unable  to  reach  the  floor.  How  necessary  a  few  vegetables 
are  to  these  helpless  sufferers.     The  "best  Government  the  world 

184  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

ever  saw,"  however,  is  either  too  poor  or  too  mean  to  furnish 

March  22d  to  2ith — Among  others  whose  beds  are  near  mine  are 
Colonel  S.  M.  Boykin,  of  the  Twentieth  South  Carolina  infantry,  a 
very  dignified  and  intelligent  middle  aged  gentleman  from  Camden, 
South  Carolina,  and  Captain  James  W.  McSherry,  of  Thirty-sixth 
Virginia  infantry,  from  Martinsburg,  Virginia.  The  latter  is  a 
physician  of  talent  and  fine  standing,  but  preferred  to  serve  the 
South  as  an  officer  of  the  line  to  accepting  a  place  as  surgeon. 
Captain  M.  is  a  cousin  of  my  excellent  friend  Miss  Anna  L. 
McSherry,  and  is  a  bold  and  outspoken  denouncer  of  the  Yankees. 
He  has  scurvy  badly.  My  bed  is  near  the  stove,  and  I  have  frequent 
talks  with  those  who  come  around  it  to  warm  themselves,  or  to 
interchange  opinions  about  the  situation. 

March  25th  and  26th — I  find  myself  much  improved,  my  fevers 
being  slight  and  rare  and  hoarseness  disappearing.  Smallpox,  that 
most  loathsome  of  diseases,  has  made  its  appearance  in  our  ward. 
Colonel  Montgomery,  of  Georgia,  was  sick  with  it  for  several  days, 
with  high  fever,  his  face  and  body  being  broken  out  with  pimples, 
but  was  not  removed  until  several  officers,  fearing  infection,  urged 
his  removal  from  their  vicinity  to  the  pest-house.  Lieutenant  Birk- 
head,  of  North  Carolina,  who  lay  next  to  me,  showed  me  his  hands, 
neck  and  face  covered  with  pimples,  yesterday,  and  asked  me  what 
was  the  matter.  I  took  his  hand  and  wrist  in  mine,  and  laughingly 
pronounced  it  "smallpox,"  little  dreaming  that  I  was  correct.  To- 
day our  young  doctor  decided  it  was  a  genuine  case  of  smallpox, 
and  ordered  his  removal  to  the  smallpox  hospital.  I  never  saw 
nor  heard  of  poor  Birkhead  again.  Deaths  from  smallpox,  pneu- 
monia, scurvy,  fevers,  dysentery,  and  various  other  diseases,  are 
alarmingly  frequent.  There  is  honor  and  glory  in  death  on  the 
field  of  battle,  amid  the  whistling  of  bullets,  the  shrieks  of  shells, 
the  fierce  roar  of  cannon,  and  the  defiant  shouts  of  the  brave  com- 
batants, but  the  saddest,  most  solemn  and  painful  of  deaths  is  that 
within  prison  walls,  far  from  home  and  loved  ones.  The  picture 
of  his  loved  home  flits  across  the  dying  soldier's  mind;  dear  faces 
seem  to  look  down  upon  him,  but  no  gentle  hands  ease  his  pain,  no  lov- 
ing lips  whisper  words  of  peace  and  comfort, — the  suffering  forms 
of  his  sick  and  wounded  comrades  are  all  the  friends  he  sees,  their 
groans  all  the  prayers  he  hears.  As  he  fights  his  last  fight  with 
the  grim  monster,  no  doubt  he  sees  floating  aloft  the  flag  he  has  so 
often  followed — he  hears  his  commander's  cheering  words  urging 

•      Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Farh.  185 

his  men  on  to  the  fray;  but  they  will  urge  him  on  no  more,  and 
never  again  will  he  behold  the  proud  banner  he  has  loved  so  well. 
With  the  roar  of  the  cannon  and  rattling  of  musketry  falling  upon 
his  ear,  or  with  a  fair  vision  of  his  dear  childhood's  home  before 
his  mind,  and  a  prayer  he  lisped  in  days  gone  by  at  his  mother's 
knee,  his  eyes  close,  his  breath  ceases,  and  the  brave  prisoner's  life 
is  ended.  Horrid  war  has  given  another  noble  heart  to  death,  and 
taken  the  sunshine  from  another  happy  home.  The  dead  prisoner 
is  carried  to  the  "dead-house,"  stripped  of  his  clothing,  placed  by 
strangers  and  enemies  in  a  rough,  unpainted  pine  coffin,  hoisted 
in  an  old  cart,  and  hurried  to  the  burial  ground,  like  the  carcass  of 
some  dumb  brute,  without  the  presence  or  ministrations  of  a  single 
friend.  They  are  carried  across  the  bay,  when  not  sunk  within  it,  and 
buried  on  the  Jersey  shore.  The  graves  are  seldomed  marked,  or 
it  is  done  in  a  very  careless  manner,  easily  erased  in  a  short  time 
by  the  action  of  the  elements. 

March  27th — All  the  paroled  prisoners  have  had  their  "  checks" 
redeemed  or  "  cashed,"  and  it  is  said  a  boat  will  carry  them  to 
Dixie  soon.     Oh  !  that  I  could  be  of  the  lucky  number. 

March  28th — I  received  a  very  kind  letter  from  that  true  friend 
and  noble  woman.  Miss  McSherry,  to-day,  enclosing  $12,  which  was 
paid  me  in  checks.  Her  generous,  disinterested  kindness,  com- 
mands my  sincere  admiration  and  warmest  gratitude.  Miss  Mary 
Alburtis,  of  Martinsburg,  also  wrote  me  very  kindly. 

March  29ih — Letters  to  day  from  Miss  Nena  Kiger  and  Miss 
Mollie  Harlan,  and  wrote  two  letters  to  friends  in  Winchester,  and 
two  to  Martinsburg.  The  only  newspaper  we  are  permitted  to 
buy  or  receive  is  the  ^^  Philadeliohia  Inquirer,''^  a  very  bitter,  boastful 
and  malignant  sheet,  full  of  falsehoods  about  the  Southern  people 
and  Confederate  armies.  Its  price  to  our  Yankee  guards  is  five  cents, 
to  the  sick  and  penniless  prisoners  is  ten  cents.  A  young  "  galvan- 
ized "  man — i.  e.,  one  ready  to  take  the  oath  when  allowed — named 
C,  who  claims  to  be  from  both  Alabama  and  Kentucky,  is  one  of 
the  nurses  in  our  ward.  He  had  not  the  courage,  fortitude  and 
patriotic  principle  requisite  to  remain  true  to  the  land  of  his  birth, 
and  has  signified  his  willingness  to  repudiate  his  first  pledge,  and 
swear  allegiance  to  the  Yankee  Government.  I  have  talked  with 
C,  and  remonstrated  with  him  upon  his  disgraceful  conduct,  but 
he  seems  resolved  upon  his  course. 

March  SOth  and  SlsiS— My  first  letter  from  Dixie  since  my  capture, 
19th  September,  over  six  months  ago,  came  to-day  and  rejoiced  me 

186  Southern  Historical  Society  Payers. 

greatly.  It  was  from  the  Hon.  David  Clopton,  member  of  the 
Confederate  Congress,  once  a  private  in  my  company,  and  after- 
wards Quartermaster  of  the  Twelfth  Alabama.  It  was  dated  Rich- 
mond, Virginia,  March  6th,  and  gave  me  some  interesting  news. 
He  told  me  brother  James  was  in  Tuskegee  when  he  heard  from 
him  last,  about  the  first  of  February;  that  General  Grimes,  of 
North  Carolina,  was  in  command  of  Rodes'  old  division,  and  General 
Battle  was  at  home  on  account  of  his  wound.  He  had  not  heard 
of  any  casualties  in  my  company  lately.  The  letter  closed  by 
wishing  I  might  be  exchanged  soon.  Captain  Clopton  was  a 
member  of  the  United  States  Congress  before  the  war,  and  is  a 
leading  lawyer  of  Alabama,  as  well  as  an  amiable.  Christian  gentle- 
man and  fine  scholar. 

April  1st,  1865 — Sunday — Chaplain  William.  H.  Paddock,  of  the 
United  States  army,  stationed  at  Fort  Delaware,  passed  through 
the  ward,  and  learning  that  he  was  a  minister,  I  asked  for  and  was 
given  a  Bible,  on  the  inside  cover  of  which  was  pasted  the  following 
printed  card,  the  blanks  of  which  I  have  filled  out: 

"Bible  House,  Baltimore,  Maryland,  March,  1865. 

"  From  the  Maryland  State  Bible  Society,  to  Captain  Robert  E. 
Park,  soldier  in  company  "  F,"  Twelfth  regiment,  Alabama  Volun- 
teers. Should  I  die  on  the  battle  field  or  in  the  hospital,  for  the 
sake  of  humanity,  acquaint  my  mother,  Mrs.  S.  T.  Park,  residing 
at  Greenville,  Georgia,  of  the  fact,  and  where  my  remains  may  be 

Chaplain  Paddock  seems  a  very  genteel,  good  man,  but  his  visits 
to  the  prisoners  must  be  very  rare,  as  to-day  is  the  first  time  I 
have  ever  seen  or  heard  of  him.  Perhaps  the  soldiers  of  the  gar- 
rison require  all  his  time  and  attention.  The  Inquirer  gives  news 
of  the  battle  of  Fort  Steadman,  which  occurred  on  the  26th 
ultimo,  and  in  which  that  unreliable  sheet  states  that  General 
Gordon  made  a  desperate  but  unsuccessful  attempt  to  capture  the 
fort,  but  was  repulsed  with  great  loss.  Gordon  is  cautious  as  well 
as  gallant,  and  I  believe  he  gained  a  victory.  General  Gordon 
began  service  as  captain  of  the  "  Raccoon  Roughs,"  a  company  in 
the  Sixth  Alabama  of  my  brigade,  from  Jackson  county,  Alabama, 
was  successively  elected  major,  lieutenant-colonel  and  colonel,  and 
promoted  brigadier-general,  major-general,  and  I  hear  is  now  com- 
manding Early's  old  corps,  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant-general. 
In  his  case,  real  merit  has  been  promptly  and  properly  rewarded. 
The  confronting  lines  near  Petersburg  are  stretched  out  over  thirty 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  187 

miles,  and  the  papers  report  numerous  deserters,  who  relate  doleful 
tales  of  scarcity,  hardships  and  despondency  within  the  Confede- 
rate lines.  How  chafing  and  irritating  this  protracted  confinement 
in  a  Yankee  bastile  is  to  a  Confederate  soldier,  who  sees  and  keenly 
feels  the  great  necessity  for  his  presence  in  the  Southern  army  by 
the  side  of  his  old  comrades,  now  sorely  pressed  and  well  nigh 
overwhelmed  by  vastly  superior  numbers,  and  suffering  from  want 
of  sufficient  food  and  too  great  loss  of  sleep  and  necessary  rest.  If 
I  could  be  released  from  this  loathed  imprisonment,  I  would  gladly 
report  on  my  crutches  for  duty  with  my  company  in  the  trenches 
around  beleaguered  Petersburg,  the  heroic  "  Cockade  City."  For, 
while  I  could  neither  charge  nor  retreat,  should  either  be  ordered, 
yet  I  could  cheer  by  my  words  and  inspire  by  my  presence  those 
who  might  be  dispirited  or  despondent. 

April  2d  and  Zd — The  appalling  news  of  the  evacuation  of  Rich- 
mond and  Petersburg  has  reached  us,  and  the  Yankee  papers  are 
frantic  in  their  exultant  rejoicings.  We  have  feared  and  rather 
expected  this  dreaded  event,  for  General  Lee's  excessive  losses 
from  battle,  by  death  and  wounds,  prisoners,  disease  and  desertion, 
with  no  reinforcements  whatever,  taught  us  that  the  evacuation  of 
the  gallant  Confederate  capital  was  inevitable.  I  suppose  our  peer- 
less chieftain  will  retreat  to  Lynchburg,  or  perhaps  to  North  Caro- 
lina, and  there  unite  his  shattered  forces  with  the  army  of  General 
Joseph  E.  Johnston.  "There's  life  in  the  old  land  yet,"  and  Lee 
and  Johnston,  with  their  small  but  veteran  armies  united,  having 
no  longer  to  guard  thousands  of  miles  of  frontier,  will  3'et  wrest 
victory  and  independence  for  the  Confederacy  from  the  immense 
hosts  of  Yankees,  Germans,  Irish,  English,  Canadians  and  negroes, 
ex-slaves,  composing  the  powerful  armies  under  Grant  and  Sher- 
man. Would  that  the  7,000  or  8,000  Confederates  now  confined  at 
Fort  Delaware,  and  their  suffering  but  unconquered  comrades  at 
Johnson's  Island,  Point  Lookout,  Camp  Chase,  Camp  Douglas, 
Rock  Island,  Elmira  and  other  places  could  join  the  closely 
pressed,  worn  out,  starving,  but  ever  faithful  and  gallant  band  now 
retreating  and  fighting  step  by  step,  trusting  implicitly  in  the  su- 
perb leadership  of  their  idolized  commander  and  his  brave  lieuten- 
ants Longstreet,  Ewell,  Early,  Gordon,  Hampton,  Pickett  and  the  rest. 
How  quickly  the  tide  of  battle  would  turn,  and  how  speedily  glo- 
rious victory  would  again  perch  upon  our  banners !  It  is  very 
hard,  bitter,  indeed,  to  endure  this  cruel,  crushing  confinement, 
while  our  comrades  need  our  aid  so  greatly.     Still  I  realize  the  fact 

188  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

that  while  painful  and  harrowing  to  one's  feelings  to  be  pent  up 
within  despised  prison  walls  during  such  tr3dng  times,  it  is  no  dis- 
grace to  be  a  prisoner  of  war,  if  not  captured  under  dishonorable 
circumstances.  Lafayette  languished  in  prison,  and  so  did  Louis 
Napoleon,  the  present  Emperor  of  France,  and  his  illustrious 
uncle,  the  First  Napoleon,  and  so  did  St.  Paul,  and  so  have  the 
great  and  good  of  all  ages.  We  are  but  mortals,  and  must  yield 
to  the  fiat  of  remorseless  destiny.  There  are  here  many  splendid 
specimens  of  physical,  mental  and  moral  manhood,  and  in  them 
we  see  the  age  of  chivalry  revived.  Three-fourths  of  the  officers 
are  under  thirty  years  of  age;  many  are  of  the  first  order  of  talent, 
and  will  make  their  marks  in  after  life.  A  large  number  are  gradu- 
ates of  colleges  and  universities,  and  many  have  had  the  advantage 
of  extensive  travel  over  Europe  and  America,  and  are  gentlemen 
of  culture  and  refinement.  Some,  of  course,  in  so  large  a  body, 
gathered  from  so  many  States,  are  coarse  and  unrefined,  illiterate 
men,  promoted  doubtless  on  account  of  their  gallantry  in  battle,  or 
through  the  partiality  of  their  ignorant  companions.  A  vast  ma- 
jority are  brave,  gallant  and  dashing  soldiers,  and  are  deserving  of 
special  mention  in  my  Diary.  Superior  power  has  incarcerated 
these  men  in  a  loathsome  prison,  indignities  and  insults  are  daily 
heaped  upon  them,  and  they  have  no  ability  to  resent  them.  Star- 
vation sometimes  almost  drives  them  to  reluctant  submission,  but 
the  whole  Yankee  Government,  with  its  immense  army  of  more 
than  a  million  men,  cannot  shake  their  confidence  in  the  truth 
and  justice  of  their  cause,  nor  crush  their  resolute,  undaunted 
spirits.  For  future  reference  I  have  bought  a  small  blank  book, 
and  am  getting  the  autographs  of  many  acquaintances,  with  their 
militflry  rank,  name  of  their  commands,  and  their  home  address. 
A  great  many  officers  in  the  pen,  and  a  few  in  the  hospital,  have 
these  autograph  books,  and  are  assiduous  in  collecting  names. 

April  4th — Mrs.  Emma  R.  Peterkin,  Mrs.  Meeteer,  and  other  la- 
dies from  Philadelphia,  visited  the  hospital  and  our  ward  to-day 
by  special  permissibn.  They  brought  us  some  vegetables,  fruit, 
etc.  Their  gentle  presence  and  kindly  words  of  sympathy  infused 
new  life  into  us,  and  was  a  most  delightful  and  charming  incident 
in  our  cheerless  prison  experience.  One  of  the  ladies  came  to  my 
bed,  spoke  of  her  friendship  for  Mrs.  Professor  LeConte,  of  Athens, 
Georgia,  and  gave  me  some  nice  fruit.  She  also  gave  me  hastily  a 
recent  number  of  Ben  Wood's  excellent  Democratic  paper,  the 
"iYeio  York  News.^^    This  is  a  real  treat,  as  Ben  Wood  is  a  "Rebel 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  189 

sympathizer,"  and  tells  the  plain  truth  about  the  Yankee  defeats. 
His  paper  is  forbidden  in  prison,  lest  the  prisoners  should  gather 
some  crumbs  of  comfort  and  items  of  truth  from  its  bold  utter- 
ances. After  reading  it,  it  was  passed  from  couch  to  couch,  and  read 
with  great  eagerness.  These  sweet,  gentle  hearted  women,  with 
their  winning  smiles  and  cheerful  words,  proved  well  springs  of 
joy  to  us,  and  brought  to  mind  tender  thoughts  of  our  homes  and 
loved  ones.  Their  coming  was  like  a  fairy  visitation  to  the  sick, 
wounded  and  mentally  distressed  soldiers,  lying  on  their  weary 
couches  of  pain.  May  God  bless  and  protect  them,  and  may  the 
noble  virtues  of  these  good  women  be  visited  in  drops  of  tenderest 
mercy  upon  their  children,  and  their  children's  children,  even  to 
the  third  and  fourth  generation. 

190  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Field  Letters  from  Stuart's  Headquarters. 

[The  following  autograph  letters,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  Major  H. 
B,  McClellan,  formerly  of  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart's  staff,  are  worth  preserv- 
ing in  our  Papers.,  and  will  be  of  interest  to  others  as  well  as  to  those  who 
"followed  the  feather  "of  tlie  gallant  and  lamented  Chief  of  Cavalry  of 
Army  Northern  Virginia.] 

Headquarters,  Crenshaw's  Farm,  19th  August,  1862. 
General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  Commanding  Cavalry  : 

General — I  desire  you  to  rest  your  men  to-day,  refresh  your 
horses,  prepare  rations  and  everything  for  the  march  to-morrow. 
Get  what  information  you  can  of  fords,  roads,  and  position  of 
enemy,  so  that  your  march  can  be  made  understandingly  and  with 
vigor.  I  sent  to  you  Captain  Mason,  an  experienced  bridge  builder, 
&c.,  whom  I  think  will  be  able  to  aid  you  in  the  destruction  of  the 
bridges,  &c.  When  that  is  accomplished,  or  while  in  train  of  ex- 
ecution, as  circumstances  permit,  I  wish  you  to  operate  back 
towards  Culpeper  Courthouse,  creating  such  confusion  and  con- 
sternation as  3'ou  can,  without  unnecessaril}^  exposing  your  men, 
till  you  feel  Longstreet's  right.  Take  position  then  on  his  right, 
hold  yourself  in  reserve  and  act  as  circumstances  may  require,  I 
wish  to  know  during  the  day  how  you  proceed  in  your  prepara- 
tions. They  will  require  the  personal  attentions  of  all  your  officers. 
The  last  reports  from  the  signal  stations  yesterday  evening  were 
that  the  enemy  was  breaking  up  his  principal  encampments,  and 
moving  in  direction  of  Culpeper  Courthouse. 
Very  respectfully,  &c., 
(Signed)  R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Official : 

E.  Channing  Price,  First  Lieutenant  and  A.  D.  C. 

Headquarters,  19th  August,  1862,  4|  P.  M. 
General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  Commanding  Cavalry  : 

General — I  have  just  returned  from  Clarke's  mountain.  The 
enemy  as  far  as  I  can  discover  is  retreating  on  the  road  to  Fred- 
ericksburg. His  route  is  certainly  north  of  Stevensburg,  and  is 
thought  to  be  through  Brandy  station  over  the  Rappahannock  by 
Kelly's  ford.  You  will  therefore  have. to  bear  well  to  your  right 
after  crossing  the  Rapidan,  unless  you  can  get  other  information.  I 
propose  to  start  the  troops  at  the  rising  of  the  moon  to-morrow 

Field  Letters  from  Stuart''s  Headquarters.  191 

morning,  which  will  give  the  men  and  horses  a  little  rest,  and  I 
believe  we  shall  make  more  than  by  starting  at  night.  It  is  so  late 
now  that  they  could  not  get  off  before.  The  order  for  to-morrow 
you  will  consider  modified  as  above.  If  you  can  get  information 
of  the  route  of  the  enemy,  you  will  endeavor  to  cut  him  off;  other- 
wise, make  for  Kelly's  ford  over  the  Rappahannock.  Send  back 
all  information  you  can  gather.  I  shall  cross  at  Sommerville  ford, 
and  follow  in  the  route  of  the  troops  towards  Brandy  station.  If 
you  can  get  off  earlier  than  the  time  I  have  appointed  to  advantage^ 
do  so. 

Very  respectfully,  &c., 
(Signed)  R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Official : 

R.  Channing  Price,  First  Lieuteyiant  and  A.  D.  C. 

Respectfully  recommended  that  Colonel  Thomas  T.  Munford  be 
appointed  brigadier-general,  and  assigned  to  the  command  of  the 
brigade  now  commanded  by  him  as  colonel.  My  reasons  for  this 
recommendation  are  that  no  colonel  in  the  brigade  has  been  as 
deserving.  He  is  a  gallant  soldier,  a  daring  and  skilful  officer,  and 
is  throughly  identified  with  the  brigade  as  its  leader.  As  a  parti- 
zan  he  has  no  superior.  While  others  not  in  the  brigade  might 
command  a  higher  tribute  for  ability  and  military  genius,  yet 
when  I  consider  the  claims  of  the  Colonel  for  this  promotion,  and 
the  gallant  service  he  has  rendered,  I  am  constrained  to  ask  that 
he  receive  this  merited  reward.  The  assignment  of  a  junior  to 
this  position  would  be  prejudicial  to  the  best  interests  of  the 


Most  respectfully, 

J.  E.  B.  Stuart, 
Major-  General  Commanding  Cavalry. 
October  24th,  1862. 

Headquarters  Cavalry  Division, 
November  11th,  1S62. 

General  S.  Cooper,  Adjutant  and  Inspector- General  C.  S.  A.: 

General — I  have  the  honor  to  renew  my  application  for  the 
promotion  of  Major  John  Pelham  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel 
of  artillery  in  my  division.  He  will  now  have  five  batteries ;  and 
always  on  the  battle  field,  batteries  of  other  divisions  and  the  reserve 

192  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

are  thrown  under  his  command,  which  make  tlie  position  he  holds 
one  of  great  responsibility,  and  it  should  have  corresponding  rank. 
I  will  add  that  Pelham's  coolness,  courage,  ability  and  judgment, 
evinced  on  so  many  battle  fields,  vindicate  his  claims  to  promotion. 
So  far  as  service  goes  he  has  long  since  won  a  colonelcy  at  the 
hands  of  his  country.  He  is  a  native  of  Alabama,  a  graduate  at 
West  Point. 

Most  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  3Tajor- General. 

Headquarters  Army  Northern  Virginia, 
January  31st,  1863. 

Major-General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  Commanding  Cavalry  Division: 

General — I  have  read  with  great  pleasure  the  report  of 
Colonel  Butler,  commanding  Second  South  Carolina  cavalry,  of 
the  gallant  conduct  of  Sergeant  Mickler  and  his  party  in  the  skir- 
mish in  the  streets  of  Brentsville,  on  9th  instant.  Colonel  Butler 
says  well  ''  that  they  are  entitled  to  the  notice  and  thanks  of  their 
officers  and  the  country."  I  have  forwarded  the  report  to  the  Sec- 
retary of  War,  with  the  recommendation  that  these  men  be  pro- 
moted for  "gallantry  and  skill"  when  the  opportunity  offers. 
Should  such  an  opportunity  occur,  it  will  give  me  pleasure  to  pre- 
sent their  names  to  the  Secretaiy. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  very  respectfully. 
Your  obedient  servant, 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Headquarters  Cavalry  Corps, 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  April  4th,  1864. 


General — I  wish  you  to  bear  in  mind  a  few  considerations  for 
your  government  as  the  commander  of  the  outposts  on  the  lower 

Keep  out  scouts  who  will  be  competent  and  certain  of  commu- 
nicating to  you  any  movement  of  a  large  body  of  infantry  (which 
of  course  will  be  preceded  by  a  large  force  of  cavalry),  down  the 
Rappahannock  on  the  north  side,  with  the  view  to  a  change  of  base 
or  extension  of  line  to  the  Acquia  railroad.  Endeavor  to  secure 
accurate  information  and  telegraph  it  clearly,  avoiding  the  possibility 


Field  Letters  from  Stuart'' s  Headquarters.  193 

of  ambiguity  for  wliich  telegrams  are  noted.  It  is  very  important 
also  to  state  time  and  place  of  enemy's  movement.  Should  the 
enemy  endeavor  to  cross  the  river  anywhere  in  your  front,  it  is 
desirable  to  prevent  it,  it  is  possible  to  delay  it,  and  to  the  accom- 
plishment of  these  alternatives,  preferably  the  former,  devote  every 
effort,  and  if  needed  send  for  Hart's  battery  near  Milford.  Bear 
in  mind  that  your  telegrams  may  make  the  whole  army  strike  tents, 
and  night  or  day,  rain  or  shine,  take  up  the  line  of  march ;  endeavor 
therefore  to  secure  accurate  information. 

Should  the  enemy  cross  at  Eley's  or  Germana,  you  should  move 
at  once  to  meet  him,  feel  his  force,  endeavor  to  penetrate  his  designs, 
and  report  back  by  telegram  giving  his  progress,  and  watch  his 
direction  of  march,  in  doing  which  do  not  let  a  feigned  movement 
deceive  you.  It  is  probably  that  a  corresponding  move  will  be 
made  by  a  part  or  all  of  our  main  body,  to  connect  your  reconnois- 
sance  with  which  will  be  highly  desirable.  The  enemy's  main  body 
will,  in  the  event  of  such  a  move,  either  march  directly  for  Fred- 
ericksburg, or  move  uj)  the  turnpike  or  plank  road  towards  Vidiers- 
ville,  as  before.  In  the  former  case,  endeavor  to  impede  his  march 
with  artillery  and  dismounted  men,  so  as  to  give  us  a  chance  to 
strike  his  flank.  In  the  latter  case,  close  up  and  harass  his  rear,  as 
Eosser  did  so  handsomely  before.  Above  all,  Vigilance,  Vigilance, 

Very  respectfully, 

J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  Major- General. 
Brigadier-General  J.  K.  Ciiambliss,  Commanding.,  8f-c. 


Headqtjakters  Army  Northern  Virginia, 
23cl  April,  1864. 
Major-Ceneral  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  Commanding  C.  C: 

General — The  Commanding  General  directs  me  to  inform 
you,  that  in  view  of  the  reports  of  your  scouts  and  those  of  General 
Imboden,  he  is  disposed  to  believe  that  Averill  contemplates  making 
another  expedition  either  to  Staunton  or  the  Virginia  and  Tennessee 
railroad  simultaneously  with  the  general  movement  of  the  Federal 
army.  The  reduction  of  the  enemy's  force  on  the  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  railroad,  in  the  lower  valley,  has  induced  the  General  to 
direct  General  Imboden,  if  he  finds  it  practicable,  to  endeavor  to 
anticipate  the  movement  of  Averill,  and  disconcert  his  plans  by  a 
demonstration  against  the  railroad  and  the  force  guarding  it  in 

194  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Martinsburg  and  the  lower  valley.  Should  General  Imboden  at- 
tempt this,  General  Lee  thinks  that  his  end  might  be  promoted  by 
the  co-operation  of  Colonel  Mosby,  and  he  directs  that  you  will 
notify  the  latter  to  communicate  with  General  Imboden,  and,  if 
possible,  arrange  some  plan  for  a  combined  movement.  Great  care 
should  be  taken  to  prevent  your  letter  to  Mosby  from  falling  into 
the  hands  of  the  enemy. 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Charles  Marshall, 
Lieutenant- Colonel  and  A.  D.  G. 


Zagonyt's  Charge  toith  FremonCs  Body  Guard.  195 

Za^onyi's  Charg-e  with  Freiuont's  Body-Guard— A  Picturesque 

By  Colonel  William  Preston  Johnston. 

In  some  recent  studies  on  the  late  civil  war,  the  attention  of  the 
writer  has  directed  itself  to  the  amazing  exaggeration  of  certain 
fighters,  and  the  equally  wonderful  credulity  of  certain  writers. 
This  was  quite  notable  in  the  war  in  Missouri  in  1861.  The  follow- 
ing instance  will  illustrate  this  class  of  cases.  Its  extreme  im- 
probability rests  not  more  upon  its  explicit  denial  by  the  Confede- 
rates engaged,  than  on  the  internal  evidences  of  inveracity.  The 
writer  has  no  individual  interest  in  the  question,  except  that  of 
historical  truth.  But  if  this  communication  shou'ld  tend  to  elicit 
the  exact  facts  in  this  case,  or  to  start  similar  inquiries  in  other 
cases,  it  will  do  something  towards  giving  a  solid  basis  to  our  war 
history,  which  should  not  rest  upon  fiction. 

Among  the  stories  that  have  been  repeated  until  they  have  ac- 
quired currency  and  are  liable  to  pass  into  history,  unless  contra- 
dicted, one  of  the  most  conspicuous  in  the  Missouri  campaign  is 
the  myth  of  "  the  charge  of  Zagonyi."  Major  Zagonyi,  a  Hunga- 
rian, the  commander  of  Fremont's  body-guard,  gained  great  credit 
for  the  prodigious  prowess  of  his  command  from  his  report  of  a 
charge  in  which  he  led  150  of  them  against  2,200  Confederates, 
whom  he  routed  and  slaughtered  fearfully.  His  story  is  told  in 
the  Report  on  the  Conduct  of  the  War  (part  3,  page  186)  and  is 
vouched  for  by  General  Fremont  (ibid,  page  72);  and,  altogether, 
makes  a  very  amusing  piece  of  war  literature. 

This  fierce  hussar  beholds  the  enemy  in  line  of  battle ;  he  charges 
down  a  lane  200  yards,  in  which  forty  of  his  men  are  unhorsed. 
He  continues  thus: 

"I  formed  my  command,  which  at  the  time  was  hardly  more 
than  100  men,  and  with  them  I  attacked  the  enemy,  and  in  less 
than  five  seconds  the  enemy  were  completely  broken  to  pieces  and 
running  in  every  direction.  My  men  were  so  much  excited  that, 
ten  or  fifteen  of  them  would  attack  hundreds  of  the  enemy ;  and 
in  that  single  attack,  I  lost  fifteen  men  killed — that  was  all  I  lost 
in  dead ;  and  the  enemy's  dead  men  on  the  ground  were  106. 

"  Question.  How  did  you  kill  them — with  sabres  or  with  re- 

"  Answer.  Mostly  with  the  sabre.     We  Hungarians  teach  our 

196  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

soldiers  never  to  use  the  revolver,  as  they  are  of  very  little  use. 
The  sabre  is  the  only  arm  the  cavalry  need,  if  they  are  well  drilled. 
There  were  no  swords  of  my  men  that  were  not  bloody;  and  I  saw 
swords  from  which  the  blood  was  running  down  on  the  hand. 
The  men  were  drilled  very  well.  I  had  only  six  weeks  from  the 
time  I  had  the  first  man  sworn  in  service  to  the  time  we  started 
for  the  field;  but  in  those  six  weeks  I  brought  them  forward  so  far 
as  I  ever  thought  I  should  be  able  to  do."  :ic  *  *  * 

"  By  Mr.  Chandler — Question.  How  many  did  you  have  wounded 
besides  the  fifteen  killed?" 

"Answer.  I  had  twenty-eight  wounded,"  etc.         *         * 

"  Question.  Do  you  know  the  number  of  the  wounded  of  the 
enemy?  " 

"  Answer.  No,  sir;  I  do  dot,  but  I  heard  that  it  was  a  great  many ; 
and  that  a  great  many  of  them  would  die,  because  they  had  mostly 
received  heav}'  cuts  on  the  head.  All  the  dead  were  cut  in  the 
head.  Some  of  the  enemy  behaved  themselves  very  bravely  indeed, 
but  they  were  not  able  to  hold  up  against  this  tremendous  charged 

Zagonyi  says  in  the  course  of  two  pages  of  testimony :  "  I  found 
that  the  enemy,  instead  of  having  only  300  or  400,  had  1,800  or 
1,900."  "  After  the  battle  was  over,  I  found  out  there  was  indeed 
2,200."     "  The  probability  was  that  there  were  1,900  of  the  enemy." 

In  spite  of  the  combined  oriental  exuberance  and  suspicious 
Falstaffian  minuteness  of  this  witness,  not  only  less  respectable 
annalists,  but  the  Comte  de  Paris  substantially  accepts  and  adopts 
his  story  as  a  true  narrative.  The  writer  is  assured,  however,  by 
those  conversant  with  the  facts,  that  Zagonyi's  rhodomontade  was 
merely  the  cloak  for  a  disaster.  He  was  ambuscaded  by  militia, 
not  more  numerous  than  his  own  command,  and  severely  handled, 
with  the  loss  of  only  two  or  three  of  his  opponents. 

If  his  story,  or  similar  military  reports,  had  been  true,  it  was  the 
wildest  extravagance  on  the  part  of  the  United  States  to  keep 
60,000  or  80,000  men  on  foot  in  Missouri,  as  was  the  case  at  that 
time.  Fremont's  body-guard  should  have  been  increased  to  2,000 
or  3,000  men  and  permitted  "  to  charge  with  sabres  "  wherever  the 
Confederates  could  be  found  "  in  line  of  battle."  Instead  of  this, 
an  ungrateful  Republic,  while  it  embalmed  these  heroes  in  its  history, 
somewhat  contumeliously  discharged  them  from  its  service.  What 
is  the  truth  of  it? 

VV.  P.  J. 

Disaission  of  the  Prison  Question.  197 

The  Nation  on  Our  Discussion  of  tlie  Prison  Question. 

Our  readers  will  remember  that  we  devoted  the  numbers  of  our 
Papers  for  March  and  April  of  last  year  (1876)  to  a  discussion  of 
the  "  T)'eatment  of  Prisoners  during  the  War  between  the  States.^'  We 
sent  copies  of  the  numbers  containing  this  discussion  to  all  of  the 
leading  newspapers  of  the  country,  and  wrote  them  a  private  letter 
enclosing  proof-sheets  of  our  summing  iqj,  and  asking  of  them  such 
review  as  they  might  think  proper.  •  Our  »Southern  papers  gene- 
rally published  fall  and  most  complimentary  notices  of  the  discus- 
sion ;  but  the  Northern  press,  so  far  as  we  learned,  were  silent, 
except  a  few  such  ill-natured  paragraphs  as  the  one  which  ap- 
peared in  the  New  York  Tribune,  to  the  effect  that  the  "country 
wanted  peace,"  and  they  did  not  see  why  we  could  not  let  it  have 
the  peace  after  which  it  longed. 

Among  other  papers  to  which  we  sent  our  articles  was  The  Na- 
tion, from  which  we  hoped  to  have  had  a  review.  It  was  silent, 
however,  until  in  its  issue  of  April  5th,  1877  (twelve  months  after 
our  publication),  it  honors  us  with  a  notice  which,  while  ably  and 
very  adroitly  put,  utterly  fails,  we  think,  either  to  fairly  represent 
our  argument  or  to  meet  the  issues  involved.  At  all  events,  we  are 
willing  for  our  readers  to  judge  between  us,  and  we  give  herewith 
in  full  The  Nation's  review : 


The  Southern  Historical  Society  has  just  published  the  report  of 
its  Secretary  on  the  treatment  of  prisoners  by  Ihe  South  in  the  late 
war — a  subject  spoken  of  by  us  only  a  few  weeks  ago  (vol.  xxiii,  p. 
385).  The  report  of  such  a  society  is  entitled  to  consideration 
from  its  source;  but  we  regret  to  say  that  its  treatment  is  not  judi- 
cial, and  that  it  adds  but  little  to  our  knowledge  of  the  matter. 
The  evidence  of  abuses  at  the  largest  Southern  prisons — Ijibby, 
Bell  Isle,  and  especially  Andersonville — is  so  extensive  and  so  ex- 
cellent (including  the  statements  of  both  the  investigating  officers 
sent  by  the  Confederate  Government)  that  general  denials  by  the 
author,  or  persons  like  General  Lee,  who  do  not  appear  to  have 
had  any  personal  knowledge  of  the  matter,  will  hardly  receive 
the  attention  the  Secretary  seems  to  expect,  particularly  as  it  appears 
plainly  enough  from  the  report  that  there  is  only  too  much  foun- 
dation for  the  charges.  The  author,  however,  seems  to  think  that 
any  weakness  on  this  point  is  fully  covered  if  he  can  show  that 
the  North  was  responsible  for  the  stoppage  of  exchange  and  that 
Southerners  suffered  in  Northern  prisons,  having  the  impression, 

198  Southern  Historical  Society  Payers. 

apparently,  that  if  that  were  the  case  no  responsibility  could  after- 
wards rest  on  the  South ;  and  this  seems,  curiously  enough,  to  be 
the  position  of  nearly  all  the  Southern  writers  who  have  referred 
to  the  matter.  Instead  of  frankly  acknowledging  and  regretting 
these  wrongs,  they  defend  them.  Extraordinary  as  it  may  seem, 
this  Historical  Society  justifies  the  preparations  made  to  blow  up 
the  thousand  and  odd  Union  officers  in  the  Libby  prison  at  the 
time  when  the  near  approach  of  Dahlgren  threatened  Richmond ; 
and  no  doubt  the  order  of  Winder  at  Andersonville  to  the  same 
effect  appears  to  these  Southern  historians  in  the  same  light. 

After  this  our  readers  will  not  be  much  surprise  to  learn  that 
Winder  was  a  gallant  hero  and  Wirz  a  saintly  martyr,  though  the 
immediate  responsibility  for  the  fearful  mortality  rests  upon  them 
beyond  a  question.  It  appears  plainly  enough  from  this  report 
that  the  mortality  at  Andersonville  was  almost  wholly  from  diar- 
rhcea,  dysentery,  gangrene,  scurvy,  and  allied  diseases,  produced 
principally  by  overcrowding,  filth,  exposure,  bad  water,  and  insuf- 
ficient food,  and  that  all  of  these,  except  possibly  the  last,  were 
easily  remediable.  There  was  an  abundance  of  land  and  timber 
for  extending  the  limits  of  the  prison,  crowded  with  more  than 
four  times  the  number  it  could  healthily  hold.  Shelter  there  was 
none.  Colonel  Persons,  during  the  brief  j>eriod  of  his  command 
at  the  first  opening  of  the  prison  in  the  spring  of  1864,  collected 
lumber  for  barracks,  but  General  Winder  refused  to  -use  it,  and 
compelled  even  the  sick  in  hospital  to  lie  on  the  ground  in  such  a 
state  that  the  Confederate  surgeons  on  duty  reported  that  the  con- 
dition of  the  hospital  "  was  horrible."  This  refusal  to  provide 
shelter  was  as  unnecessary  as  the  overcrowding.  When,  on  the 
death  of  General  W^inder  in  the  spring  of  1865,  General  Imboden 
took  command,  he  seems  to  have  had  no  trouble  in  erecting  dwell- 
ings for  1,200  or  1,500  men  within  a  fortnight  by  the  labor  of  the 
prisoners,  and  he  mentions  the  want  of  shelter  as  one  of  the 
principal  causes  of  the  death-rate  of  the  previous  year.  Here 
again  we  find  it  difficult  to  put  ourselves  in  the  position  of  an 
historian  who  thinks  that  this  refusal  of  General  Winder  and 
Lieutenant  Wirz  to  furnish  shelter  was  justified  by  an  attempt  to 
escape  made  by  one  of  the  first  parties  allowed  to  go  outside  the 
stockade  months  before.  Yet  this  is  seriously  said  of  a  prison 
where  in  five  months  about  ten  thousand  men  died  in  an  average  of 
less  than  twenty  thousand  confined,  and  in  October  the  deaths  were 
one-fourth  of  the  average  number  there  (1,560  in  average  6,200). 
The  drainage  and  water-supply  stand  in  the  same  position.  Both 
were  foul,  when  they  might  easily  have  been  fine.  These  things 
were  so  needless  and  so  fatal  that  we  can  well  believe  Colonel 
Chandler,  who  reported  officially  to  the  Confederate  Government, 
at  the  time  when  men  were  dying  at  the  rate  of  over  one  hundred 
a  day,  that  General  Winder  advocated  "  deliberately  and  in  cold 
blood  the  propriety  of  leaving  them  in  their  present  condition  until 
their  number  had  been  sufficiently  reduced  by  death  to  make  the 


Discussion  of  the  Prison  Question.  199 

present  arrangement  suffice  for  their  accommodation."  With  such 
an  object  before  him,  there  is  little  reason  to  doubt  the  evidence  of 
the  bad  quality  and  the  insufficient  amount  of  food  furnished. 
The  Secretary,  in  his  report,  quotes  three  witnesses  (Frost,  Jones 
and  Park),  to  the  effect  that  the  same  rations  were  issued  to  the 
guard — a  disputed  point  not  perhaps  very  important  to  settle,  as  it 
is  not  denied  that  there  were  abundant  supplies  at  Americus  and 
elsewhere  in  the  vicinity,  in  a  region  which  Sherman  found  so  well 
supplied,  and  that  our  men  were  starving  to  death  on  the  rations 
of  unbolted  corn-meal  alone  that  were  issued  to  them,  while  the 
gifts  of  charitable  neighbors  were  not  allowed  to  be  distributed  to 

The  responsibility  of  General  Winder  and  Lieutenant  Wirz  for 
all  this  cannot  be  rationally  denied ;  but  we  could  wish  for  our 
national  credit  that  it  went  no  further.  Unfortunately,  the  injudi- 
cious authors  of  this  report  will  not  allow  us  to  believe  so.  Early 
in  1864,  soon  after  the  general  reduction  in  rations  to  the  prisoners 
of  war  in  the  hands  of  the  Confederates,  attention  was  drawn  to 
their  sufferings.  Colonel  Persons  appealed  to  the  courts  for  an 
injunction  on  the  Anderson ville  prison  as  a  public  nuisance,  Plon. 
H.  S.  Foote,  aroused  by  the  Secretary  of  War's  recommendation 
that  no  more  meat  be  issued  to  the  prisoners,  called  the  attention 
of  the  Confederate  House  of  Representatives  to  their  sufferings, 
and  asked  investigation.  General  Howell  Cobb,  who  had  com- 
mand of  the  department,  investigated  the  hospitals,  and,  in  the  face 
of  outspoken  reports  from  the  surgeons  in  charge,  reported  that 
action  was  not  required.  Dr.  Jones,  however,  who  was  specially 
sent  there  by  the  Government  for  scientific  investigation,  made  a 
report  which,  though  one-sided  and  long-winded,  showed  plainly 
■enough  the  state  of  things.  Colonel  Chandler,  who  was  sent  by 
the  Secretary  of  War,  Colonel  Seddon,  to  investigate  the  charges, 
briefly  reported  in  August,  1864,  that  it  was  "a  place  the  horrors 
which  it  is  difficult  to  describe,  and  which  is  a  disgrace  to  civiliza- 
tion," and  recommended  the  removal  of  General  Winder.  General 
Cooper,  the  Inspector-General,  endorsed  this  report,  writing  that 
"  Andersonville  is  a  reproach  to  us  as  a  nation."  J.  A.  Campbell, 
the  Assistant  Secretary  of  War,  urgently  endorsed  the  report.  Gen- 
eral Bragg  and  General  Ransom  and  others  agitated  for  Winder's 
removal.  Judge  Ould  made  the  mortality  of  the  prisoners  the 
ground  for  a  strong  appeal  to  the  United  States  for  a  renewal  of 
exchange.  And  this  ivas  all.  Mr.  Davis  not  only  refused  to  remove 
General  Winder,  but  extended  his  authority  to  all  the  Confederate 
prisons,  which  powers  he  held  until  his  death  in  the  following  year. 
The  apologists  for  President  Davis  have  always  contended  that  he 
was  not  aware  of  the  "horror";  and  singular  as  it  may  seem  that 
a  ruler  who  always  made  himself  personally  familiar  with  even 
the  details  of  the  War  Office,  should  not  have  known  of  an  in- 
vestigation of  such  a  nature,  made  in  consequence  of  action  of  the 
House,  pressed  by  the  principal  departments,  and  made  the  basis 


200  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

of  diplomatic  action  with  the  United  States,  the  wrong  was  so  great 
that  we  hesitated  to  believe  that  Mr.  Davis  could  sanction  or  defend 
it.  But  it  appears  from  this  report  that  Mr.  Davis  knew  General 
Winder's  character,  and — we  quote  his  own  words  in  his  letter  of 
June  20,  1867 — "  was  always,  therefore,  confident  that  the  charge 
was  unjustly  imputed  "  and  that  everything  was  done  that  could 
have  been  expected.  We  must  confess  to  a  feeling  of  regret  that 
an  injudicious  advocate  has  thought  it  necessary  to  publish  a  letter 
that  shows  the  man  whom  half  of  our  nation  for  years  delighted 
to  honor,  as  always  knowing  the  charges  and  defending  the  course 

The  Secretary  expends  a  considerable  space  upon  stories  of  wrongs 
by  Northern  soldiers,  most  of  which  are  probably  true,  but  it  is 
hardly  Avorth  while  to  analyze  in  detail  the  confused  assemblage. 
Many  of  the  incidents  were  the  unavoidable  atrocities  of  border 
warfare,  not  connected  with  the  prisons  discussed,  and  most  of  the 
others  were  exceptional,  occurring  under  officers  who  were  speedily 
removed,  or  under  unusual  circumstances,  as  appears  by  the  ac- 
counts of  others  in  the  same  report,  showing  a  generally  different 
state  of  affairs.  That  sad  abuses  occurred  occasionally  is  evident 
enough,  but  that  there  was  any  general  ill-treatment  for  which 
the  Government  was  responsible  there  is  no  reason  to  believe,  except 
certain  suspicious  statistics  of  prison  mortality  made  up  from  state- 
ments of  Secretary  Stanton  as  to  the  number  of  prisoners  taken, 
and  a  report  of  Surgeon  Barnes  giving  the  total  number  of  deaths. 
The  result  of  the  calculation  is  startling,  for  it  shows  a  rate  of 
mortality  in  the  Confederate  prisons,  excluding  Andersonville,  only 
about  one-half  of  that  in  the  Northern.  Bearing  in  mind  the  great 
sacrifice  of  life  at  Belle  Isle  and  Libby,  and  the  loose  way  in 
which  the  estimate  is  made  from  diverse  and  inaccessible  sources, 
it  seems  suspicious  in  the  extreme.  It  has  been  impossible  to 
learn  anything  about  it  from  the  present  Adjutant-General's  office, 
where  the  applicant  will  find  himself  turned  off  with  some  ambig- 
uous statement  that  the  mortality  on  one  side  is  roughly  estimated 
at  12  per  cent.,  and  on  the  other  side  at  16  per  cent.;  and  if  he  asks 
on  which  side  it  was  twelve  and  which  sixteen,  be  refused  further 
information  on  the  ground  that  to  answer  such  requests  "  would 
require  the  entire  clerical  force  of  the  office  for  about  three  years." 
It  is  to  be  hoped  that  under  the  new  Administration  this  stain  on 
the  national  honor  may  be  removed.  But  meanwhile  our  reputa- 
tion suffers  most  seriously  from  the  charge,  as  any  one  who  re- 
members the  flings  of  foreign  journals  will  recall  with  mortifica- 

Now  we  respectfully  ask  any  one  interested  in  the  matter  to  read 
what  we  published  on  this  question,  and  we  feel  entirely  confident 
that  any  fair-minded  man  will  agree  with  us  that  the  above  -notice 
of  The  Nation  is  an  unfair  representation  of  both  our  argument 
and  the  spirit  in  which  we  wrote.     Our  discussion  was  not  a  "  re- 

Discussion  of  the  Prison  Question.  201 

port  on  the  treatment  of  prisoners  by  the  South  in  the  late  war," 
else  it  might  have  assumed  a  different  form,  and  perhaps  have 
been  more  "judicial."  But  the  slanders  against  the  South,  which 
had  gone  so  long  unanswered  that  they  had  "  run  riot  over  both 
facts  and  probabilities,"  were  repeated  on  the  floor  of  the  House  of 
Representatives  by  Mr.  Blaine,  who  charged  that  "3/r.  Davis  was 
the  author,  knoioingly,  deliberately,  guiltily  and  wilfully,  of  the  gigantic 
murder  and  crime  at  Andersonville.^^  We  felt  called  on  to  defend  our 
Government  from  these  charges,  and  our  argument  was  not  that 
there  were  no  "  abuses  "  in  Southern  prisons — that  there  was  no 
evidence  of  cruelty  to  prisoners  on  the  part  of  individuals,  and  by 
no  meaas  that  there  were  not  great  sufferings  and  fearful  mortalit}' 
among  the  Federal  prisoners  at  the  South  ;  but  we  pursued  a  line 
of  argument  clearly  indicated  in  the  following  brief  summing  up,  with 
which  we  closed  our  discussion,  and  which,  we  respectfully  sub- 
mit. The  Nation  might  have  given  to  its  readers,  if  it  had  been 
itself  disposed  to  be  ^'judiciaV'  in  its  treatment  of  this  question. 
We  closed  our  discussion  as  follows : 

We  think  that  we  have  established  the  following  points : 

1.  The  laws  of  the  Confederate  Congress,  the  orders  of  the  War 
Department,  the  regulations  of  the  Surgeon-General,  the  action  of 
our  Generals  in  the  field,  and  the  orders  of  those  who  had  the  im- 
mediate charge  of  the  prisoners,  all  provided  that  prisoners  in  the 
hands  of  the  Confederates  should  be  kindly  treated,  supplied  with 
the  same  rations  which  our  soldiers  had,  and  cared  for  when  sick 
in  hospitals  placed  on  precisely  the  same  footing  as  the  hospitcds  for 
Confederate  soldiers. 

2.  If  these  regulations  were  violated  in  individual  instances,  and 
if  subordinates  were  sometimes  cruel  to  prisoners,  it  was  without 
the  knowledge  or  consent  of  the  Confederate  Government,  which 
always  took  prompt  action  on  any  case  reported  to  them. 

3.  If  the  prisoners  failed  to  get  their  full  rations,  and  had  those 
of  inferior  quality,  the  Confederate  soldiers  suffered  in  precisely  the 
same  way,  and  to  the  same  extent,  and  it  resulted  from  that  system 
of  warfare  adopted  by  the  Federal  authorities,  which  carried  deso- 
lation and  ruin  to  every  part  of  the  South  they  could  reach,  and 
which  in  starving  the  Confederates  into  submission  brought  the 
same  evils  upon  their  own  men  in  Southern  prisons. 

4.  The  mortality  in  Southern  prisons  (fearfully  large,  although 
over  three  per  cent,  less  than  the  mortality  in  Xorfhern  jrrisons),  resulted 
from  causes  beyond  the  control  of  our  authorities — from  epidemics, 
&c.,  which  might  have  been  avoided,  or  greatly  mitigated,  had  not 
the  Federal  Government  declared  medicines  "contraband  of  war" — 
refused  the  proposition  of  Judge  Quid,  that  each  Government 
should  send  its  own  surgeons  with  medicines,  hospital  stores,  Szc, 

202  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

to  minister  to  soldiers  in  prison — declined  his  proposition  to  send 
medicines  to  its  own  men  in  Southern  prisons,  without  being  re- 
quired to  allow  the  Confederates  the  same  privilege — refused  to 
allow  the  Confederate  Government  to  buy  medicines  for  gold, 
tobacco  or  cotton,  which  it  offered  to  pledge  its  honor  should  be 
used  only  for  Federal  prisoners  in  its  hands — refused  to  exchange 
sick  and  wounded — and  neglected  from  August  to  December,  1864, 
to  accede  to  Judge  Quid's  proposition  to  send  transportation  to 
Savannah  and  receive  toithout  equivalent  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand 
Federal  prisoners,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  this  offer  was  ac- 
companied with  a  statement  of  the  utter  inability  of  the  Confede- 
racy to  provide  for  these  prisoners,  and  a  detailed  report  of  the 
monthly  mortality  at  Andersonville,  and  that  Judge  Ould,  again 
and  again,  urged  compliance  with  his  humane  proposal. 

5.  We  have  proven,  by  the  most  unimpeachable  testimony,  that 
the  sufferings  of  Confederate  prisoners  in  Northern  "prison  pens," 
were  terrible  beyond  description — that  they  were  starved  in  a  land 
of  plenty — that  they  were  frozen  where  fuel  and  clothing  were 
abundant — that  they  suffered  untold  horrors  for  want  of  medicines, 
hospital  stores  and  proper  medical  attention — that  they  were  shot 
by  sentinels,  beaten  by  officers,  and  subjected  to  the  most  cruel 
punishments  upon  the  slightest  pretexts — that  friends  at  the  North 
were  refused  the  privilege  of  clothing  their  nakedness  or  feeding 
them  when  starving — and  that  these  outrages  were  perpetrated  not 
only  with  the  full  knowledge  of,  but  under  the  orders  of  E.  M. 
StantOxN,  U.  S.  Secretary  of  War.  We  have  proven  these  things 
by  Federal  as  well  as  Confederate  testimony. 

6.  We  have  shown  that  all  the  suffering  of  prisoners  on  both 
sides  could  have  been  avoided  by  simply  carrying  out  the  terms 
of  the  cartel,  and  that  for  the  failure  to  do  this  the  Federal  authori- 
ties alone  were  responsible;  that  the  Confederate  Government 
originally  proposed  the  cartel,  and  were  always  ready  to  carry  it 
out  in  both  letter  and  spirit;  that  the  Federal  authorities  observed 
its  terms  only  so  long  as  it  was  to  their  interest  to  do  so,  and  then 
repudiated  their  plighted  faith,  and  proposed  other  terms,  which 
were  greatly  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  Confederates ;  that  when 
the  Government  at  Richmond  agreed  to  accept  the  hard  terms  of 
exchange  offered  them,  these  were  at  once  repudiated  by  the  Fede- 
ral authorities  ;  that  when  Judge  Ould  agreed  upon  a  new  cartel 
with  General  Butler,  Lieutenant-General  Grant  refused  to  approve 
it,  and  Mr.  Stanton  repudiated  it;  and  that  the  policy  of  the  Fede- 
ral Government  was  to  refuse  all  exchanges,  while  they  "  fired  the 
Northern  heart"  by  placing  the  whole  blame  upon  the  "Rebels," 
and  by  circulating  the  most  heartrending  stories  of  "Rebel  bar- 
barity "  to  prisoners. 

If  either  of  the  above  points  has  not  been  made  clear  to  any 
sincere  seeker  after  the  truth,  we  would  be  most  happy  to  produce 
further  testimony.  And  we  hold  ourselves  prepared  to  maintain, 
against  all  comers,  the  truth  of  every  proposition  ive  have  laid  down  in 


Discussion  of  the  Prison  Question.  203 

■this  discussion.     Let  the  calm  verdict  of  history  decide  between  the 
Confederate  Government  and  their  calumniators. 

We  regret  that  The  Nation  did  not  attempt  to  meet  these  points 
fairly  and  squarely,  instead  of  seeking  to  break  their  force  by  an 
ingenious  (though  we  are  willing  to  hope  unintentional)  misrep- 
resentation of  what  we  wrote. 

But  as  it  has  not  thought  proper  to  pursue  this  course,  let  us 
briefly  examine  some  of  the  points  in  its  review.  The  sneer  at  the 
testimony  of  "persons  like  General  Lee,  who  do  not  appear  to 
have  had  any  personal  knowledge  of  the  matter,"  shows  an  utter 
misapprehension  of  the  object  for  which  we  introduced  such  testi- 

We  gave  the  statements  of  ex- President  Davis,  General  R.  E. 
Lee,  Vice-President  A.  H.  Stephens,  and  others  high  in  authority 
among  the  Confederates,  not  to  show  that  there  was  not  suffering 
among  the  prisoners,  but  to  show  that  the  Confederate  Government 
always  ordered  that  the  prisoners  should  be  kindly  treated,  and 
that  they  sought  to  have  these  kind  intentions  carried  out. 

We  did  not  attempt  to  justify  cruel  treatment  to  Federal  prison- 
ers on  the  ground  "  that  the  North  was  responsible  for  the  stop- 
page of  exchange,  and  that  Southerners  suffered  in  Northern 
prisons."  We  might  not  have  introduced  the  treatment  of  Con- 
federates in  Northern  prisons  at  all,  in  this  discussion,  but  for  the 
fact  that  Mr.  Blaine  (to  whom  we  were  replying)  threw  down  the 
gauntlet,  and  declared  that  there  was  no  cruel  treatment  of  Con- 
federate prisoners  at  the  North — indeed,  that  they  were  much 
better  cared  for  than  when  in  the  Confederacy — and  we  felt  called 
on,  therefore,  to  show  that  the  Federal  authorities  were  themselves 
guilty  of  the  atrocities  which  they  (falsely)  charged  against  the 

The  statement  that  "  this  Historical  Society  justifies  the  prepa- 
rations made  to  blow  up  the  thousand  and  odd  Union  officers  in 
the  Libby  Prison  at  the  time  when  the  near  approach  of  Dahlgren 
threatened  Richmond,"  is  not  capable  of  even  a  fair  inference  from 
anything  which  we  wrote.  We  simply  published  in  full,  without 
note  or  comment,  the  report  of  the  committee  of  the  Confederate 
Congress,  presented  March  3d,  1865,  in  which  they  give  the  circum- 
stances under  which  the  authorities  of  Libby  Prison  acted  (Dahl- 
gren approaching  Richmond  for  the  avowed  purpose  of  liberating 
over  5,000  prisoners  and  sacking  the  city,  after  murdering  the 


204  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Confederate  President,  Cabinet,  &c.)  If  The  Nation  desires  to  dis- 
cuss that  question,  we  presume  it  could  be  accomodated,  but  we 
expressed  absolutely  no  opinion  xvhatever  on  it.  Nor  did  we  intimate 
the  opinion  that  "  Wirz  was  a  saintly  martyr.''^  We  simply  showed 
that  the  charges  against  him  were  not  proven — that  his  so-called- 
"  trial  "  was  the  veriest  mockery  of  justice — that  much  of  the  testi- 
mony against  him  was  afterwards  proven  to  be  perjured — and  that 
the  witnesses  for  the  defence  were  summarily  dismissed  (without 
being  heard)  by  the  prosecution.  Nor  did  we  deem  it  incumbent 
upon  us  to  enter  into  any  defence  of  General  Winder,  distinctly 
averring  that  "if  it  could  be  proven  beyond  all  doubt  that  the 
officers  at  Andersonville  were  the  fiends  incarnate  that  Northern 
hatred  pictures  them  to  be,  there  is  not  one  scintilla  of  proof  that 
the  Government  at  Richmond  ordered,  approved  or  in  any  way 
countenanced  their  atrocities."  But  we  did  publish  incidentally 
letters  from  Secretary  Seddon,  ex-President  Davis,  Adjutant-Gene- 
ral S.  Cooper,  Colonel  George  W.  Brent  and  General  G.  T.  Beaure- 
gard, and  the  testimony  of  Federal  prisoners  themselves,  going  to 
show  that  the  charges  against  him  were  false. 

The  Nation  then  proceeds  to  ring  the  same  old  charges  on  the 
horrors  of  Andersonville  which  we  have  heard  for  years,  and  utterly 
ignores  the  testimony  which  we  introduced  on  the  other  side.  We 
gave  the  statements  of  Mr.  L.  M.  Park,  of  La  Grange,  Georgia  (for 
whom  we  vouched  as  a  gentleman  of  unimpeachable  character), 
who  was  on  duty  at  Andersonville  nearly  the  whole  of  the  time  it 
was  a  prison,  and  who  gives  the  most  emphatic  testimony  to  the 
effect  that  the  water  used  by  the  prisoners  was  the  same  as  that 
used  by  the  guards,  and  was  not  "  foul,"  as  has  been  repre- 
sented— that  the  failure  to  erect  barracks  was  from  want  of  mills 
to  saw  the  lumber,  want  of  timber,  and  lack  of  even  a  supply  of 
nails — that  the  rations  issued  to  the  prisoners  were  precisely  the 
same  as  those  issued  to  the  guard — that  the  mortalit}^  among  the 
guard  was  as  great,  in  proportion  to  numbers,  as  among  the  pris- 
oners— and  that  the  causes  of  the  mortality  were  utterly  beyond 
the  control  of  the  Confederate  authorities. 

We  published  also  an  able  and  exhaustive  paper  from  Dr.  Joseph 
Jones,  of  New  Orleans  (a  gentleman  who  stands  in  the  very  front 
rank  of  his  profession),  who  ofhcall}''  investigated  and  reported  on 
the  causes  of  mortality  at  Andersonville,  and  who,  while  admitting 
and  deploring  the  fearful  death  rate,  fully  exonerates  the  Confede- 
rate authorities  from  blame  in  the  matter.     We  also  gave  a  number 


Discussion  of  the  Prison  Quedion.  205 

of  orders,  letters,  &c.,  from  the  Confederate  authorities,  showing 
that  they  were  doing  all  in  their  power  to  mitigate  the  sufferings 
of  the  prisoners,  and  the  emphatic  testimony  of  Dr.  Randolph 
Stevenson,  the  surgeon  in  charge  of  the  hospital,  to  the  following 
effect : 

"The  guards  on  duty  here  were  similarly  affected  with  gangrene 
and  scurvy.  Captain  Wirz  had  gangrene  in  an  old  wound,  which 
he  had  received  in  the  battle  of  Manassas,  in  1861,  and  was  absent 
from  the  post  (Andersonville)  some  four  weeks  on  surgeon's  certifi- 
cate. (In  his  trial  certain  Federal  witnesses  swore  to  his  killing  certain 
prisoners  in  August,  1864,  lohen  he  (Wirz)  ivas  actnally  at  that  time  absent 
on  sick  leave  in  Angusta,  Georgia.)  General  Winder  had  gangrene  of 
the  face,  and  was  forbidden  by  his  surgeon  (I.  H.  White)  to  go  in- 
side the  stockade.  Colonel  G.  C.  Gibbs,  commandant  of  the  post, 
had  gangrene  of  the  face,  and  was  furloughed  under  the  certificate 
of  Surgeons  Wible  and  Gore,  of  Americus,  Georgia.  The  writer 
of  this  can  fully  attest  to  effects  of  gangrene  and  scurvy  contracted 
whilst  on  dut}^  there;  their  marks  will  follow  him  to  his  grave. 
The  Confederate  graveyard  at  Andersonville  will  fully  prove  that 
the  mortality  among  the  guards  was  almost  as  great  in  proportion 
to  the  number  of  men  as  among  the  Federals." 

The  paper  of  General  Imbodcn,  wliich  we  published,  fully  cor- 
roborates the  above  statements. 

But  we  gave  the  testimony  of  Mr.  John  M.  Frost,  of  the  Nine- 
teenth Maine  regiment,  the  resolutions  of  the  Andersonville  pris- 
oners adopted  September  23d,  1864,  the  testimon}^  of  Prescott 
Tracy,  of  the  Eighty-second  regiment,  New  York  volunteers,  and 
of  another  Andersonville  prisoner — all  going  to  established  in  the 
most  emphatic  manner  the  points  we  made.  The  Nation  ignores 
most  of  this  testimony,  and  uses  what  it  alludes  to  very  much  as 
Judge  Advocate  Chipman  did  Dr.  Jones'  report  in  the  Wirz  trial — 
i.  e.,  uses  it  to  prove  that  great  suffering  and  mortality  existed  at 
Andersonville,  but  suppresses  the  part  ivhich  exonerates  the  Confederate 
authorities  from  the  charges  made  against  them. 

Even  at  the  risk  of  wearying  our  readers,  we  must  (for  tlie  bene- 
fit of  those  who  have  not  seen  our  previous  papers  on  this  subject), 
repeat  our  comments  on  the  testimony  we  introduced  : 

It  appears,  then,  from  the  foregoing  statements  that  the  prison  at 
Andersonville  was  established  with  a  view  to  healthfuhicss  of  loca- 
tion, and  that  the  great  mortality  which  ensued  resulted  chiefly 
from  the  crowded  condition  of  the  stockade,  the  use  of  corn  bread, 
to  which  the  prisoners  had  not  been  accustomed,  tlie  want  of  va- 
riety in  the  rations  furnished,  and  the  want  of  medicines  and  hos- 

206  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

pital  stores  to  enable  our  surgeons  properly  to  treat  the  sick.  As 
to  the  first  point,  the  reply  is  at  hand.  The  stockade  at  Anderson- 
ville  was  originally  designed  for  a  much  smaller  number  of  pris- 
oners than  were  afterwards  crowded  into  it.  But  prisoners  accu- 
mulated— after  the  stoppage  of  exchange — in  Richmond  and  at 
other  points;  the  Dahlgren  raid — which  had  for  its  avowed  object 
the  liberation  of  the  prisoners,  the  assassination  of  President  Davis 
and  his  Cabinet,  and  the  sacking  of  Richmond — warned  our  autho- 
rities against  allowing  large  numbers  of  prisoners  to  remain  in 
Richmond,  even  if  the  difficulty  of  feeding  them  there  was  removed; 
and  the  only  alternative  was  to  rush  them  down  to  Andersonville, 
as  enough  men  to  guard  them  elsewhere  could  not  be  spared  from 
the  ranks  of  our  armies,  which  were  now  everywhere  fighting  over- 
whelming odds.  We  have  a  statement  from  an  entirely  trustworthy 
source  that  the  reason  prisoners  were  not  detailed  to  cut  timber 
with  which  to  enlarge  the  stockade  and  build  shelters  is,  that  this 
privilege  was  granted  to  a  large  number  of  them  when  the  prison 
was  first  established,  they  giving  their  parole  of  honor  not  to  at- 
tempt to  escape  ;  and  that  they  violated  their  paroles,  threw  away  their 
axes,  and  spread  dismay  throughout  that  whole  region  by  creating  the 
impression  that  all  of  the  prisoners  had  broken  loose.  This  experiment 
could  not,  of  course,  be  repeated,  and  the  rest  had  to  suffer  for  the 
bad  faith  of  these,  who  not  only  prevented  the  detail  of  any  num- 
bers of  other  prisoners  for  this  work,  but  made  way  with  axes  which 
could  not  be  replaced.  In  reference  to  feeding  the  prisoners  on 
corn  bread,  there  has  been  the  loudest  complaints  and  the  bitterest 
denunciations.  The}^  had  not  been  accustomed  to  such  hard  fare 
as  "hog  and  hominy,"  and  the  poor  fellows  did  suffer  fearfully 
from  it.  But  the  Confederate  soldiers  had  the  same  rations.  Our  sol- 
diers had  the  advantage  of  buying  supplies  and  of  receiving  occa- 
sional boxes  from  home,  which  the  prisoners  at  Andersonville 
could  have  enjoyed  to  an  even  greater  extent  had  the  United  States 
authorities  been  willing  to  accept  the  humane  proposition  of  our 
Commissioner  of  Exchange — to  allow  each  side  to  send  supplie& 
to  their  prisoners.  But  why  did  not  the  Confederacy  furnish  bet- 
ter rations  to  both'  our  own  soldiers  and  our  prisoners?  and  why 
were  the  prisoners  at  Andersonville  not  supplied  with  ivheat  bread 
instead  of  corn  bread  ?  Answers  to  these  questions  may  be  abun- 
dantly found  by  referring  to  the  orders  of  Major-General  John 
Pope,  directing  his  men  "to  live  on  the  country";  the  orders  of 
General  Sherman,  in  fulfilling  his  avowed  purpose  to  "  make 
Georgia  howl  "  as  he  "smashed  things  generally  "  in  that  "great 
march,"  which  left  smoking,  blackened  ruins  and  desolated  fields  ta 
mark  his  progress ;  the  orders  of  General  Grant  to  his  Lieutenant, 
to  desolate  the  rich  wheat-growing  Valley  of  Virginia;  or  the  re- 
ports of  General  Sheridan,  boasting  of  the  number  of  barns  he  had 
burned,  the  mills  he  had  destroyed,  and  the  large  amount  of  wheat 
he  had  given  to  the  flames,  until  there  was  really  more  truth  than 
poetry  in  his  boast  that  he  had  made  the  Shenandoah  Valley  "such  a 

Discussion  of  the  Prison  Question.  207 

waste  that  even  a  crow  flying  over  would  be  compelled  to  carry  his 
own  rations."  We  have  these  and  other  similar  orders  of  Federal 
Generals  in  our  archives  (we  propose  to  give  hereafter  a  few  choice 
extracts  from  them),  and  we  respectfully  submit  that,  for  tlie  South 
to  be  abused  for  not  furnishing  Federal  prisoners  with  better  ra- 
tions, when  our  own  soldiers  and  people  had  been  brought  pain- 
fully near  the  starvation  point  by  the  mode  of  warfare  which  the 
Federal  Government  adopted,  is  even  more  unreasonable  than  the 
course  of  the  old  Egyptian  task-masters  who  required  their  captives 
to  "  make  brick  without  straw."  And  to  the  complaints  that  the 
sick  did  not  have  proper  medical  attention,  we  reply  that  the  hos- 
pital at  Andersonville  v/as  placed  on  precisely  the  same  footing  as  the 
hospitals  for  the  treatment  of  our  own  soldiers.  We  have  the  law  of  the 
Confederate  Congress  enjoining  this,  and  the  orders  of  the  Surgeon- 
General  enforcing  it.  Besides,  we  have  in  our  archives  a  large 
budget  of  original  orders,  telegrams,  letters,  &c.,  which  passed  be- 
tween the  officers  on  duty  at  Andersonville  and  their  superiors. 
We  have  carefully  looked  through  this  large  mass  of  papers,  and 
we  have  been  unable  to  discover  a  single  sentence  indicating  that  the 
prisoners  were  to  be  treated  otherwise  than  kindl}^,  or  that  the  hos- 
pital was  to  receive  a  smaller  supply  of  medicines  or  of  stores  than 
the  hospitals  for  Confederate  soldiers.  On  the  contrary,  the  whole 
of  these  papers  go  to  show  that  the  prison  hospital  at  Andersonville 
was  on  the  same  footing  precisely  with  every  hospital  for  sick  or 
wounded  Confederates,  and  that  the  scarcity  of  medicines  and  hos- 
pital stores,  of  which  there  was  such  constant  complaint,  proceeded 
from  causes  which  our  authorities  could  not  control. 

But  we  can  make  the  case  still  stronger.  Whose  fault  was  it 
that  the  Confederacy  was  utterly  unable  to  supply  medicines  for 
the  hospitals  of  either  friends  or  foe  ?  Most  unquestionably  the  re- 
sponsibility rests  with  the  Federal  authorities.  They  not  only 
declared  medicines  "contraband  of  war"— even  arresting  ladies 
coming  South  for  concealing  a  little  quinine  under  their  skirts— but 
they  sanctioned  the  custom  of  their  soldiers  to  sack  every  drug 
store  in  the  Confederacy  which  they  could  reach,  and  to  destroy 
even  the  little  stock  of  medicines  which  the  private  physician  might 
chance  to  have  on  hand. 

When  General  Milroy  banished  from  Winchester,  Virginia,  the 
family  of  Mr.  Lovd  Logan,  because  the  General  (and  his  wife) 
fancied  his  elegantly  furnished  mansion  for  headquarters,  he  not 
only  forbade  their  carrying  with  them  a  change  of  raiment,  and 
refused  to  allow  Mrs.  Logan  to  take  one  of  her  spoons  with  which 
to  administer  medicine  to  a  sick  child,  but  he  most  emphatically^ 
prohibited  their  carrying  a  small  medicine  chest,  or  even  a.  Jciv  phials  of 
medicine  which  the  physician  had  prescribed  for  immediate  use.  I  os- 
siblv  some  ingenious  casuist  may  defend  this  policy;  but  who  will 
defend  at  the  bar  of  history  the  refusal  of  the  Federal  authorities 
to  accept  Judge  Quid's  several  propositions  to  allow  surgeons  Irom 
either  side  to  visit  and  minister  to  their  own  men  in  prison— to 

208  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

allow  each  to  furnish  medicines,  etc.,  to  their  prisoners  in  the  hands 
of  the  other — and  finally  to  purchase  in  the  North,  for  gold,  cotton, 
or  tobacco,  medicines  for  the  exclusive  use  of  Federcd  prisoners  in  the 
South?  Well  might  General  Lee  have  said  to  President  Davis, 
in  response  to  expressions  of  bitter  disappointment  when  he  re- 
ported the  failure  of  his  efforts  to  bring  about  an  exchange  of  pris- 
oners :  "  We  have  done  everything  in  our  power  to  mitigate  the  suffering  of 
prisoners,  and  there  is  no  just  cause  for  a  sense  of  further  responsibility  on 
our  party 

The  Nation  says:  "We  find  it  difficult  to  put  ourselves  in  the 
position  of  an  historian  who  thinks  that  this  refusal  of  General 
Winder  and  Lieutenant  Wirz  to  furnish  shelter  was  justified  by  an 
attempt  to  escape  made  by  one  of  the  first  parties  allowed  to  go 
outside  the  stockade  months  before."  Now  this,  as  the  reader  can 
readily  see  by  glancing  at  the  sentence,  is  very  different  from  what 
we  wrote.  We  did  not  justify  "a  refusal  of  General  Winder  and 
Lieutenant  Wirz  to  furnish  shelter''^  (on  the  contrary,  if  these  "judi- 
cial" gentlemen  of  The  Nation  will  stop  their  bald  assertions  and 
prove  that  there  was  such  a  "refuscd,^^  we  will  join  them  in  strong 
condemnation  of  it),  but  we  cited  this  incident  to  account  for  the 
fact  that  details  of  prisoners  were  not  made  for  the  purpose  for  some 
time  after  the  first  parties  violated  their  paroles  and  threw  away 
implements  which  could  not  be  replaced.  That  these  details  were 
made  afterwards,  our  testimony  abundantly  shows. 

We  might  have  mentioned  several  other  reasons  for  the  delay  in 
providing  more  comfortable  quarters  for  the  prisoners  at  Anderson- 
ville:  1.  It  was  always  expected  to  very  greatly  reduce  the  number 
by  the  establishment  of  other  prisons  which  were  being  prepared 
as  rapidly  as  the  means  at  hand  would  allow.  2.  It  was  hoped 
that  the  United  States  authorities  would  surely  consent  to  an  ex- 
change of  prisoners  when  the  Confederates  agreed  to  their  own 
hard  terms,  which  Judge  Ould  had  finally  done.  3,  And  when 
our  Commissioner  proposed  in  August,  1864,  to  deliver  at  Savannah 
from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand  prisoners  which  the  Federal  authori- 
ties might  have  withoiit  equivalent  by  simply  sending  transportation 
for  them,  it  was  reasonably  supposed  that  Andersonville  would  be 
at  once  relieved  of  its  over-crowding,  for  it  was  not  anticipated  that 
the  United  States  Government  would  be  guilty  of  the  crime  of 
allowing  its  brave  soldiers  to  languish,  suffer  and  die  from  August 
until  December  when  "the  Rebels"  opened  the  doors  of  the  prison 
and  bade  them  go  without  conditions.  4.  We  ought  to  have 
brought  out  more  clearly  in  our  discussion  the  bearings  of  the 

Discussion  of  the  Prison  Question,  209 

difficulties  of  transportation  which  the  Confederates  encountered  the 
last  year  of  the  war,  npon  this  question  of  properly  providing  for 
their  prisoners.  Any  one  who  will  even  glance  through  tlie  papers 
on  the  "Resources  of  the  Confederacy"  which  we  have  published, 
will  see  how  the  breaking  down  of  the  railroads  and  the  utter  in- 
adequacy of  transportation  put  our  armies  on  starvation  rations 
even  when  there  were  enough  in  the  depots  to  supply  them;  and, 
of  course,  the  supplies  for  the  prisoners  were  cut  down  in  the  same 

But  we  might  safely  rest  this  whole  question  of  the  relative 
treatment  of  prisoners  North  and  South  on  the  official  figures  of 
Secretary  Stanton  and  Surgeon-General  Barnes,  w^hich  were  thus 
presented  by  Hon.  B.  H.  Hill  in  his  masterly  reply  to  Mr.  Blaine : 

"  Now,  will  the  gentleman  believe  testimony  from  the  dead?  The 
Bible  says,  'The  tree  is  known  by  its  fruits.'  And,  after  all,  what 
is  the  test  of  suffering  of  these  prisoners  North  and  South?  The 
test  is  the  result.  Now,  I  call  the  attention  of  gentlemen  to  this 
fact,  that  the  report  of  Mr.  Stanton,  the  Secretary  of  War — you 
will  believe  him,  will  you  not? — on  the  19th  July,  1866 — send  to 
the  Library  and  get  it — exhibits  the  fact  that  of  the  Federal  pris- 
oners in  Confederate  hands  during  the  war,  only  22,576  died,  while 
of  the  Confederate  prisoners  in  Federal  hands  26,436  died.  And 
Surgeon-General  Barnes  reports  in  an  official  report — I  suppose 
you  will  believe  him — that  in  round  numbers  the  Confederate 
prisoners  in  Federal  hands  amounted  to  220,000,  while  the  Federal 
prisoners  in  Confederate  hands  amounted  to  270,000.  Out  of  the 
270,000  in  Confederate  hands  22,000  died,  while  of  the  220,000 
Confederates  in  Federal  hands  over  26,000  died.  The  ratio  is  this: 
more  than  twelve  per  cent,  of  the  Confederates  in  Federal  hands 
died,  and  less  than  nine  per  cent,  of  the  Federals  in  Confederate 
hands  died.  What  is  the  logic  of  these  facts  according  to  the  gen- 
tleman from  Maine?  I  scorn  to  charge  murder  upon  the  otFicials 
of  Northern  prisons,  as  the  gentleman  has  done  upon  Confederate 
prison  officials.  I  labor  to  demonstrate  that  such  miseries  are 
inevitable  in  prison  life,  no  matter  how  humane  the  regulations." 

These  figures  (compiled  not  by  Confederates,  but  by  those  who 
had  no  love  for  "Rebels" — compiled  from  documents  to  which  ive 
are  denied  all  access — compiled  in  the  regular  course  of  official  duty, 
and  with  scarcely  a  thought  of  the  tale  they  would  tell  when  col- 
lated and  compared)  are  an  end  to  the  controversy  so  far  as  show- 
ing that  if  the  Confederates  were  cruel  to  prisoners,  it  does  not  lie  in  the 
mouths  of  the  United  States  authorities,  or  their  apologists,  to  condemn 
them.  Let  them  first  purge  themselves  of  the  charge  before  they  try 

210  Southern  Historical  Society  Frqjers. 

to  blacken  the  Confederacy  with  it.  No  wonder  that  attempts  have 
been  made  to  explain  away  these  figures,  and  even  to  deny  their 
authenticity — one  bold  man  charging  that  "Jeff.  Davis  manufac- 
tured them  for  Ben.  Hill's  use";  but  all  such  attempts  have  proven 
ludicrous  failures. 

Mr.  Elaine,  with  full  time  to  prepare  his  repl}^  and  all  of  the  re- 
ports at  hand,  did  not  dare  to  deny  their  authenticity,  but  only  en- 
deavored to  break  their  force  by  the  following  lame  explanation: 

"Now,  in  regard  to  the  relative  number  of  prisoners  that  died  in 
the  North  and  the  South  respectively,  the  gentleman  undertook  to 
show  that  a  great  many  more  prisoners  died  in  the  hands  of  the 
Union  authorities  than  in  the  hands  of  the  Rebels.  I  have  had 
conversations  with  surgeons  of  the  army  about  that,  and  they  say 
that  there  were  a  large  number  of  deaths  of  Rebel  prisoners,  but 
that  during  the  latter  period  of  the  war  they  came  into  our  hands 
very  much  exhausted,  ill-clad,  ill-fed,  diseased,  so  that  they  died  in 
our  prisons  of  diseases  that  they  brought  Avith  them.  And  one 
eminent  surgeon  said,  without  wishing  at  all  to  be  quoted  in  this 
debate,  that  the  question  was  not  only  what  was  the  condition  of 
the  prisoners  when  they  came  to  us,  but  what  it  was  when  they 
were  sent  back.  Our  men  were  taken  in  full  health  and  strength; 
they  came  back  wasted  and  worn — mere  skeletons.  The  Rebel 
prisoners,  in  large  numbers,  were,  when  taken,  emaciated  and  re- 
duced; and  General  Grant  says  that  at  the  time  such  superhuman 
efforts  were  made  for  exchange  there  Avere  90,000  men  that  would 
have  reinforced  the  Confederate  armies  the  next  day,  prisoners  in 
our  hands  who  were  in  good  health  and  ready  for  fight.  This  con- 
sideration sheds  a  great  deal  of  light  on  what  the  gentleman  states." 

This  explanation  (?)  cuts  the  throat  of  the  whole  argument  to 
prove  Confederate  cruelt}'^  to  prisoners,  for  if  the  Confederacy  could 
make  no  better  provision  for  its  own  soldiers  in  the  field,  how  could 
it  be  expected  to  provide  for  its  prisoners?  And  it  is,  at  the  same 
time,  a  very  severe  reflection  upon  the  "patriot  soldiers"  of  the 
North  who  (though  hale,  hearty,  well  equipped  and  well  fed)  not 
iinfrequently  found  greatly  inferior  numbers  of  these  "emaciated 
and  reduced"  skeletons  more  than  a  match  for  their  valor. 

But  The  Nation  evidently  sees  the  force  of  these  figures,  and 
makes  an  attempt  to  break  it,  which  is  certainl}'"  adroit,  whatever 
we  may  think  of  its  candor.     It  says: 

That  sad  abuses  occurred  occasionally  is  evident  enough,  but 
that  there  was  any  general  ill-treatment  for  which  the  Government 
was  responsible  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  except  certain  suspi- 
cious statistics  of  prison  mortality  made  up  from  statements  of 

Discussion  of  the  Prison  Question.  211 

Secretary  Stanton  as  to  the  number  of  prisoners  taken,  and  a  report 
of  Surgeon  Barnes  giving  the  total  number  of  deaths.  The  result 
of  the  calculation  is  startling,  for  it  shows  a  rate  of  mortality  in 
the  Confederate  prisons,  excluding  Andersonville,  only  about  one- 
half  of  that  in  the  Northern.  Bearing  in  mind  the  great  sacrifice 
of  life  at  Belle  Isle  and  Libby,  and  the  loose  way  in  which  the  esti- 
mate is  made  from  diverse  and  inaccessible  sources,  it  seems  suspi- 
cious in  the  extreme.  It  has  been  impossible  to  learn  anything 
about  it  from  the  present  Adjutant-General's  office,  where  the  appli- 
cant will  find  himself  turned  off  with  some  ambiguous  statement 
that  the  mortality  on  one  side  is  roughly  estimated  at  12  per  cent, 
and  on  the  other  side  at  16  per  cent;  and  if  he  asks  on  Avhich  side 
it  was  twelve  and  which  sixteen,  be  refused  further  information  on 
the  ground  that  to  answer  such  requests  "would  require  the  entire 
clerical  force  of  the  office  for  about  three  years."  It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  under  the  new  Administration  this  stain  on  the  national  honor 
may  be  removed.  But  meanwhile  our  reputation  suffers  most  se- 
riously from  the  charge,  as  any  one  who  remembers  the  flings  of 
foreign  journals  will  recall  with  mortification." 

Now,  we  tell  The  Nation,  in  all  candor,  that  "this  stain  on  the 
national  honor"  cannot  be  wiped  out  by  prevailing  on  the  new 
Administration  (if  it  could  succeed  in  doing  so)  to  have  a  new  set 
of  figures  prepared  for  the  'purpose.  Secretary  Stanton's  report  of  the 
number  of  prisoner's  who  died  on  both  sides  during  the  war  was 
made  July  19th,  1866;  Surgeon-General  Barnes' report  of  the  num- 
ber of  deaths  on  both  sides  was  made  the  next  year,  we  believe — 
and  the  National  Intelligencer,  in  an  editorial  of  June  2d,  1869,  col- 
lated and  compared  the  figures  of  the  two  reports.  Southern  and 
foreign  papers  took  hold  of  these  figures  and  used  them  as  a  tri- 
umphant vindication  of  the  Confederacy.  Now  who  doubts  that 
if  they  were  wrong  the  Departments  at  Washington  would  liave 
corrected  them — even  if  it  had  required  their  "  entire  clerical  force 
for  three  years  " — and  who  doubts  that  they  have  not  been  corrected 
simply  because  they  are  fully  as  favorable  to  the  Federal  side  as 
they  can  be  honestly  made?  These  figures  have  passed  into  history, 
and  they  will  be  believed,  even  though  the  suggestion  of  The 
Nation  should  hereafter  be  adopted  and  other  figures  be  cooked  up 
to  serve  a  purpose. 

But  after  all  the  gist  of  this  whole  discussion  rests  upon  the 
simple  question,  Did  the  Confederate  Government  order,  sanction,  or 
negligently  permit  cruelty  to  prisoners  /  We  think  we  proved  beyond 
all  reasonable  doubt  that  it  did  neither. 

The  Nation  tries  to  fix  responsibility  on  Mr.  Davis  by  a  series  of 
assertions,  for  which  we  respectfully  demand  the  -proof.    It  will  be 


212  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

difficult  to  get  any  one  at  all  familiar  with  the  high  character  of 
General  Howell  Cobb  to  believe  the  assertion  that  he  refused  to  do 
anything  to  mitigate  the  condition  of  things  at  Andersonville  "  in 
the  face  of  outspoken  reports  from  the  surgeons  in  charge."     We 
gave  the  famous  Chandler  report,  and  accompanied  it  with  letters 
from  Hon.  R.  G.  H.  Kean,  former  Chief  Clerk  of  the  Confederate 
War  Department,  and  ex-Secretar}^  Seddon,  showing  conclusively 
that  so  far  from  failing  to  notice  the  statements  in  reference  to 
Andersonville  which  Colonel  Chandler  made,  not  only  did  the 
Adjutant-General  and  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  War  put  the  strong 
endorsements  upon  the  report  which  we  quoted,  but  the  Secretary 
(Mr.  Seddon)  at  once  demanded  of  General  Winder  an  explanation, 
which  he  gave,  emphatically  denying  Colonel  Chandler's  charges — 
and  that  Colonel  Chandler's  request  for  a  court  of  inquiry  would 
have  resulted  in  the  fullest  investigation,  but  that  the  active  cam- 
paign then  in  progress  rendered  it  utterly  impracticable  to  hold  the 
court  until  the  matter  was,  unfortunately,  ended  by  the  death  of 
General  Winder.     We  showed,  moreover,  that  Mr.  Seddon  at  once, 
on  the  reception  of  the  Chandler  report,  sent  Judge  Ould  down  the 
rive,  under  flag  of  truce,  to  say  to  the  Federal  authorities,  in  sub- 
stance: You  have  broken   the  cartel — you  refuse  now  to  stand  by 
3'our  own  proposition  to  disregard  all  former  paroles,  and  exchange 
man  for  man  of  prisoners  actually  in  hand — you  have  refused  my 
proposition  that  surgeons  from  each  side  be  allowed  to  visit  and 
provide  for  the  prisoners — you  refuse  to  exchange  even  the  sick  and 
wounded — you  have  declined  my  proposition  to  allow  us  to  purchase 
hospital  stores  and  medicines  for  the  use  of  your  own   prisoners, 
paying  you  for  them  in  cotton,  tobacco  or  gold,  and  allowing  you 
to  send  your  own  agents  to  distribute  them,  and  now  I  tell  you 
again  that  your  men  in  our  prisons  are  dying  by  the  hundred  from 
causes  which  are  utterly  beyond  our  control,  and  I  am  authorized 
by  my  Government  to  propose  that  if  you  will  send  transportation 
to  Savannah  we  will  at  once  deliver  into  your  hands,  without  equiva- 
lent, from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand  of  your  suffering  soldiers.     We 
affirmed,  moreover  (what  we  are  prepared  to  prove),  that  so  far 
from  Mr.  Davis'  making  the  Chandler  report  the  ground  of  the 
promotion  of  General  Winder,  Jie  did  not  see  the  report  at  the  time,  and 
never  even  heard  of  its  existence  (he  was  in  a  casemate  at  Fortress 
Monroe  when  it  was  produced  at  the  Wirz  trial),  until  some  one  told 
him  of  it  in  1875. 

Judge  Advocate  Chipman  labored  to  connect  Mr.  Davis  with 

Dlsctission  of  Lite  Prison  Question.  213 

this  report  during  the  Wirz  trial,  and  yet,  notwithstanding  the  fact 
that  he  had  at  his  beck  and  call  a  band  of  trained  perjurers,  and 
Mr.  Davis  was  in  a  distant  prison  and  in  ignorance  of  what  was 
going  on,  the  effort  utterly  failed.  Equally  futile  was  every  other 
effort  to  connect  Mr.  Davis  with  the  responsibility  for  the  sufferings 
at  Andersonville,  until,  in  despair  of  any  other  evidence,  an  attempt 
was  made  to  bribe  poor  Wirz  by  offerring  him,  a  short  time  before 
his  execution,  a  reprieve  if  he  would  implicate  Mr.  Davis.  He 
indignantly  replied  :  "  Mr.  Davis  had  no  connection  tvith  me  as  to  what 
was  done  at  Andersonville.  I  would  not  become  a  traitor  against 
him  or  anybody  else,  even  to  save  my  life."  We  brought  out  the 
proofs  of  all  these  facts.  Moreover  we  published  the  letter  of 
Chief-Justice  George  Shea,  to  the  New  York  Tribune,  giving  an 
account  of  his  investigation  of  this  question  in  behalf  of  Mr. 
Horace  Greeley  and  other  gentlemen  who  were  unwilling  to  go  on 
Mr.  Davis'  bail  bond  until  the  charge  against  him  of  cruelty  to 
prisoners  was  cleared  up.  Judge  Shea  went  to  Canada  and  had 
access  to  certain  Confederate  archives  which  had  escaped  capture, 
and  he  investigated  all  of  the  "evidence"  which  the  "Bureau  of 
Military  Justice  "  had  at  Washington.  The  result  was  that  he  was 
not  only  convinced  himself,  but  succeeded  in  convincing  such  men 
as  Governor  Andrew,  Horace  Greeley,  Gerritt  Smith,  Vice-President 
Wilson  and  Thaddeus  Stevens,  that  the  charge  against  Mr.  Davis 
of  even  connivance  at  cruelty  to  prisoners  was  utterly  to ithout  founda- 

The  United  States  authorities  did  not  dare  to  bring  Sir.  Davis  to 
trial  on  this  or  on  any  other  charge,  simply  because,  after  the  most 
industrious  efforts,  they  could  find  no  testimony  which  created 
even  a  reasonable  presumption  of  guilt.  But  these  "judicial"  gen- 
tlemen of  The  Nation  undertake  to  convict  where  the  "Bureau  of 
Military  Justice"  hesitated,  and  affect  to  regard  Mr.  Davis'  letter  in 
reference  to  General  Winder  (a  garbled  clause  of  which  they  give 
and  pervert)  as  settling  his  complicity  with  the  "crime  of  Ander- 

The  Nation  has  not  thought  proper  to  meet  our  argument,  which 
proved,  beyond  all  reasonable  doubt,  that  for  the  suspension  of  the 
cartel  and  the  stoppage  of  exchange,  the  United  States  authorities 
alone  were  responsible.  We  traced  the  history  of  the  exchange 
question,  and  gave  the  most  indubitable  proofs  that  the  Confederates 
were  ahoays  ready  to  exchange,  but  that  so  soon  as  Gettysburg  and 
Vicksburg  gave  the  United  State  Government  a  large  excess  of 

214  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

prisoners  actually  in  hand  (though  a  large  part  of  them  should 
have  been  at  once  released  to  meet  paroles  already  held  by  the 
Confederates),  it  at  once  adopted  as  its  cold-blooded  war  policy  to 
refuse  all  further  exchange  of  prisoners,  ivhile  they  satisfied  the  North  by 
charging  bad  faith  and  cruelty  to  prisoners  on  the  part  of  ^Hhe  Rebels.'''' 

The  Nation  seems  to  think  that  the  question  of  exchange  had 
nothing  to  do  with  the  treatment  of  prisoners.  Certainly  the  refusal 
of  the  United  States  authorities  to  exchange  would  not  have  justi- 
fied the  Confederates  in  cruelty  to  prisoners,  and  so  far  from  contend- 
ing for  any  such  absurdity,  we  have  proven  that  there  ivas  no  such 
cruelty  on  the  part  of  our  Government.  But  we  do  insist  that  the 
suspension  of  exchange  threw  upon  our  hands  thousands  of  pris- 
oners Avhom  we  were  unable  to  provide  with  suitable  food,  clothing? 
quarters  or  medicines — that  the  Federal  authorities  were  again  and 
again  informed  of  the  fearful  mortality  which  existed  among  the 
prisoners,  and  of  our  inability  to  prevent  it — and  that  inasmuch  as 
the}^  not  only  refused  to  exchange,  but  even  to  accept  the  several 
humane  propositions  we  made  to  mitigate  the  sufferings  of  prisoners, 
and  obstinately  pursued  their  "  attrition  "  policy  of  "  crushing  the 
rebellion" — they  {and  they  alone)  are  responsible  before  God  and 
at  the  bar  of  history  for  all  of  the  suffering  and  mortality  which 
existed  at  Andersonville  and  the  other  prisons  at  the  South,  and 
the  still  greater  suffering  and  mortality  of  Elmira  and  the  other 
prisons  at  the  North. 

The  Nation  also  finds  it  convenient  to  ignore  the  testimony  we 
adduced  from  Federal  soldiers,  officers,  surgeons  and  citizens  which 
traced  the  cruel  treatment  which  our  men  received  directly  to  E. 
M.  Stanton,  Secretary  of  War.  On  the  other  hand,  we  defy  proof 
of  an  order,  letter  or  intimation  of  any  sort  whatever  from  Mr. 
Davis,  or  any  member  of  his  cabinet,  directing,  permitting  or  in 
any  way  conniving  at  cruelty  to  prisoners.  There  are  other  points 
to  which  we  have  not  space  even  to  allude.  But  if  The  Nation 
really  desires  to  get  at  the  truth  of  this  whole  question,  we  would 
be  most  happy  to  discuss  with  it  in  full  each  one  of  the  six  points 
we  claimed  to  have  proven,  and  to  print  in  our  Papers  everything  it 
has  to  say  on  the  subject,  if  it  will  reciprocate. 

GarneWs  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  215 

Garnett's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg. 

[The  following  letter  explains  tlie  report  which  follows,  and  which  will 
be  an  addition  to  our  series  of  reports  on  that  great  battle.] 

Charlottesville,  Virginia,  March  23d,  1875. 
To  the  Secretary  of  the  Soidliern  Historical  Society  : 

Dear  Sir — In  looking  up  some  old  papers  a  few  days  ago,  I 
found  the  inclosed  report  of  the  part  taken  by  Garnett's  brigade 
(first  Cocke's,  then  Pickett's,  then  Garnett's,  and  lastly  Hunton's)  in 
the  battle  of  Gettysburg. 

I  am  not  sure  who  is  the  author  of  the  report,  as  it  is  unsigned, 
but  am  under  the  impression  that  Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  S. 
Peyton,  of  the  Nineteenth  Virginia  infantry,  wrote  or  dictated  it. 
Colonel  Peyton  (at  that  time  Major  of  the  Nineteenth  Virginia) 
was  the  senior  field  ofHcer  who  escaped  from  the  charge  on  Cemetery 
Hill  and  took  command  of  the  brigade  after  the  battle.  Colonel 
Henry  Gantt  was  badly  wounded  in  two  places,  and  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Ellis  was  killed,  as  is  reported  in  these  papers.  Major 
Peyton  was  afterwads  promoted  to  the  vacant  lieutenant-colonelcy. 
He  had  lost  an  arm  at  second  Manassas,  but  returned  to  duty  as 
soon  as  he  was  sufficiently  recovered  to  do  so,  and  did  good  service 
during  the  charge  at  Gettysburg.  He  was  slightly  wounded  in  the 
leg,  but  not  disabled  to  such  an  extent  as  to  prevent  taking  com- 
mand of  the  brigade. 

I  was  Adjutant  of  the  Nineteenth  Virginia  during  the  greater 
part  of  the  war,  and  presume  that  the  report  fell  into  my  hands  in 
that  way,  although  I  had  entirely  lost  sight  of  it. 
Very  respectfully, 

Charles  C.  Wertenbaker. 

Headquarters  Garnett's  Brigade, 
Camp  Near  Wtlliamsport,  Maryland^  July  9th,  1863. 

Major  C.  Pickett,  A.  A.  G.  Fickeifs  Division: 

Major — In  compliance  with  instructions  from  division  head- 
quarters, I  have  the  honor  to  report  the  part  taken  by  this  brigade 
in  the  late  battle  near  Gettysburg,  Pennsylvania,  July  3d,  1863. 

Notwithstanding  the  long  and  severe  marches  made  by  the  troops 
of  this  brigade,  they  reached  the  field  about  9  o'clock  A.  M.,  in 
high  spirits  and  in  good  condition.     At  al)0ut  12  M.  we    were 

216  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

ordered  to  take  position  behind  the  crest  of  the  hill  on  which  the 
artillery,  under  Colonel  Alexander,  was  planted,  where  we  lay  during 
a  most  terrific  cannonading,  which  opened  at  I2  o'clock  P.  M.  and 
was  kept  up  without  intermission  for  one  hour.  During  the  shelling 
we  lost  about  twenty  killed  and  wounded ;  among  the  killed  was 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Ellis,  of  the  Nineteenth  Virginia,  whose  bravery 
as  a  soldier,  and  his  innocence,  purity  and  integrity  as  a  Christian, 
has  not  only  elicited  the  admiration  of  his  own  command,  but 
endeared  him  to  all  who  knew  him. 

At  21  P.  M.  the  artillery  fire  having  to  some  extent  abated,  the 
order  to  advance  was  given,  first  by  Major-General  Pickett  in  person, 
and  repeated  by  General  Garnett.  With  promptness,  apparent  cheer- 
fulness and  alacrity,  the  brigade  moved  forward  at  "  quick-time." 
The  ground  was  open,  but  little  broken,  and  from  800  to  1,000  yards 
from  the  crest  whence  we  started  to  the  enemy's  line.  The  brigade 
moved  in  good  order,  keeping  up  its  line  almost  perfect,  notwith- 
standing it  had  to  climb  three  high  post  and  rail  fences,  behind 
the  last  of  which  the  enemy's  skirmishers  were  first  met  and  im- 
mediately driven  in.  Moving  on,  we  soon  met  the  advance  line 
of  the  enemy,  lying  concealed  in  the  grass  on  the  slope,  about  one 
hundred  yards  in  front  of  his  second  line,  which  consisted  of  a 
stone  wall,  about  breast  high,  running  nearely  parallel  to  and  about 
thirty  spaces  from  the  crest  of  the  hill  which  was  lined  with  their 

The  first  line  referred  to  above,  after  offering  some  resistance,  was 
completely  routed  and  driven  in  confusion  back  to  the  stone  wall- 
Here  we  captured  some  prisoners,  which  were  ordered  to  the  rear 
without  a  guard.  Having  routed  the  enemy  here.  General  Garnett 
ordered  the  brigade  forward,  which  was  promptly  obeyed,  loading 
and  faring  as  they  advanced. 

Up  to  this  time  we  had  suffered  but  little  from  the  enemy's 
batteries,  which  apparently  had  been  much  crippled  previous  to 
our  advance,  with  the  exception  of  one  posted  on  the  mountain 
about  one  mile  to  our  right,  which  enfiladed  nearly  our  entire  line, 
with  fearful  effect,  sometimes  having  as  many  as  ten  men  killed  and 
"wounded  by  the  bursting  of  a  single  shell. 

From  the  point  it  had  first  routed  the  enemy,  the  brigade  moved 
rapidly  forward  towards  the  stone  wall,  under  a  galling  fire,  both 
from  artilleiy  and  infantry,  the  artillery  using  grape  and  canister. 

We  were  now  within  about  seventy-five  paces  of  the  wall,  un- 
supported on  the  right  and  left ;  General  Kemper  being  some  fifty 

GarneWs  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  217 

or  sixty  yards  behind  and  to  the  right,  and  General  Armistead. 
coming  up  in  our  rear.  General  Kemper's  line  was  discovered  to 
be  lapping  on  ours,  when,  deeming  it  advisable  to  have  the  line 
extended  on  the  right  to  prevent  being  flanked,  a  staff  officer  rode 
back  to  the  General  to  request  him  to  incline  to  the  right.  General 
Kemper  not  being  present  (perhaps  wounded  at  the  time),  Captain 
Fr}''  of  his  staff  immediatel}'-  began  his  exertions  to  carry  out  the 
request,  but  in  consequence  of  the  eagerness  of  the  men  in  pressing 
forward,  it  was  impossible  to  have  the  order  carried  out. 

Our  line,  much  shattered,  still  kept  up  the  advance  until  within 
about  twenty  paces  of  the  wall,  when  for  a  moment  they  recoiled 
under  the  terrific  fire  that  poured  into  our  ranks  both  from  their 
batteries  and  from  their  sheltered  infantry. 

At  this  moment  General  Kemper  came  up  on  the  right  and 
General  Armistead  in  rear,  when  the  three  lines,  joining  in  concert, 
rushed  forward  with  unyielding  determination,  and  an  apparent 
spirit  of  laudable  rivalry  to  plant  the  Southern  banner  on  the  walls 
of  the  enemy. 

His  strongest  and  last  line  was  instantly  gained,  the  Confederate 
battle  flag  waved  over  his  defences,  and  the  fighting  over  the  wall 
became  hand  to  hand  and  of  the  most  desperate  character,  but 
more  than  half  having  already  fallen,  our  line  was  found  too  weak 
to  rout  the  enemy.  We  hoped  for  a  support  on  the  left  (which 
had  started  simultaniously  with  ourselves),  but  hoped  in  vain. 
Yet,  a  small  remnant  remained  in  desperate  struggle,  receiving  a 
fire  in  front,  on  the  right  and  on  the  left,  many  even  climbing  over 
the  wall  and  fighting  the  enemy  in  his  own  trenches,  until  entirely 
surrounded,  and  those  who  were  not  killed  or  wounded  were  cap- 
tured, with  the  exception  of  about  300,  who  came  off  slowly  but 
greatly  scattered— the  identity  of  every  regiment  being  entirely 
lost,  every  regimental  commander  killed  or  wounded. 

The  brigade  went  into  action  with  1,287  men  and  about  140 
officers,  as  shown  by  the  report  of  the  previous  evening,  and  sus- 
tained a  loss,  as  the  list  of  casualties  will  show,  of  941  killed, 
wounded  and  missing,  and  it  is  feared  from  all  the  information 
received  that  the  majority  of  those  reported  missing  are  either 
killed  or  wounded. 

It  is  needless,  perhaps,  to  speak  of  conspicuous  gallantry  where 
all  behaved  so  well.  Each  and  every  regimental  commander  dis- 
played a  cool  bravery  and  daring  that  not  only  encouraged  their 
own  commands,  but  won  the  highest  admiration  from  all  those  who 

218  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

saw  them.  They  led  their  regiments  in  the  fight,  and  showed  by 
their  conduct  that  they  only  desired  their  men  to  follow  where 
they  were  willing  to  lead. 

But  of  our  cool,  gallant,  noble  brigade  commander,  it  may  not 
be  out  of  place  to  speak.  Never  had  the  brigade  been  better 
handled,  and  never  has  it  done  better  service  on  the  field  of  battle. 

There  was  scarcely  an  officer  or  man  in  the  command  whose 
attention  was  not  attracted  by  the  cool  and  handsome  bearing  of 
General  Garnett,  who,  totally  devoid  of  excitement  or  rashness, 
rode  immediately  in  rear  of  his  advancing  line,  endeavoring  by  his 
personal  efforts  and  by  the  aid  of  his  staff  to  keep  his  line  well 
closed  and  dressed. 

He  was  shot  from  his  horse  while  near  the  centre  of  the  brigade? 
within  about  twenty-five  paces  of  the  stone  wall.  This  gallant 
officer  was  too  well  known  to  need  further  mention. 

Captain  Linthicum,  A.  A.  G.,  Lieutenant  Jones,  A.  D.  C,  and 
Lieutenant  Harrison,  acting  A.  D.  C,  did  their  whole  duty  and  won 
the  admiration  of  the  entire  command  by  their  gallant  bearing  on 
the  field  while  carrying  orders  from  one  portion  of  the  line  to  the 
other  where  it  seemed  almost  impossible  for  any  one  to  escape- 
The  conduct  of  Captain  Shepard,  of  the  Twenty-eighth  Virginia, 
was  particularly  conspicuous.  His  son  fell  mortally  wounded  at 
his  side.  He  stopped  but  for  a  moment  to  look  on  his  dying  son, 
gave  him  his  canteen  of  water,  and  pressed  on  with  his  company 
to  the  wall,  which  he  climbed  and  fought  the  enemy  with  his 
sword  in  their  own  trenches,  until  his  sword  was  wrenched  from  his 
hands  by  two  Yankees.     He  finally  made  his  escape  in  safety. 

In  making  the  above  report,  I  have  endeavered  to  be  as  accurate 
as  possible,  but  have  had  to  rely  mainly  on  others  for  information 
whose  position  gave  them  better  opportunity  for  witnessing  the 
conduct  of  the  entire  brigade,  than  I  could  have,  being  with  and 
paying  my  attention  to  my  own  regiment. 

I  am.  Major,  with  great  respect,  your  obedient  servant, 

,  Major  Commanding. 

Ninth  Virginia  Cavalry  and  the  Dahlgren  Raid.  219 

Part  Taken  by  the  Kintli  Yirgiuia  Cavalry  in  Repelling  the  Dahlgren 


By  General  R.  L.  T.  Beale. 

[We  have  held  this  paper  with  the  purpose  of  publishing  it  in  connection 
with  the  full  liistoiy  of  the  Dahlgren  raid,  which  we  have  in  course  of  pre- 
paration, but  we  have  concluded  to  give  it  in  the  form  in  which  it  has  been 
sent  by  its  gallant  author]. 

An  Extract  from  a  Narrative  of  the  Movements  of  the  Ninth  Regiment 
Virginia  Cavalry  in  the  Late  War — Written  from  Notes  taken  at  the 
time  by  its  Colonel,  R.  L.  T.  Beale. 

Near  the  close  of  February,  a  third  order  was  received  to  report 
^vithout  delay  at  Hanover  Junction  for  orders.  We  marched  upon 
this,  as  we  did  upon  the  two  previous  occasions,  sixty  miles  in 
twenty-four  hours.  Reaching  the  Junction,  we  found  no  orders ; 
but  learning  here  that  the  enemy,  under  General  Kilpatrick,  were 
making  a  raid  upon  Richmond,  so  soon  as  a  supply  of  ammunition 
was  drawn  our  march  was  directed  to  Taylorsville.  At  this  point, 
a  general  officer  commanding  some  infantry  inforrried  us  the  enemy 
had  been  repulsed  by  General  Hampton's  command,  and  must  re- 
treat towards  the  Rapidaii,  and  w^e  would  probably  encounter  them 
near  Ashland.  To  Ashland  our  march  was  directed.  In  some  two 
miles  of  this  point,  reliable  intelligence  was  obtained  that  the  main 
body  of  the  enemy  was  near  Old  Church,  but  that  a  party  of  some 
four  hundred  had  moved  upon  the  road  to  Hanover  Courthouse. 
Our  line  of  march  was  now  directed  to  that  point,  reaching  it  about 
dark,  only  to  learn  our  enemy  had  passed  without  halting. 

Rest  and  food  for  men  and  horses  were  now  much  needed,  and 
the  command  bivouacked  around  a  church  a  few  hundred  yards 
from  Hanover  Courthouse.  Before  our  meal  of  cold  bread  was 
over,  a  prisoner,  taken  under  such  suspicious  circumstances  as  to 
induce  the  belief  that  he  was  a  Yankee,  was  sent  in  by  the  picket. 
He  w^as  subjected  to  a  rigid  examination  by  the  Colonel,  who  got 
from  him  information  not  very  agreeable.  The  man  had  been 
captured  in  the  morning,  and  after  hard  usage,  made  his  escape  in 
the  evening  from  a  body  of  cavalry,  which  he  said  was  commanded 
by  a  Colonel  Dahlgren.  They  had  passed  in  sight  of  Hanover 
Courthouse,  moving  to  Indiantown  ferry,  over  the  Pamunkey, 
where  about  one-fourth  of  the  party  crossed  the  river,  the  remain- 
ing three-fourths  moving  down  the  south  bank  towards  Old  Church. 

220  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

He  also  said  he  heard  that  the  force  which  crossed  had  orders  to 
inarch  by  Saluda  to  Gloucester  Point.  In  this  route  the  direct  road 
would  lead  to  our  camp  in  Essex. 

A  tried  soldier  was  summoned  at  once  and  provided  with  authority 
to  impress  horses,  was  charged  with  an  order  to  the  senior  officer  at 
camp,  and  required  to  deliver  it  by  dawn  of  the  morning.  So  soon 
as  the  horses  had  eaten,  the  bugle  sounded  to  horse,  and  we  moved 
down  the  south  side  of  Pamunkey.  Before  dawn  our  advance  was 
halted  by  a  picket  near  Old  Church. 

It  proved  to  be  that  of  Colonel  Bradley  T.  Johnson.  We  halted 
for  breakfast,  then  marched  to  Tunstall's  Station,  to  which  point 
Colonel  Johnson  moved  to  ambush.  We  saw  only  the  half  extinct 
fires  of  the  Yankee  camp  and  evidences  of  ruin  to  the  helpless 
families  near  the  road,  and  after  a  bootless  chase,  returned  in  the 
evening  to  bivouac  at  the  intersection  of  the  New  Castle  and  New 
Kent  roads,  one  mile  from  Old  Church,  to  await  the  return  of  a 
courier  sent  to  General  Hampton  in  the  morning.  Whilst  seated 
around  our  camp-fire,  a  courier — Private  Bobbins,  of  New  Kent — 
rode  in,  and  asked  for  Colonel  Beale.  He  bore  a  dispatch  from 
Lieutenant  James  Pollard,  of  Company  H,  who  was  absent  from 
camp  when  we  marched,  and  a  package  of  papers.  From  the  dis- 
patch we  learned  that  Pollard,  hearing  of  a  party  of  the  enemy  in 
the  county,  hastily  collected  twelve  of  his  men,  and  crossing  the 
Mattaponi,  took  position  on  the  south  bank  at  Dunkirk  to  dispute 
their  passage  over  the  bridge.  After  waiting  some  time,  he  learned 
the  enemy  had  found  a  boat  and  crossed  at  Aylett's,  two  miles 
lower  down.  He  immediately  pursued  them,  and  availing  him- 
self of  his  perfect  familiarity  with  the  country,  succeeded  before 
nightfall  in  getting  in  front  of  them.  On  reaching  the  road  of  the 
enemy's  march,  he  met  a  homeguard  company,  under  command  of 
Captain  Bichard  Hugh  Bagby,  with  several  lieutenants  and  some 
privates  from  other  regular  regiments,  ready  to  dispute  the  advance 
of  the  enemy.  Falling  back  until  a  good  position  was  reached,  the 
men  were  posted  and  darkness  closed  in.  No  advance  after  dark 
was  expected.  A  lieutenant  was  left  in  command  on  the  road. 
About  11  o'clock  the  tramp  of  horses  was  heard.  When  within 
twenty  or  thirty  paces  the  officer  commanded  "Halt!"  The  repl}'' 
was  "  Disperse,  you  damned  Bebels,  or  I  shall  charge  you."  "  Fire !" 
ordered  the  lieutenant,  and  under  it  the  horsemen  retreated  rapidly. 
Their  leader  had  fallen,  as  his  horse  wheeled,  killed  instantly.  De- 
serted by  their  officers,  the  men  next  morning,  on  the  flats  below 

Ninth  Virginia  Cavalry  and  the  Dahlyren  Raid.  221 

the  hill,  hoisted  the  white  flag.  The  papers  found  on  Colonel  Dahl- 
gren's  person  accompanied  the  dispatch.  Nearly  every  paper  had 
been  copied  in  a  memorandum  book;  they  consisted  of  an  ad- 
dress to  the  command,  the  order  of  attack  from  the  south  side  of 
the  James  upon  the  city  of  Richmond,  enjoining  the  release  of  the 
prisoners,  the  killing  of  the  executive  officers  of  the.  Confederate 
Government,  the  burning  and  gutting  of  the  city,  directions  where 
to  apply  for  the  materials  necessary  to  setting  fire  to  the  city,  and 
an  accurate  copy  of  the  last  field  return  of  our  cavalry  made  to 
General  Stuart,  with  the  location  of  every  regiment.  This  last  was 
furnished  by  the  Bureau  of  Instruction  at  Washington.  The  rest 
were  credited  to  no  one.  We  forwarded  all  the  papers  by  Pollard's 
courier  to  Richmond.  The  memorandum  book  was  retained.  After 
the  publication  of  the  papers  and  the  denial  of  their  authenticity, 
we  were  interrogated  and  ordered  to  forward  the  memorandum 
book,  which  was  done. 

222  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Iditxinal  Ifat^apaphs, 

An  Extension  of  our  Circulation  is  very  desirable  on  manj'^  accounts. 
We  can  be  useful  only  as  our  Papers  are  circulated  ;  and  we  need  a  larger 
list  of  subscribers  in  order  that  we  ma}^  have  the  means  of  properly  carrying 
on  our  important  work.  Will  not  our  friends  generally  help  us  in  this 
matter?  Let  each  subscriber  encleaver  to  secure  for  tis  a  neio  one.  And  let 
our  present  subscribers  not  fail  to  renew  when  their  time  is  out.  If  we  can 
have  the  cordial  co-operation  and  active  help  of  our  friends,  our  capacity  for 
usefulness  will  be  greatly  enlarged. 

Donations  to  the  Funds  of  the  Society  were  contemplated  in  our 
original  organization,  but  tlie  condition  of  the  South  has  been  such  that  we 
have  not  made  appeals  in  that  direction. 

We  have  received  a  large  number  of  donations  of  books,  MSS.,  documents, 
pamphlets,  &c.,  of  very  great  pecuniary  value ;  but,  with  tlie  exception  of 
a  liberal  contribution  of  $1,000  fi'om  one  large-hearted  friend  of  the  cause, 
we  have  received  very  little  money  except  in  payment  of  subscriptions.  Now 
we  begin  to  feci  the  great  need  of  larger  means  with  which  to  carry  on  our 
work— to  purchase  books,  MSS.,  &c.,  which  we  cannot  otherwise  secure,  to 
print  more  of  our  MSS.,  and  to  carry  out  various  plans  for  the  enlarged 
usefulness  of  the  Society.  We  have  to  compete  to  some  extent  with  the 
great  historical  societies  whicli  have  their  splendid  buildings  and  ample  en- 
dowments, and  we  really  do  not  know  how  friends  of  the  South  could  more 
judiciously  invest  funds  just  now  than  by  contributions  to  this  Society,  which 
has  for  its  object  the  preservation  of  the  records,  and  tlie  vindication  of  the 
history  of  the  Confederacy. 

We  will  say,  then,  frankly,  that  if  there  are  tliose  who  are  able  and  willing- 
to  help  us,  donations  would  be  at  this  time  particularly  acceptable,  and  that 
any  contributions  made  to  us  will  be  sacredly  used  in  accordance  with  the 
wishes  of  tlie  donors. 

The  Fire  which  Destroyed  the  Private  Residence  of  the  Sec- 
retary, over  a  month  ago,  was  not  alluded  to  in  these  colunms,  because  we 
are  not  accustomed  to  introduce  into  them  mere  private  matters.  But  as  an 
impression  has  gone  abroad  that  important  papers  belonging  to  the  Society 
were  destroyed,  it  becomes  proper  to  say  that  the  archives  of  the  Society  are 
kept  in  our  oflice  in  the  State  Capitol — that  tliey  ai-e  under  constant  guard — 
and  are  as  safe  as  theXiibrary  and  archives  of  the  Commonwealth. 

While,  tlierefore,  the  Secretary  lost  his  private  librarj^,  most  of  his  furniture, 
&c.,  nothing  belonging  to  the  Southern  Historical  Society  was  eitlier  destroyed 
or  injured. 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  223 

The  correction  given  below  is  a  very  proper  one,  though  we  are  not  quite 
sure  whether  the  mistake  was  Mr.  HoUydaj^'s,  or  a  typographical  error  : 

Rev.  J.  William  Jones,  D.  D., 

Secretary  Sovtheru  Historical  Society.,  BicJimond  Virginia  : 
Dear  Sir — 5Ir.  Lamar  Hollyday  in  his  narrative  of  tlie  "  Maryland 
troops  in  tlie  Confederate  Service,"  published  in  the  March  number  of  the 
Southern  Historical  Society  Papers.,  states  that  Captain  Latrobe,  of  the  Tiiird 
battery  of  Maryland  artillery,  was  killed  at  Vicksburg,  Mississippi.  That  is 
a  mistake.  His  report  of  the  Third  Maryland  artillery  should  read  thus : 
Captain  Henr}^  B.  Latrobe,  commissioned  September  9th,  18G1  ;  left  tlie 
service  March  Lst,  1863.  Captain  Ferd.  O.  Claiborne,  promoted  March  1st, 
1863 ;  killed  at  Vicksbui-g,  Mississippi,  June  22d,  1863. 

flease  make  the  above  correction,  and  much  oblige,  yours  truly, 

William  L.  Ritter. 
Baltimore,  Maryland,  April  5th,  1877. 

Contributions  to  our  Archives  are  always  in  order,  and  the  kindness 
of  our  friends  in  this  I'cspect  is  most  warmly  aijpreciated.  With  no  means 
of  purchasing  books  or  documents,  the  free  will  oflerings  of  those  interested 
in  our  work  are  filling  our  shelves  with  historic  material  which  money  could 
not  buy.  Since  oar  last  acknowledgement  we  have  received  among  others 
the  following : 

From  Eev.  J.  A.  French — Letter  book  containing  official  copies  of  letters 
written  by  the  Confederate  Secretary  of  the  Treasur}'.  Letter  llle  containing 
letters  received  in  1861  at  Register's  office  Confederate  Treasury  Department. 

From  Colonel  Charles  Ellis,  Richmond — A  package  of  war  newspapers 
carefully  selected  and  preserved  because  of  something  valuable  in  each. 
"Ordinances  adopted  by  the  Convention  of  Virginia  in  secret  session  in 
April  and  May,  1861."  Virginia  "  Ordinance  of  Secession."  "Report  of 
the  Chief  of  Ordnance  of  Virginia  (Colonel  C.  Dimmock),  for  the  j'car  ending 
September  30th,  1861.  "Message  of  the  Governor  of  Virginia"  (Hon.  John 
Letcher),  December  7th,  1863.  Letter  from  General  C.  F.  Henningsen  in 
reply  to  the  letter  of  Victor  Hugo  on  the  Harper's  Ferry  invasion."  "Dis- 
course on  the  Life  and  Caracterof  Lieutenant-General  Thomas  J,  Jackson," 
by,  General  F.  H.  Smith,  Superintendent  Virginia  Military  Institute,  read 
befor  the  Board  of  Visitors,  Faculty  and  Cadets,  July  1st,  1863,  together 
with  proceedings  of  the  Institution  in  honor  of  the  illustrious  deceased." 

From  the  American  Colonization  Society — A  full  set  of  the  annual  reports, 
addresses,  &c.,  of  the  Society.  "  ISIemorial  of  the  Semi-Centennial  Anni- 
versary of  the  American  Colonization  Society,  celebrated  at  Washington, 
January  loth,  1867." 

From  Judge  W.  S.  Barton,  Fredericksburg,  Virginia — A  bundle  of  official 
papers  relating  to  the  fall  of  Vicksburg  and  Port  Hudson,  which  were  put 
into  his  hands  as  Judge  Advocate  of  the  Court  of  Inquiry  which  was  ordered 
by  the  Confederate  War  Department  to  investigate  those  disasters.  Tlie 
package  contains  such  papers  as  the  following  :  Report  of  General  R.  Taylor 
of  operations  in  North  Louisiana  from  June  3d  to  8th,  1863 ;  correspondence 
between  the  Secretary  of  War  and  General  J.  E.  Johnston,  from  the  9th  of 

224  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

'May  to  the  20tli  of  June,  1S63 ;  correspondence  between  the  President  and 
and  General  J.  E.  Johnston  ;  correspondence  and  reports  showing  the  efforts 
made  to  provision  Vicksbur":  and  Poi't  Hudson ;  I'eports  of  the  ordnance 
Department  as  to  the  issues  of  ordnance,  precussion,  caps,  &c.,  to  Vicksburg 
and  Port  Hudson  ;  and  a  lumiber  of  letters,  telegrams,  reports,  &c.,  bearing 
on  the  whole  question  of  the  defence  and  final  capitulation  of  those  posts. 

From  J.  D.  Davidson.,  Esq.,  Lexinr/ton,  Virginia — A  co])y  of  the  Augusta 
(Georgia),  Chronicle  for  1S17. 

From  Norval  Byland,  Esq.,  Bichmond— Copy  of  the  Ftiehniond  Dispatch, 
containing  full  account  of  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines. 

From  J.  L.  Peyton,  Esq.,  Staunton,  Virginia— '■^  The  American  Crisis,  or 
pages  from  the  ISTote  Book  of  a  State  Agent  during  the  Civil  War,  by  John 
Lewis  Peyton."     London  :  Saunders,  Otley  &  Co.,  1867  (two  volumes). 

From  the  Author  {George  Wise,  Esq.,)  Alexandria,  Fir^mm—"  History  of 
the  Seventeenth  Vn-ginia  Infantry,  Confederate  States  Army."  Baltimore  : 
Kelly,  Piet  &  Co.,  1870. 

From  A.  Barron  Holmes,  Esq.,  Charleston,  South  Ca/-oZi??a—"  Fort  Moultrie 
Centennial,"  being  a  beautifully  illustrated  account  of  the  celebration  at 
Fort  Moultrie,  Sulivan's  Island,  Charleston  (South  Carolina)  harbor  on  June 
28th,  1876.  "  Judge  O'JSTeale's  Annals  of  Newberry  District,  South  Carolina." 
"Logan's  History  of  Upper  South  Carolina"  (volume  I).  (Mr.  Holmes  fre- 
quently places  the  Society  under  obligations  for  similar  favors). 

From  the  Society  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee — Report  of  proceedings  at 
tenth  annual  meeting  held  at  Washington,  D.  C,  on  the  occasion  of  unveiling 
the  equestrian  statue  of  Major-General  James  B.  MePherson. 

From  Colonel  F.  H.  Archer,  of  Petersburg— A  bundle  of  very  interesting 
original  papei-s  (reports,  letters,  telegrams,  &c.)  of  operations  and  movements 
about  Suflblk,  Smithfield,  &c.,  in  the  spring  of  18G2. 

From  General  Fitz.  Lee — Sketch  of  the  life  and  character  of  the  late  General 
S.  Cooper,  Senior  General  and  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General  of  the  Con- 
federacy, together  with  a  letter  from  ex-President  Davis  giving  his  impressions 
of  General  Cooper. 

From  General  J.  A.  Early,  General  Fitz.  Lee,  General  E.  P.  Alexander, 
General  A.  L.  Long,  General  Cadmus  M.  Wilcox,  Colonel  Walter  H.  Taylor 
and  General  Henry  Heth — Papers  on  the  battle  of  Gettysburg.  (These  papers 
discuss  the  policy  of  invading  the  North,  the  plan  of  the  campaign,  the  origin, 
conduct,  events,  result  and  causes  of  the  result  of  the  battle  of  Gettysburg 
and  other  points  of  deep  interest,  together  with  similar  papers  from  other 
leading  Confederates  who  were  in  a  position  to  know  whereof  they  affirm. 
This  series  of  papers  will  do  more  to  give  to  the  world  the  true  story  of  Gettys- 
burg than  anything  that  has  yet  been  written,  and  with  the  full  series  of 
reports  on  the  great  battle  which  have  already  appeared,  they  will  afford 
invaluable  material  to  the  historian  who  sincerely  seeks  after  the  truth. 
Among  other  points  they  settle  beyond  all  controversy  that  General  Lee  had 
at  Gettysburg  only  62,000  effectives  of  all  arms,  while  General  Meade  had 
105,000  on  the  field,  and  at  least  10,000  more  within  supporting  distance). 


■TBiii  iimm  iiffl  PiPEBS, 

Tol.  III.      Richmond,  Ta.,  May  and  June,  1877.      Nos.  5  and  6. 

Report  of  Major-General  C.  L.  Sterenson  from  tlie  Beginning  of  the 
Daltou- Atlanta  Campaign  to  May  30,  1864. 

[The  following  is  from  the  original  MS.  furnished  us  by  General  Stevenson 
himself,  and  has  never  before  been  in  print  so  far  as  we  are  aware.] 

Major  ; 

Headquarters  Stevenson's  Division, 

In  the  Field,  May  30th,  1864. 

During  the  latter  part  of  last  month  I  received  orders  to  break 
up  my  winter  camp  on  the  Sugar  Valley  road  and  move  my  divi- 
sion to  the  position  assigned  it  in  front  of  Dalton.  I  went  into 
bivouac  in  Crowe  Valley,  and  immediately  went  to  work  to  com- 
plete the  defences  of  the  portion  of  the  line  allotted  me — from  the 
signal  station  upon  Rocky  Face  mountain  on  my  left  to  Ault's 
creek  on  my  right.  General  Pettus  was  placed  upon  the  left,  Gen- 
eral Reynolds  on  the  left-centre,  General  Gumming  on  the  right- 
centre,  and  General  Brown  on  the  right.  General  Pettus  was 
ordered  to  hold  the  mountain  with  a  regiment  of  rifles.  The 
movements  of  the  enemy  very  soon  showed  that  his  greatest  efforts 
would  be  against  the  mountain,  which  was,  in  fact,  the  key 
to  my  position ;  and  accordingly,  on  the  —  instant,  General  Pettus 
was  ordered  to  occupy  the  mountain  with  his  brigade,  and  the 
vacancy  in  the  trenches  created  by  his  removal  filled  by  extending 
intervals  to  the  left. 

On  the  8th  instant,  the  enemy  pushed  forward  his  skirmishers 
vigorously,  supported  by  a  line  of  battle,  against  the  angle  in  Pet- 
tus' line  at  the  crest  of  the  mountain.  This  attack  was  quickly 
and  handsomely  repulsed  by  that  portion  of  his  line  which  occu- 
pied the  angle.  In  compliance  with  instructions  from  the  Lieu- 
tenant-General,  Brown's  brigade  was  then  moved  from  its  position 
on  my  right  to  the  left  of  Pettus  on  the  crest  of  the  mountain,  who 
was  thus  enabled  to  contract  his  lines  and  strengthen  his  weak 
point — the  angle  referred  to.     Brown's  place  in  the  works  was  first 

226  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

supplied  by  Mercer's,  then  by  Walthall's,  and  then  by  Govan's 
brigades.  General  Brown,  as  senior  officer,  was  directed  to  take 
charge  of  the  defence  of  that  portion  of  the  mountain  occupied 
by  my  troops. 

On  the  9th  instant  the  enemy,  formed  in  column  of  divisions, 
made  a  heavy  assault  upon  the  angle  in  Pettus'  line.  The  fight 
was  obstinate  and  bloody,  but  resulted  in  a  complete  success  to  us. 
For  details  I  would  refer  you  to  the  reports  of  Generals  Brown 
and  Pettus.  In  the  mean  time,  the  enemy  had  advanced  his 
sharpshooters  close  upon  the  line  of  Brown's  brigade  on  the  moun- 
tain, and  Reynold's  and  Cumming's  in  the  valley.  Soon  after  the 
assault  upon  Pettus,  the  enemy  manoeuvred  considerably  in  the 
valley,  and  seemed  at  one  time  disposed  to  assault  the  position  of 
Generals  Gumming  and  Reynolds.  In  front  of  General  Gumming 
he  appeared  several  times  in  line  of  battle,  but  was  checked  by  the 
fire  of  skirmishers,  and  of  those  guns  of  Major  J.  W.  Johnston's 
battalion  of  artillery  that  could  be  brought  to  bear  upon  him. 
From  this  time  until  we  retired  from  the  position,  there  was  con- 
stant skirmishing,  first  along  my  whole  line,  and  later  mainly  in 
front  of  Brown's  and  Pettus'  brigades. 

On  the  night  of  the  18th  instant,  agreeably  to  orders,  I  vacated 
my  position  and  took  up  the  line  of  march  for  Resaca.  On  the 
morning  after  my  arrival  near  this  place,  I  took  up  position  in  two 
lines  north  of  Resaca,  and  immediately  ujDon  the  right  of  the 
Resaca  and  Dalton  road.  I  was  soon  afterwards  ordered  to  con- 
nect with  Major-General  Hindman  on  the  left  of  the  Resaca  road, 
and,  for  this  purpose,  moved  two  regiments  across  the  road.  Gum- 
ming and  Brown  were  in  my  front  line,  Pettus  being  the  second 
line  to  the  former  and  Brown  to  the  latter.  During  the  morning 
there  were  several  attacks  upon  General  Hindman,  and  in  my 
front  the  sharpshooters  of  the  enemy  obtained  positions  which  en- 
tirely enfiladed  portions  of  Cumming's  line.  The  men  were  shel- 
tered as  well  as  possible  by  such  defences  as  they  could  construct 
of  logs  and  rails,  but  still  suffered  severely.  The  fire  of  these 
sharpshooters  upon  the  artillery,  some  pieces  of  which  were  ad- 
vanced in  front  of  the  line  of  General  Gumming,  was  particularly 
destructive,  and  amongst  the  wounded  was  the  brave  Major  J.  W. 
Johnston,  the  battalion  commander. 

About  five  o'clock  that  evening,  agreeably  to  orders,  I  commenced 
a  movement  to  dislodge  the  enemy  from  the  high  points  of  the 
ridge  some  distance  in  front  of  General  Gumming.     Brown  and  his 

General  Stevenson's  Re-port  of  the  Dalton- Atlanta  Campaign.     227 

support  (Reynolds)  were  directed  to  move  out  in  front  of  their 
trenches  and  then  swing  around  to  the  left.  After  the  movement 
commenced,  General  Gumming  was  also  directed  to  wheel  all  of 
his  brigade,  which  was  to  the  right  of  the  backbone  of  the  ridge, 
to  the  left  in  front  of  his  works,  the  regiment  upon  the  crest  being 
the  pivot.  I  was  much  gratified  by  the  gallantry  with  which  the 
movement  was  made,  and  by  the  success  which  attended  it.  Too 
much  praise  cannot  be  awarded  Brown's  gallant  brigade;  for  par- 
ticulars I  refer  you  to  his  report. 

Late  that  night  I  received  orders  to  retire  from  the  position  which 
I  had  taken,  which  was  done.  The  next  morning  I  was  ordered  to 
retake  it,  which  was  accomplished  without  difficulty,  the  enemy  not 
having  reoccupied  it.  My  command  immediately  went  to  work  to 
construct  defences  of  logs  and  rails,  and  in  a  short  time  were  quite 
well  entrenched.  During  the  course  of  the  morning  I  received 
orders  to  place  the  artillery  of  my  division  in  such  a  position  as 
could  enable  it  to  drive  off  a  battery  that  was  annoying  General 
Hindman's  line.  Before  the  necessary  measures  for  the  protection 
of  the  artillery  could  be  taken,  I  received  repeated  and  peremptory 
orders  to  open  it  upon  the  battery  before  alluded  to.  Corput's 
battery  was  accordingly  placed  in  position  at  the  only  availa- 
ble point,  about  eighty  yards  in  front  of  General  Brown's  line. 
It  had  hardly  gotten  into  position,  when  the  enemy  hotly  engaged 
my  skirmishers,  driving  them  in,  and  pushing  on  to  the  assault 
with  great  impetuosity.  So  quickly  was  all  this  done,  that  it  was 
impossible  to  remove  the  artillery  before  the  enemy  had  effected  a 
lodgment  in  the  ravine  in  front  of  it,  thus  placing  it  in  such  a  po- 
sition, that,  while  the  enemy  were  entirely  unable  to  remove  it,  we 
were  equally  so,  without  driving  off  the  enemy  massed  in  the 
ravine  beyond  it,  which  would  have  been  attended  with  great  loss 
of  life. 

The  assaults  of  the  enemy  were  in  heavy  force,  and  made  with 
the  utmost  impetuosity,  but  were  met  with  a  cool,  steady  fire,  which 
each  time  mowed  down  their  ranks,  and  drove  them  back,  leaving 
the  ground  thickly  covered  in  places  with  their  dead.  When 
Brown's  brigade  had  nearly  exhausted  their  ammunition,  I  caused 
it  to  be  relieved  by  Reynolds'  brigade,  upon  which  assaults  were 
also  made  and  repulsed  with  the  same  success. 

During  the  attack,  I  ordered  General  Pettus  up  with  three  (3)  of 
his  regiments,  which  had  remained  in  our  position  of  the  day  pre- 
vious.    My  intention  was  to  employ  his  force  in  attacking  the 

228  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

enemy  in  front  of  the  battery  and  remove  it.  A  portion  of  Gibson's 
brigade  of  Stewart's  division  was  also  sent  me,  but  was  soon  re- 
called. The  troops  engaged,  it  will  thus  be  seen,  were  Brown's  and 
Keynolds'  brigades,  and  also  the  two  right  regiments  of  Cumming's. 
During  the  day,  Tenner's  battery  reported  to  me,  and  rendered  good 
service.  In  the  evening  I  received  orders  to  move  that  portion  of 
my  force  which  was  on  the  right  of  General  Gumming,  out  of  the 
trenches,  and,  co-operating  with  General  Stewart,  to  swing  around 
upon  the  enemy.  At  the  moment  that  I  received  the  order,  the 
enemy  were  making  a  heavy  assault  upon  General  Reynolds,  and 
Brown  had  not  yet  replenished  his  ammunition.  The  order,  however, 
was  peremptory,  and  the  movement  was  attempted.  The  Fifty- 
fourth  Virginia  on  the  right  leaped  the  trenches,  and  rushed  bravely 
upon  the  enemy,  but  found  that  there  was  no  connection  with  General 
Stewart's  left,  and  being  thus  unsupported,  were  compelled  to  fall 
back  before  the  rest  of  the  brigade  moved  out.  Tn  this  attempt, 
the  gallant  Captain  G.  D.  Wise,  of  my  staff,  was  dangerously 
wounded,  and  the  regiment,  in  less  than  fifteen  minutes,  lost  above 
one  hundred  (100)  officers  and  men. 

That  night  I  received  orders  to  withdraw,  which  was  effected, 
owing  to  the  coolness  of  the  troops,  without  serious  loss.  My  last 
brigade  had  not  marched -three  hundred  yards  from  the  trenches 
before  the  enemy  made  an  assault.  Especial  credit  is  due  the 
skirmishers  of  Brown's  brigade  for  their  conduct  in  this  affair,  and 
I  ask  attention  to  his  report. 

As  I  have  stated,  I  covered  the  disputed  battery  with  my  fire 
in  such  a  manner  that  it  was  utterly  impossible  for  the  enemy  to 
remove  it,  and  I  knew  that  I  could  retake  it  at  any  time,  but 
thought  that  it  could  be  done  with  less  loss  of  life  at  night,  and 
therefore  postponed  my  attack.  When  ordered  to  retire,  I  repre- 
sented the  state  of  things  to  the  General-Commanding,  who  decided 
to  abandon  the  guns. 

Upon  my  arrival  at  New  Hope  church,  I  put  my  command  in 
position  on  the  right  of  General  Stewart,  and  very  soon  thereafter 
the  enemy  assaulted  him  in  force.  A  small  portion  of  my  left  bri- 
gade (Brown's)  was  engaged,  and  the  men  behaved  with  their  usual 
spirit  until  relieved.  The  enemy  kept  up  a  heavy  fire  of  skir- 
mishers and  artillery  upon  my  front  line — Brown  and  Pettus — and 
inflicted  considerable  loss;  but  my  skirmishers  behaved  well,  and 
were  onl}'-  driven  back  upon  portions  of  the  line.  On  the  28th,  I 
was  informed  by  General  Baker  that  the  enemy  had  succeeded  in 

General  Stevenson^s  Report  of  the  Dalton- Atlanta  Campaign.    229 

planting  a  battery  a  short  distance  in  front  of  his  works,  and  that, 
having  no  long  range  guns,  he  could  not  drive  them  off.  I  sent 
him  a  regiment  of  rifles  from  Cumming's  brigade,  which  soon  dis- 
lodged the  enemy.  The  following  statement  will  show  my  losses 
during  the  whole  movement : 

Killed.        Wounded.        Missing. 

Brown's  brigade,        39  173  10 

Cumming's  brigade, 19  89  270 

Reynold's  brigade, 33  126  190 

Pettus'  brigade, .      30  177  61 

121  565  531 

It  affords  me  pleasure  to  bear  witness  to  the  uniform  gallantry 
with  which  my  division  has  acted,  and  to  acknowledge  my  indebt- 
edness to  my  brigade  commanders,  their  officers  and  men,  as  well 
as  to  the  officers  and  men  of  Johnston's  battalion  of  artillery, 
commanded  since  Major  Johnston  was  wounded  by  Captain  M.  0. 
D.  Corput. 

While  in  position  near  New  Hope  church,  I  regret  to  state  that 
I  lost  the  services  of  Brigadier-General  Reynolds,  who  there  received 
a  painful,  but  I  hope  not  a  dangerous  wound. 

The  limits  of  this  imperfect  report  will  not  permit  me  to  make 
mention  of  particular  individuals.  We  have  been  called  upon  to 
mourn  the  loss  of  many  gallant  spirits,  among  them,  Major  Barber, 
Third  Tennessee,  and  Major  Francis,  Thirtieth  Alabama. 

I  desire  to  express  my  renewed  obligations  to  my  staff,  Majors 
John  J.  Reeve,  G.  L.  Gillespie  (wounded  at  Resaca),  H.  M.  Mathews, 
R.  Orme,  Captain  G.  D.  Wise  (wounded  at  Resaca),  W.  H.  Sykes, 
and  Lieutenants  Shane  and  Botts,  and  Chief  Surgeon  H.  M.  Comp- 

The  above  is  a  copy  of  the  rough  draft  of  a  rej3ort  made  to 
Major  I.  W.  Ratchford,  A.  A.  G.  of  Hood's  corps. 

Carter  L.  Stevenson. 

230  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Battle  of  CliancellorsYille— Report  of  Gfeneral  R.  E.  Lee. 

[The  following  report  was  printed  by  order  of  tlie  Confederate  Congress  ; 
but  as  it  is  one  of  deep  interest  and  importance,  and  so  rare  tliat  we  have 
been  unable  to  meet  frequent  demands  for  it  bj'  military  students,  we  deem 
it  best  to  give  it  a  place  in  our  Papers.    We  print  from  an  original  MS.  in 

our  possession.] 

Headquarters  Army  Northern  Virginia, 
September  21st,  1863. 

General  S.  Cooper,  A.  and  I.  G.  C.  S.  A.,  Richmond.,  Va. : 

General — After  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  the  army  re- 
mained encamped  on  the  south  side  of  the  RaiDpahannock  until 
the  latter  part  of  April.  The  Federal  army  occupied  the  north 
side  of  the  river  opposite  Fredericksburg,  extending  to  the  Potomac. 
Two  brigades  of  Anderson's  division — those  of  Generals  Mahone 
and  Posey — were  stationed  near  United  States  Mine  or  Bark  Mill 
ford;  and  a  third,  under  command  of  General  Wilcox,  guarded 
Banks'  ford.  The  cavalry  was  distributed  on  both  flanks — Fitz- 
hugh  Lee's  brigade  picketing  the  Rappahannock  above  the  mouth 
of  the  Rapidan,  and  W.  H.  F.  Lee's  near  Port  Royal.  Hampton's 
brigade  had  been  sent  into  the  interior  to  recruit.  General  Long- 
street,  with  two  divisions  of  his  corps,  was  detached  for  service 
south  of  James  river  in  February,  and  did  not  rejoin  the  army 
until  after  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville.  With  the  exception  oi 
the  engagement  between  Fitz.  Lee's  brigade  and  the  enemy's  cavalry, 
near  Kelly's  ford,  on  the  seventeenth  of  March,  ''1863,  of  which  a 
brief  report  has  been  already  forwarded  to  the  Department,  nothing 
of  interest  transpired  during  this  period  of  inactivity. 

On  the  fourteenth  of  April  intelligence  was  received  that  the 
enemy's  cavalry  was  concentrating  on  the  upper  Rappahannock. 
Their  efforts  to  establish  themselves  on  the  south  side  of  the  river 
were  successfully  resisted  by  Fitz.  Lee's  brigade  and  two  regiments 
of  W.  H.  F.  Lee's,  the  whole  under  the  immediate  command  of 
General  Stuart.  About  the  twenty-first  small  bodies  of  infantry 
appeared  at  Kelly's  ford  and  the  Rappahannock  bridge,  and  al- 
most at  the  same  time  a  demonstration  was  made  oj)posite  Port 
Royal,  where  a  party  of  infantry  crossed  the  river  about  the  twenty- 
third.  These  movements  were  evidently  intended  to  conceal  the 
designs  of  the  enemy,  but,  taken  in  connection  with  the  reports  of 
scouts,  indicated  that  the  Federal  army,  now  commanded  by  Major- 
General  Hooker,  was  about  to  resume  active  operations.     At  half- 

Battle  of  Chancellorsville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.       231 

past  five  o'clock  A.  M.,  the  twenty-eight  of  April,  the  enemy  crossed 
the  Rappahannock  in  boats  near  Fredericksburg,  and  driving  off 
the  pickets  on  the  river,  proceeded  to  lay  down  a  pontoon  bridge  a 
short  distance  below  the  mouth  of  Deep  run.  Later  in  the  fore- 
noon another  bridge  was  constructed  about  a  mile  below  the  first. 
A  considerable  force  crossed  on  these  bridges  during  the  day,  and 
was  massed  out  of  view  under  the  high  banks  of  the  river.  The 
bridges,  as  well  as  the  troops,  were  effectually  protected  from  our 
artillery  by  the  depth  of  the  river's  bed  and  the  narrowness  of  the 
stream,  while  the  batteries  on  the  opposite  heights  completely  com- 
manded the  wide  plain  between  our  lines  and  the  river. 

As  in  the  first  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  it  was  thought  best  to 
select  positions  with  a  view  to  resist  the  advance  of  the  enemy, 
rather  than  incur  the  heavy  loss  that  would  attend  any  attempt  to 
prevent  his  crossing.  Our  dispositions  were  accordingly  made  as 
on  the  former  occasion.  No  demonstration  was  made  opposite  any 
other  point  of  our  lines  at  Fredericksburg,  and  the  strength  of  the 
force  that  had  crossed,  and  its  apparent  indisposition  to  attack, 
indicated  that  the  principal  effort  of  the  enemy  would  be  made  in 
some  other  quarter.  This  impression  was  confirmed  by  intelligence 
received  from  General  Stuart,  that  a  large  body  of  infantry  and 
artillery  was  passing  up  the  river.  During  the  forenoon  of  the 
twenty-ninth  that  officer  reported  that  the  enemy  had  crossed  in 
force  near  Kelly's  ford  on  the  preceding  evening.  Later  in  the  day 
he  announced  that  a  heavy  column  was  moving  from  Kelly's 
towards  Germana  Ford  on  the  Rapidan,  and  another  towards  Ely's 
ford  on  that  river.  The  routes  they  were  pursuing,  after  crossing  the 
Rapidan,  converge  near  Chancellorsville,  whence  several  roads  lead 
to  the  rear  of  our  position  at  Fredericksburg. 

On  the  night  of  the  twenty-ninth  General  Anderson  was  directed 
to  proceed  towards  Chancellorsville  and  dispose  Wright's  brigade 
and  the  troops  from  the  Bark  Mill  ford  to  cover  these  roads. 
Arriving  at  Chancellorsville  about  midnight,  he  found  the  com- 
mands of  Generals  Mahone  and  Posey  already  there,  having  been 
withdrawn  from  the  Bark  Mill  ford,  with  the  exception  of  a  small 
guard.  Learning  that  the  enemy  had  crossed  the  Rapidan,  and 
were  approaching  in  strong  force,  General  Anderson  retired  early 
on  the  morning  of  the  thirtieth  to  the  intersection  of  the  Mine  and 
plank  roads  near  Tabernacle  church,  and  began  to  intrench  him- 
self. The  enemy's  cavalry  skirmished  with  his  rear  guard  as  he 
left  Chancellorsville;  but  being  vigorously  repulsed  by  Mahone's 

232  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

brigade,  offered  no  further  opposition  to  his  march.  Mahone  was 
placed  on  the  old  turnpike,  Wright  and  Posey  on  the  plank  road. 
In  the  mean  time  General  Stuart  had  been  directed  to  endeavor  to 
impede  the  progress  of  the  column  marching  by  way  of  Germana 
ford.  Detaching  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  with  his  two  regiments,  the  Ninth 
and  Thirteenth  Virginia,  to  oppose  the  main  body  of  the  enemy's 
cavalry,  General  Stuart  crossed  the  Rapidan  at  Raccoon  ford,  with 
Fitz.  Lee's  brigade,  on  the  night  of  the  twenty-ninth.  Halting 
to  give  his  men  a  few  hours  repose,  he  ordered  Colonel  Owens,  with 
the  Third  Virginia  cavalry  to  throw  himself  in  front  of  the  enemy, 
while  the  rest  of  the  brigade  attacked  his  right  flank  at  the  Wilder- 
ness tavern  between  Germana  ford  and  Chancellorsville.  By  this 
means  the  march  of  this  column  was  delayed  until  12  o'clock  M., 
when,  learning  that  the  one  from  Ely's  ford  had  alread)'-  reached 
Chancellorsville,  General  Stuart  marched  by  Todd's  tavern  towards 
Spottsylvania  Courthouse  to  put  himself  in  communication  with  the 
main  body  of  the  army,  and  Colonel  Owens  fell  back  upon  General 

The  enemy  in  our  front  near  Fredericksburg  continued  inactive, 
and  it  was  now  apparent  that  the  main  attack  would  be  made  upon 
our  flank  and  rear.  It  was  therefore  determined  to  leave  sufficient 
troops  to  hold  our  lines,  and  with  the  main  bod}'  of  the  army  to 
give  battle  to  the  approaching  column.  Early's  division  of  Jack- 
son's corps,  and  Barksdale's  brigade  of  McLaw's  division,  with  part 
of  the  reserve  artillery  under  General  Pendleton,  were  entrusted 
with  the  defence  of  our  position  at  Fredericksburg,  and  at  mid- 
night on  the  thirtieth.  General  McLaws  marched  with  the  rest  of 
his  command  towards  Chancellorsville.  General  Jackson  followed 
at  dawn  next  morning,  with  the  remaining  divisions  of  his  corps. 
He  reached  the  position  occupied  by  General  Anderson  at  eight 
A.  M.,  and  immediately  began  preparations  to  advance.  At  eleven 
A.  M.  the  troops  moved  forward  upon  the  plank  and  old  turnpike 
roads — Anderson,  with  the  brigades  of  Wright  and  Posey,  leading 
on  the  former;  McLaws,  with  his  three  brigades,  preceded  by  Ma- 
hone's,  on  the  latter.  Generals  Wilcox  and  Perry,  of  Anderson's 
division,  co-operated  with  McLaws.  Jackson's  troops  followed 
Anderson  on  the  plank  road.  Colonel  Alexander's  battalion  of 
artillery  accompanied  the  advance.  The  enemy  was  soon  encoun- 
tered on  both  roads,  and  heavy  skirmishing  with  infantry  and 
artillery  ensued,  our  troops  pressing  steadily  forward.  A  strong 
attack  upon  General  McLaws  was  repulsed  with  spirit  by  Semmes' 

Battle  of  Chancellorsville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.       233 

brigade;  and  General  Wright,  by  direction  of  General  Anderson, 
diverging  to  the  left  of  the  plank  road,  marched  by  way  of  the 
unfinished  railroad  from  Fredericksburg  to  Gordonsville,  and  turned 
the  enemy's  right.  His  whole  line  thereupon  retreated  rapidly, 
^vigorously  pursued  by  our  troops,  until  they  arrived  within  about 
one  mile  of  Chancellorsville.  Here  the  enemy  had  assumed  a 
position  of  great  natural  strength,  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  a 
dense  forest,  filled  with  a  tangled  undergrowth,  in  the  midst  of 
which  breastworks  of  logs  had  been  constructed,  with  trees  felled 
in  front,  so  as  to  form  an  almost  impenetrable  abatis.  His  artillery 
swept  the  few  narrow  roads  by  which  his  position  could  be  ap- 
proached from  the  front,  and  commanded  the  adjacent  woods.  The 
left  of  his  line  extended  from  Chancellorsville  towards  the  Rappa- 
hannock, covering  the  Bark  Mill  ford,  where  he  communicated  with 
the  north  bank  of  the  river  by  a  pontoon  bridge.  His  right  stretch- 
ed westward  along  the  Germana  Ford  road  more  than  two  miles. 
Darkness  was  approaching  before  the  strength  and  extent  of  his 
line  could  be  ascertained ;  and  as  the  nature  of  the  country  ren- 
dered it  hazardous  to  attack  by  night,  our  troops  were  halted,  and 
formed  in  line  of  battle  in  front  of  Chancellorsville,  at  right  angles 
to  the  plank  road,  extending  on  the  right  to  the  Mine  road,  and  to 
the  left  in  the  direction  of  the  Catharine  furnace. 

Colonel  Wickham,  with  the  Fourth  Virginia  cavalry,  and  Colonel 
Owens'  regiment,  was  stationed  between  the  Mine  road  and  the 
Rappahannock.  The  rest  of  the  cavalry  was  upon  our  left  flank- 
It  was  evident  that  a  direct  attack  upon  the  enemy  would  be  attended 
with  great  difficult  and  loss,  in  view  of  the  strength  of  his  position  and 
his  superiority  of  numbers.  It  was,  therefore,  resolved  to  endeavor 
to  turn  his  right  flank  and  gain  his  rear,  leaving  a  force  in  front  to 
hold  him  in  check  and  conceal  the  movement.  The  execution  of 
this  plan  was  intrusted  to  Lieutenant-General  Jackson,  with  his 
three  divisions.  The  commands  of  General  McLaws  and  Anderson, 
with  the  exception  of  Wilcox's  brigade,  which  during  the  night 
had  been  ordered  back  to  Banks'  ford,  remained  in  front  of  the 
enemy.  Early  on  the  morning  of  the  second,  General  Jackson 
marched  by  the  Furnace  and  Brock  roads,  his  movement  being 
effectually  covered  by  Fitz.  Lee's  cavalry,  under  General  Stuart  in 
person.  As  the  rear  of  the  train  was  passing  the  furnace,  a  large 
force  of  the  enemy  advanced  from  Chancellorsville  and  attempted 
its  capture.  General  Jackson  had  left  the  Twenty-third  Georgia 
regiment  under  Colonel  Best,  at  this  point,  to  guard  his  flank; 

234  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

and  upon  the  approach  of  the  enemy,  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  T. 
Brown,  whose  artillery  was  passing  at  the  time,  placed  a  battery 
in  position  to  aid  in  checking  his  advance.  A  small  number  of 
men  who  were  marching  to  join  their  commands,  including  Captain 
Moore,  with  his  two  companies  of  the  Fourteenth  Tennessee  regi-' 
ment  of  Archer's  brigade,  reported  to  Colonel  Brown,  and  supported 
his  guns.  The  enemy  was  kept  back  by  this  small  force  until  the 
train  had  passed,  but  his  superior  numbers  enabled  him  subse- 
quently to  surround  and  capture  the  greater  part  of  the  Twenty- 
third  Georgia  regiment.  General  Anderson  was  directed  to  send  a 
brigade  to  resist  the  further  progress  of  this  column,  and  detached 
General  Posey  for  that  purpsse.  General  Posey  became  warmly 
engaged  with  a  superior  force,  but  being  reinforced  by  General 
Wright,  the  enemy's  advance  was  arrested.  After  a  long  and 
fatiguing  march,  General  Jackson's  leading  division,  under  General 
Rodes,  reached  the  old  turnpike,  about  three  miles  in  rear  of  Chan- 
cellorsville,  at  four  P.  M.  As  the  different  divisions  arrived  they 
were  formed  at  right  angles  to  the  road — Rodes  in  front,  Trimble's 
division,  under  Brigadier-General  Colston,  in  the  second,  and  A.  P. 
Hill's  in  the  third  line.  At  six  P.  M.  the  advance  was  ordered. 
The  enemy  were  taken  by  surprise  and  fled  after  a  brief  resistance. 
General  Rodes'  men  pushed  forward  with  great  vigor  and  enthu- 
siasm, followed  closely  by  the  second  and  third  lines.  Position 
after  position  was  carried,  the  guns  captured,  and  every  effort  of 
the  enemy  to  rally  defeated  by  the  impetuous  rush  of  our  troops. 
In  the  ardor  of  pursuit  through  the  thick  and  tangled  woods,  the 
first  and  second  lines  at  last  became  mingled  and  moved  on  together 
as  one.  The  enemy  made  a  stand  at  a  line  of  breastworks  across 
the  road  at  the  house  of  Melzi  Chancellor,  but  the  troops  of  Rodes 
and  Colston  dashed  over  the  entrenchments  together,  and  the  fight 
and  pursuit  were  resumed  and  continued  until  our  advance  was 
arrested  by  the  abatis  in  front  of  the  line  of  works  near  the  cen- 
tral position  at  Chancellorsville.  It  was  now  dark,  and  General 
Jackson  ordered  the  third  line,  under  General  Hill,  to  advance  to 
the  front  and  relieve  the  troops  of  Rodes  and  Colston,  who  were 
completely  blended,  and  in  such  disorder,  from  their  advance 
through  intricate  woods  and  over  broken  ground,  that  it  was 
necessary  to  reform  them.  As  Hill's  men  moved  forward.  General 
Jackson,  with  his  stafi"  and  escort,  returning  from  the  extreme  front, 
met  his  skirmishers  advancing,  and,  in  the  obscurity  of  the  night, 
were  mistaken  for  the  enemy,  and  fired  upon.     Captain  Boswell, 

Battle  of  Chancellor sville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.       235 

■chief  engineer  of  the  corps,  and  several  others  were  killed,  and  a 
number  wounded.  General  Jackson  himself  received  a  severe  in- 
jury, and  was  borne  from  the  field.  The  command  devolved  upon 
Major-General  Hill,  whose  division,  under  General  Heth,  was  ad- 
vanced to  the  line  of  entrenchments  which  had  been  reached  by 
Rodes  and  Colston.  A  furious  fire  of  artillery  was  opened  upon 
,  them  by  the  enemy,  under  cover  of  which  his  infantry  advanced 
to  the  attack.  They  were  handsomely  repulsed  by  the  Fifty-fifth 
Virginia  regiment  under  Colonel  Mallory,  Avho  was  killed  while 
bravely  leading  his  men.  General  Hill  was  soon  afterwards  dis- 
abled, and  Major-General  Stuart,  who  had  been  directed  by  General 
Jackson  to  seize  the  road  to  Ely's  ford,  in  rear  of  the  enemy,  was 
sent  for  to  take  command.  At  this  time  the  right  of  Hill's  division 
was  attacked  by  the  column  of  the  enemy  alread}^  mentioned  as 
having  penetrated  to  the  furnace,  which  had  been  recalled  to  Chan- 
cellorsville  to  avoid  being  cut  off  by  the  advance  of  Jackson. 
This  attack  was  gallantly  met  and  repulsed  by  the  Eighteenth  and 
Twenty-eighth,  and  a  portion  of  the  Thirty-third  North  Carolina 
regiments.  Lane's  brigade. 

Upon  General  Stuart's  arrival,  soon  afterwards,  the  command  was 
turned  over  to  him  by  General  Hill.  He  immediately  proceeded 
to  reconnoitre  the  ground  and  make  himself  acquainted  with  the 
disposition  of  the  troops.  The  darkness  of  the  night,  and  the 
difficulty  of  moving  through  the  woods  and  undergrowth,  rendered 
it  advisable  to  defer  further  operations  until  morning;  and  the 
troops  rested  on  their  guns  in  line  of  battle.  Colonel  Cru'tchfield, 
Chief  of  Artillery  of  the  corps,  was  severely  wounded,  and  Colonel 
Alexander,  senior  artillery  officer  present,  was  engaged  during  the 
entire  night  in  selecting  positions  for  our  batteries.  As  soon  as  the 
sound  of  cannon  gave  notice  of  Jackson's  attack  on  the  enemy's 
right,  our  troops  in  front  of  Chancellorsville  were  ordered  to  press 
him  strongly  on  the  left,  to  prevent  reinforcements  being  sent  to 
the  point  assailed.  They  were  directed  not  to  attack  in  force  unless 
a  favorable  opportunity  should  present  itself;  and  while  con- 
tinuing to  cover  the  roads  leading  from  their  respective  positions 
towards  Chancellorsville,  to  incline  to  the  left  so  as  to  connect  with 
Jackson's  *ight,  as  he  closed  in  upon  the  centre.  These  orders  were 
well  executed,  our  troops  advancing  up  to  the  enemy's  entrench- 
ments, while  several  batteries  played  with  good  effect  upon  his 
lines,  until  prevented  by  the  increasing  darkness. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  third  General  Stuart  renewed  the 

236  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

attack  upon  the  enemy,  who  had  strengthened  his  right  during  the 
night  with  additional  breastworks,  while  a  large  number  of  guns, 
protected  by  entrenchments,  were  posted  so  as  to  sweep  the  woods 
through  which  our  troops  had  to  advance.  Hill's  division  was  in 
front,  with  Colston  in  the  second  line  and  Rodes  in  the  third.  The 
second  and  third  lines  soon  advanced  to  the  support  of  the  first, 
and  the  whole  became  hotly  engaged.  The  breastworks  at  which 
the  attack  was  suspended  the  preceding  evening,  were  carried  by 
assault,  under  a  terrible  fire  of  musketry  and  artillery.  In  rear  of 
these  breastworks  was  a  barricade,  from  which  the  enemy  was 
quickly  driven.  The  troops  on  the  left  of  the  plank  road,  pressing 
through  the  woods,  attacked  and  broke  the  next  line,  while  those 
on  the  right  bravely  assailed  the  extensive  earthworks  behind  which 
the  enemy's  artillery  was  posted.  Three  times  were  these  works 
carried,  and  as  often  were  the  brave  assailants  compelled  to  aban- 
don them — twice  by  the  retirement  of  the  troops  on  their  left,  who 
fell  back  after  a  gallant  struggle  with  superior  numbers,  and  once 
by  a  movement  of  the  enemy  on  their  right,  caused  by  the  advance 
of  General  Anderson.  The  left  being  reinforced,  finally  succeeded 
in  driving  back  the  enemy,  and  the  artillery,  under  Lieutenant- 
Colonels  Carter  and  Jones,  being  thrown  forward  to  occupy  favor- 
able positions,  secured  by  the  advance  of  the  infantry,  began  to  play 
with  great  ]j«-ecision  and  effect.  Anderson,  in  the  mean  time  pressed 
gallantly  forward,  directly  upon  Chancellorsville,  his  right  resting 
upon  the  plank  road  and  his  left  extending  around  the  furnace, 
while  McLaws  made  a  strong  demonstration  to  the  right  of  the 
road.  As  the  troops  advancing  upon  the  enemy's  front  and  right 
converged  upon  his  central  position,  Anderson  effected  a  junction 
with  Jackson's  corps,  and  the  whole  line  pressed  irresistibly  on. 
The  enemy  was  driven  from  all  his  fortified  positions,  with  heavy 
loss  in  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners,  and  retreated  towards  the 
Rappahannock.  By  10  A.  M.,  we  were  in  full  possession  of  the 
field.  The  troops  having  become  somewhat  scattered  by  the  diffi- 
culties of  the  ground  and  the  ardor  of  the  contest,  were  immediately 
reformed,  preparatory  to  renewing  the  attack.  The  enemy  had 
withdrawn  to  a  strong  position  nearer  to  the  Rappahannock,  which 
he  had  previously  fortified.  His  superiority  of  numbers,  the  un- 
favorable nature  of  the  ground,  which  was  densely  wooded,  and 
the  condition  of  our  troops  after  the  arduous  and  sanguinary  con- 
flict in  which  they  had  been  engaged,  rendered  great  caution 
necessary.     Our  preparations  were  just  completed,  when  further 

Battle  of  Chancellorsville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.        237 

operations  were  arrested  by  intelligence  received  from  Fredericks- 

General  Early  had  been  instructed,  in  the  event  of  the  enemy 
withdrawing  from  his  front  and  moving  up  the  river,  to  join  the 
main  body  of  the  army,  with  so  much  of  his  command  as  could 
be  spared  from  the  defence  of  his  lines.  This  order  was  repeated 
on  the  second;  but  by  a  misapprehension  on  the  part  of  the  officer 
conveying  it,  General  Early  was  directed  to  move  unconditionally, 
leaving  Hays'  brigade  and  one  regiment  of  Barksdale's  at  Frede- 
ricksburg, and  directing  a  part  of  General  Pendleton's  artillery  to 
be  sent  to  the  rear,  in  compliance  with  the  order  delivered  to  him. 
General  Early  moved  with  the  rest  of  his  command  towards  Chan- 
cellorsville. As  soon  as  his  withdrawal  was  perceived,  the  enemy 
began  to  give  evidence  of  an  intention  to  advance;  but  the  mistake 
in  the  transmission  of  the  order  being  corrected.  General  Early 
returned  to  his  original  position.  The  line  to  be  defended  by 
Barksdale's  brigad^'extended  from  the  Rappahannock,  above  Fred- 
ericksburg, to  the  rear  of  Howison's  house,  a  distance  of  more 
than  two  miles.  The  artillery  was  posted  along  the  heights  in 
rear  of  the  town.  Before  dawn,  on  the  morning  of  the  third, 
General  Barksdale  reported  to  General  Early  that  the  enemy  had 
occupied  Fredericksburg  in  large  force,  and  laid  down  a  bridge  at 
the  town.  Hays'  brigade  was  sent  to  his  support,  and  placed  on 
his  extreme  left,  with  the  exception  of  one  regiment  stationed  on 
the  right  of  his  line,  behind  Howison's  house.  Seven  companies 
of  the  Twenty-first  Mississippi  regiment  were  posted  by  General 
Barksdale  between  the  Marye  house  and  the  plank  road  ;  the 
Eighteenth  and  the  three  other  companies  of  the  Twenty-first  occu- 
pied the  telegraph  road  at  the  foot  of  Marye's  hill,  the  two  remain- 
ing regiments  of  the  brigade  being  farther  to  the  right  on  the  hills 
near  to  Howison's  house.  The  enemy  made  a  demonstration 
against  the  extreme  right,  which  was  easily  repulsed  by  General 
Early.  Soon  afterwards  a  column  moved  from  Fredericksburg 
along  the  river  banks,  as  if  to  gain  the  heights  on  the  extreme  left, 
which  commanded  those  immediately  in  rear  of  the  town.  This 
attempt  was  foiled  by  General  Hays  and  the  arrival  of  General 
Wilcox  from  Banks'  ford,  who  deployed  a  few  skirmishers  on  the 
hill  near' Taylor's  house,  and  opened  upon  the  enemy  with  a  sec- 
tion of  artillery.  Very  soon  the  enemy  advanced  in  large  force 
-against  Marye's  and  the  hills  to  the  right  and  left  of  it.  Two 
assaults  were  gallantly   repulsed   by   Barksdale's   men   and  the 

238  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

artillery.  After  the  second,  a  flag  of  truce  was  sent  from  the  town 
to  obtain  permission  to  provide  for  the  wounded.  Three  heavy 
lines  advanced  immediately  upon  the  return  of  the  flag  and  renewed 
the  attack.  They  were  bravely  repulsed  on  the  right  and  left,  but 
the  small  force  at  the  foot  of  Marye's  hill,  overpowered  by  more 
than  ten  times  their  numbers,  was  captured,  after  a  heroic  resistance,, 
and  the  hill  carried.  Eight  piecies  of  artillery  were  taken  on 
Marye's  and  the  adjacent  heights.  The  remainder  of  Barksdale's 
brigade,  together  with  that  of  General  Hays,  and  the  artillery  on 
the  right,  retired  down  the  telegraph  road.  The  success  of  the 
enemy  enabled  him  to  threaten  our  communications  by  moving 
down  the  telegraph  road  or  to  come  upon  our  rear  at  Chancellors- 
ville  by  the  plank  road.  He  at  first  advanced  on  the  former,  but 
was  checked  by  General  Early,  who  had  halted  the  commands  of 
Barksdale  and  Hays,  with  the  artillery,  about  two  miles  from 
Marye's  hill,  and  reinforced  them  with  three  regiments  of  Gordon's 

The  enemy  then  began  to  advance  up  the  plank  road,  his  progress 
being  gallantly  disputed  by  the  brigade  of  General  Wilcox,  who 
had  moved  from  Banks'  ford  as  rapidly  as  possible  to  the  assistance 
of  General  Barksdale;  but  arrived  too  late  to  take  part  in  the 
action.  General  Wilcox  fell  back  slowly  until  he  reached  Salem 
church,  on  the  plank  road,  about  five  miles  from  Fredericksburg. 

Information  of  this  state  of  affairs  in  our  rear  having  reached 
Chancellorsville,  as  already  stated,  General  McLaws,  with  his  three 
brigades  and  one  of  General  Anderson's,  was  ordered  to  reinforce 
General  Wilcox.  He  arrived  at  Salem  church  early  in  the  after- 
noon, where  he  found  General  Wilcox  in  line  of  battle,  with  a 
large  force  of  the  enemy — consisting,  as  was  reported,  of  one  army 
corps  and  part  of  another — under  Major-General  Sedgwick,  in  his 
front.  The  brigades  of  Kershaw  and  Wofford  were  placed  on  the 
right  of  Wilcox,  those  of  Semmes  and  Mahone  on  his  left. 

The, enemy's  artillery  played  vigorously  upon  our  position  for 
some  time,  when  his  infantry  advanced  in  three  strong  lines,  the 
attack  being  directed  mainly  against  General  Wilcox,  but  partially 
involving  the  brigades  on  his  left.  The  assault  was  met  with  the 
utmost  firmness,  and  after  a  fierce  struggle,  the  first  line  was  re- 
pulsed with  great  slaughter.  The  second  then  came  forward,  but 
immediately  broke  under  the  close  and  deadly  fire  which  it  encoun- 
tered, and  the  whole  mass  fled  in  confusion  to  the  rear.  They 
were  pursued  by  the  brigades  of  Wilcox  and  Semmes,  which  ad- 

Battle  of  Chancellor sville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.       239 

vanced  nearly  a  mile,  when  they  were  halted  to  reform  in  the  pre- 
sence of  the  enemy's  reserve,  which  now  appeared  in  large  force. 
It  being  quite  dark.  General  Wilcox  deemed  it  imprudent  to  push 
the  attack  with  his  small  numbers,  and  retired  to  his  original  posi- 
tion, the  enemy  making  no  attempt  to  follow.  The  next  morning 
General  Early  advanced  along  the  Telegraph  road,  and  recaptured 
Mayre's  and  the  adjacent  hills  without  difficulty,  thus  gaining  the 
rear  of  the  enemy's  left.  He  then  proposed  to  General  McLaws 
that  a  simultaneous  attack  should  be  made  by  their  respective  com- 
mands, but  the  latter  officer  not  deeming  his  force  adequate  to 
assail  the  enemy  in  front,  the  proposition  was  not  carried  into 
effect.  In  the  mean  time,  the  enemy  had  so  strengthened  his  posi- 
tion near  Chancellors ville  that  it  was  deemd  inexpedient  to  assail 
it  with  less  than  our  whole  force,  which  could  not  be  concentrated 
until  we  were  relieved  from  the  danger  that  menaced  our  rear.  It 
was  accordingly  resolved  still  further  to  reinforce  the  troops  in 
front  of  General  Sedgwick,  in  order,  if  possible,  to  drive  him-  across 
the  Rappahannock.  Accordingly,  on  the  fourth.  General  Anderson 
was  directed  to  proceed,  with  his  remaining  three  brigades,  to  join 
General  McLaws — the  three  divisions  of  Jackson's  corps  holding 
our  position  at  Chancellorsville.  Anderson  reached  Salem  church 
about  noon,  and  was  directed  to  gain  the  left  flank  of  the  enemy 
and  effect  a  junction  with  Early.  McLaws'  troops  were  disposed 
as  on  the  previous  day,  with  orders  to  hold  the  enemy  in  front  and 
to  push  forward  his  right  brigades  as  soon  as  the  advance  of  Ander- 
son and  Early  should  be  perceived,  so  as  to  connect  with  them  and 
complete  the  continuity  of  our  line. 

Some  delay  occurred  in  getting  the  troops  into  position,  owing 
to  the  broken  and  irregular  nature  of  the  ground,  and  the  difficulty 
of  ascertaining  the  disposition  of  the  enemy's  forces.  The  attack 
did  not  begin  until  six  P.  M.,  when  Anderson  and  Early  moved 
forward  and  drove  General  Sedgwick's  troops  rapidly  before  them 
across  the  plank  road  in  the  direction  of  the  Rappahannock.  The 
speedy  approach  of  darkness  prevented  General  McLaws  from  per- 
ceiving the  success  of  the  attack  until  the  enemy  began  to  recross 
the  river  a  short  distance  below  Banks'  ford,  where  he  had  laid  one 
of  his  pontoon  bridges.  His  right  brigades,  under  Kershaw  and 
Wofford,  advanced  through  the  woods  in  the  direction  of  the  firing, 
but  the  retreat  was  so  rapid  that  they  could  only  join  in  the  pur- 
suit. A  dense  fog  settled  over  the  field,  increasing  the  obscurity 
and  rendering  great  caution  necessary  to  avoid  collision  between 

240  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

our  own  troops.  Their  movements  were  consequently  slow.  Gen- 
eral Wilcox,  with  Kershaw's  brigade  and  two  regiments  of  his  own, 
accompanied  by  a  battery,  proceeded  nearly  to  the  river,  capturing 
a  number  of  prisoners  and  inflicting  great  damage  upon  the  enemy. 
General  McLaws  also  directed  Colonel  Alexander's  artillery  to  fire 
upon  the  locality  of  the  enemy's  bridges,  which  was  done  with 
good  effect.  The  next  morning  it  was  found  that  General  Sedgwick 
had  made  good  his  escape  and  removed  his  bridges.  Fredericks- 
burg was  also  evacuated  and  our  rear  no  longer  threatened.  But  as 
General  Sedgwick  had  it  in  his  power  to  recross,  it  was  deemed 
best  to  leave  General  Early  with  his  division  and  Barksdale's  bri- 
gade to  hold  our  lines  as  before.  McLaws  and  Anderson  being 
directed  to  return  to  Chancellorsville,  they  reached  their  destina- 
tion during  the  afternoon  in  the  midst  of  a  violent  storm,  which 
continued  throughout  the  night  and  most  of  the  following  day. 

Preparations  were  made  to  assail  the  enemy's  works  at  daylight 
on  the  sixth,  but,  on  advancing  our  skirmishers,  it  was  found  that 
under  cover  of  the  storm  and  darkness  of  the  night,  he  had  re- 
treated over  the  river.  A  detachment  was  left  to  guard  the  battle- 
field while  the  wounded  were  being  removed  and  the  captured 
property  collected.  The  rest  of  the  army  returned  to  its  former 

The  particulars  of  these  operations  will  be  found  in  the  reports 
of  the  several  commanding  officers,  which  are  herewith  transmitted. 
They  will  show  more  fully  than  my  limits  will  suffer  me  to  do 
the  dangers  and  difficulties  which,  under  God's  blessing,  were  sur- 
mounted by  the  fortitude  and  valor  of  our  army.  The  conduct  of 
our  troops  cannot  be  too  highly  praised.  Attacking  largely  superior 
numbers  in  strongly  entrenched  positions,  their  heroic  courage 
overcame  every  obstacle  of  nature  and  art,  and  achieved  a  triumph 
most  honorable  to  our  arms.  I  commend  to  the  particular  notice 
of  the  Department  the  brave  officers  and  men  mentioned  by  their 
superiors  for  extraordinary  daring  and  merit,  whose  names  I  am 
unable  to  enumerate  here.  Among  them  will  be  found  some  who 
have  passed  by  a  glorious  death  beyond  the  reach  of  praise,  but 
the  memory  of  whose  virtues  and  devoted  patrotism  will  ever  be 
cherished  by  their  grateful  countrymen.  The  returns  of  the  Medi- 
cal Director  will  show  the  extent  of  our  loss,  which,  from  the 
nature  of  the  circumstances  attending  the  engagement,  could  not 
be  otherwise  than  severe.  Many  valuable  officers  and  men  were 
killed  or  wounded  in  the  faithful  discharge  of  duty.    Among  the 

Battle  of  Chancellorsville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.        241 

former,  Brigadier-General  Paxton  fell  while  leading  his  brigade 
with  conspicuous  courage  in  the  assault  on  the  enemy's  works  at 
Chancellorsville.  The  gallant  Brigadier-General  Nichols  lost  a  leg; 
Brigadier-General  McGowan  was  severely,  and  Brigadier-Generals 
Heth  and  Pender  were  slightly  wounded  in  the  same  engagement. 
The  latter  officer  led  his  brigade  to  the  attack  under  a  destructive 
fire,  bearing  the  colors  of  a  regiment  in  his  own  hands,  up  to  and 
over  the  entrenchments,  with  the  most  distinguished  gallantry. 
General  Hoke  received  a  painful  wound  in  the  action  near  Fred- 
ericksburg. The  movement  by  which  the  enemy's  positions  was 
turned,  and  the  fortune  of  the  day  decided,  was  conducted  by  the 
lamented  Lieutenant-General  Jackson,  who,  as  has  already  been 
stated,  was  severely  wounded  near  the  close  of  the  engagement  on 
Saturday  evening.  I  do  not  propose  here  to  speak  of  the  character 
of  this  illustrious  man,  since  removed  from  the  scene  of  his  eminent 
usefulness  by  the  hand  of  an  inscrutable  but  allwise  Providence, 
I  nevertheless  desire  to  pay  the  tribute  of  my  admiration  to  the 
matchless  energy  and  skill  that  marked  this  last  act  of  his  life, 
forming  as  it  did  a  worthy  conclusion  of  that  long  series  of  splendid 
achievements  which  won  for  him  the  lasting  love  and  gratitude  of 
his  country,  Major-General  A.  P.  Hill  was  disabled  soon  after 
assuming  command,  but  did  not  leave  the  field  until  the  arrival  of 
Major-General  Stuart.  The  latter  officer  ably  discharged  the  diffi- 
cult and  responsible  duties  which  he  was  thus  unexpectedly  called 
to  perform.  Assuming  the  command  late  in  the  night,  at  the  close 
of  a  fierce  engagement,  and  in  the  immediate  presence  of  the 
enemy,  necessarily  ignorant,  in  a  great  measure,  of  the  disposition 
of  the  troops,  and  of  the  plans  of  those  who  had  preceded  him, 
General  Stuart  exhibited  great  energy,  promptness  and  intelligence. 
During  the  continuance  of  the  engagement  the  next  day,  he  con- 
ducted the  operation  on  the  left  with  distinguished  capacity  and 
vigor,  stimulating  and  cheering  the  troops  by  the  example  of  his 
own  coolness  and  daring.  While  it  is  impossible  to  mention  all  who 
were  conspicuous  in  the  several  engagements,  it  will  not  be  con- 
sidered an  invidious  distinction  to  say  that  General  .Jackson,  after 
he  was  wounded,  in  expressing  the  satisfaction  he  derived  from  the 
conduct  of  his  whole  command,  commended  to  my  particular 
attention  the  services  of  Brigadier-General  (now  Major-General) 
Rodes  and  his  gallant  division.  Major-General  Early  performed 
the  important  and  responsible  duty  intrusted  to  him  in  a  manner 
which  reflected  credit  upon  himself  and  his  command.  Major- 

242  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

General  R.  H.  Anderson  was  also  distinguished  for  the  promptness^ 
courage  and  skill  with  which  he  and  his  division  executed  every 
order;  and  Brigadier-General  (now  Major- General)  Wilcox  is  en- 
titled to  especial  praise  for  the  judgment  and  bravery  displayed  in 
impeding  the  advance  of  General  Sedgwick  towards  Chancellors- 
ville,  and  for  the  gallant  and  successful  stand  at  Salem  church. 
To  the  skillful  and  efficient  management  of  the  artillery,  the  suc- 
cessful issue  of  the  contest  is  in  great  measure  due. 

The  ground  was  not  favorable  for  its  employment,  but  every 
suitable  position  was  taken  with  alacrity,  and  the  operations  of  the 
infantry  supported  and  assisted  with  a  spirit  and  courage  not  second 
to  their  own.  It  bore  a  prominent  part  in  the  final  assault  which 
ended  in  driving  the  enemy  from  the  field  at  Chancellorsville, 
silencing  his  batteries,  and  by  a  destructive  enfilade  fire  upon  his 
works,  opened  the  way  for  the  advance  of  our  troops.  Colonels 
Crutchfield,  Alexander  and  Walker,  and  Lieutenant- Colonels  Brown, 
Carter  and  Andrews,  with  the  officers  and  men  of  their  commands, 
are  mentioned  as  deserving  especial  commendation.  The  batteries 
under  General  Pendleton  also  acted  with  great  gallantry.  The 
cavalry  of  the  army  at  the  time  of  these  operations  was  much  re- 
duced. To  its  vigilance  and  energy  we  were  indebted  for  timely 
information  of  the  enemy's  movements  before  the  battle,  ^nd  for 
impeding  his  march  to  Chancellorsville.  It  guarded  both  flanks  of 
the  army  during  the  battle  at  that  place,  and  a  portion  of  it,  as  has 
been  already  stated,  rendered  valuable  service  in  covering  the 
march  of  Jackson  to  the  enemy's  rear.  The  horse  artillery  ac- 
companied the  infantry,  and  participated  with  credit  to  itself  in 
the  engagement.  The  nature  of  the  country  rendered  it  impossible 
for  the  cavalry  to  do  more.  When  the  enemy's  infantry  passed  the 
Rappahannock  at  Kelly's  ford,  his  cavalry,  under. General  Stone- 
man,  also  crossed  in  large  force,  and  proceeded  through  Culpeper 
county  towards  Gordonsville,  for  the  purpose  of  cutting  the  rail- 
roads to  Richmond.  General  Stuart  had  nothing  to  oppose  to  this 
movement  but  two  regiments  of  Brigadier-General  W.  H.  F.  Lee's 
brigade — the  Ninth  and  Thirteenth  Virginia  cavalry.  General  Lee 
fell  back  before  the  overwhelming,  numbers  of  the  enemy ;  and 
after  holding  the  railroad  bridge  over  the  Rapidan  during  the  first 
of  Ma}^,  burned  the  bridge  and  retired  to  Gordonsville  at  night. 
The  enemy  avoided  Gordonsville,  and  reached  Louisa  courthouse, 
on  the  Central  railroad,  which  he  proceeded  to  break  up.  Dividing, 
his  force,  a  part  of  it  also  cut  the  Richmond  and  Fredericksburg! 

Battle  of  Chancellor sville — Report  of  General  R.  E.  Lee.       243 

railroad,  an^  a  part  proceeded  to  Columbia,  on  the  James  river  and 
Kanawha  canal,  with  the  design  of  destroying  the  aqueduct  at 
that  place.  The  small  command  of  General  Lee  exerted  itself 
vigorously  to  defeat  this  purpose.  The  damage  done  to  the  rail- 
roads was  small  and  soon  repaired,  and  the  canal  was  saved  from 
injury.  The  details  of  his  operations  will  be  found  in  the  accom- 
panying memorandum   and  are   creditable  to  officers  and  men. 

The  loss  of  the  enemy  in  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  and  the 
other  engagements  was  severe.  His  dead  and  a  large  number  of 
wounded  were  left  on  the  field.  About  five  thousand  prisoners, 
exclusive  of  the  wounded,  were  taken,  and  thirteen  pieces  of 
artillery,  nineteen  thousand  five  hundred  stand  of  arms,  seventeen 
colors  and  a  large  quantity  of  ammunition  fell  into  our  hands. 

To  the  members  of  my  staff  I  am  greatly  indebted  for  assistance 
in  observing  the  movements  of  the  enemy,  posting  troops  and 
conveying  orders.  On  so  extended  and  varied  a  field  all  were 
called  into  requisition  and  all  evinced  the  greatest  energy  and  zeal. 
The  Medical  Director  of  the  army.  Surgeon  Guild,  with  the  officers 
of  his  department,  were  untiring  in  their  attention  to  the  wounded. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Corley,  Chief  Quartermaster,  took  charge  of  the 
disposition  and  safety  of  the  trains  of  the  army.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Cole,  Chief  Commissary  of  its  subsistence,  and  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Baldwin,  Chief  of  Ordnance,  were  everywhere  on  the  field 
attending  to  the  wants  of  their  departments.  General  Chilton,  Chief 
of  Staff,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Murray,  Major  Peyton  and  Captain 
Young,  of  the  Adjutant  and  Inspector-General's  Department,  were 
active  in  seeing  t(\  the  execution  of  orders.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Smith  and  Captain  Johnston,  of  the  engineers,  in  reconnoitering 
the  enemy  and  constructing  batteries ;  Colonel  Long,  in  posting 
troops  and  artillery  ;  Majors  Taylor,  Talcott,  Marshall  and  Venable, 
were  engaged  night  and  day  in  watching  the  operations,  carrying 

orders,  &c. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

R.  E.  Lee,  GeneraL 

244  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park,  Twelftii  Alabawia  Reg-iment. 


April  5th  to  10th,  1865 — Our  hospital  life  is  monotonous  and  varied 
only  by  daily  discussions  of  reports  of  General  Lee's  situation, 
gathered  from  the  rabid,  black  Republican  papers  we  are  permitted 
to  bu3^  The  news  to-day  (10th)  is  dreadful  indeed.  "  General 
Lee  has  surrendered  "'  is  repeated  with  hushed  breath  from  lip  to 
lip.  No  human  tongue,  however  eloquent,  no  pen,  however  gifted, 
can  give  an  adequate  description  of  our  dismay  and  horror  at  the 
heartrending  news.  The  sudden,  unexpected  calamity  shocked 
reason  and  unsettled  memory.  The  news  crushed  our  fondest  hopes. 
On  every  countenance  rests  the  shadow  of  gloom,  on  every  heart 
the  paralyzing  torpor  of  despair.  We  move  about,  or  sit  on  our 
beds,  silent,  almost  motionless,  in  the  speechless  agony  of  woe,  in 
the  mute  eloquence  of  unutterable  despair.  After  four  long  weary 
years  of  battle  and  marches,  of  prayers  and  tears,  of  pain  and 
sacrifice,  of  wounds  and  woe,  of  blood  and  death,  such  an  ending 
of  our  hopes,  such  a  shocking  disajopointment,  is  bitter,  cruel, 
crushing.  Few  tears  are  shed ;  there  is  no  time  for  weakness  or 
sentiment.  The  grief  is  too  deep,  the  agony  too  tenible  to  find 
vent  through  the  ordinary  channels  of  distress.  Hope  seems  forever 
buried,  and  naturally  too.  After  four  years  of  gallant  resistance, 
heroic  endurance  and  incredible  suffering,  we  find  ourselves  broken 
in  fortunes,  crushed,  ruined ;  yet,  amid  our  misery  and  wretchedness, 
though  sad  and  sick  at  heart,  we  have  no  blush  of  shame.  We  feel 
deep,  unutterable  regret  at  our  failure,  but  no  humiliation.  We 
have  done  nothing  wrong.  Our  rights  were  trampled  upon,  our 
property  stolen,  and  our  liberties  attacked,  and  we  did  but  our 
sacred  duty  to  defend  them  as  well  as  we  could.  We  freely  offered 
up  our  lives  and  property  in  defence  of  principle  and  right  and 
honor.  A  stern,  conscientious  sense  of  duty  has  influenced  us  to 
fight,  bleed  and  suffer  all  these  terrible  years.  The  Yankees  of 
New  England  first  practiced  and  taught  us  the  doctrine  of  secession, 
and  then  by  force  forbade  us  to  apply  it  peaceably.  The  heroic 
men  who  fought,  bled  and  died,  are  in  prison  or  in  exile  for  this 
principle,  this  inherent  right,  ought  not  and  will  not  be  known  in 
history  as  traitors.  Sorrow  has  crushed  us,  defeat  has  ruined  us, 
but  we  must  not  and  shall  not  forget  or  cease  to  cherish  the  brave 
deeds  of  as  brave  hearts  as  the  world  ever  produced.     Our  homes 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  245 

are  burnt,  our  land  desolated,  our  wealth  departed  in  smoke  and 
ashes,  our  very  hearthstones  dyed  in  blood,  our  dear  dead  have 
fallen  in  vain,  but  we  shall  ever  remember,  honor  and  be  grateful 
to  them.  But  I  will  not  admit  that  the  cause  is  entirely  lost.  The 
armies  of  Generals  Joseph  Johnston,  Dick  Taylor  and  Kirby  Smith 
are  still  in  the  field,  and  may  snatch  victory  from  apparent  defeat 
yet.  The  Yankees  guarding  us,  while  jubilant  at  the  news,  are 
seemingly  kinder  than  usual, 

April  11th  to  15th — I  was  the  only  officer  in  our  ward  that  suc- 
ceeded in  buying  a  morning's  paper  to-day  (the  15th).  The  In- 
quirer WSLS  brought  me  at  a  late  hour,  hurriedly  and  stealthily,  by 
the  nurse  Curry.  I  was  inexpressibly  shocked  at  reading  at  the 
head  of  the  first  column,  first  page,  the  terrible  words: 


John  Wilkes  Booth  the  Murderer. 


John  Howard  Payne  the  Supposed  Assassin." 

Then  followed  in  detail  the  account  of  the  assassination.  I  called 
aloud  to  my  hospital  comrades,  and  as  I  read,  they  left  their  bunks 
and  crowded  around  me,  listening  with  awe  to  the  tragic  recital. 
One  of  them  remarked  that  he  would  gladly  divide  his  last  crust 
of  bread  with  the  daring  Booth,  if  he  should  meet  him  in  his 
wanderings.  I  said  I  looked  upon  Lincoln  as  a  tyrant  and  invete- 
rate enemy  of  the  South,  and  could  shed  no  tears  for  him,  but 
deprecated  the  cruel  manner  of  his  taking  off.  While  we  were 
eagerly  and  excitedly  discussing  the  startling  news,  the  young 
galvanized  renegade  Curry  came  to  my  bunk  and  took  down  my 
card,  saying,  "the  doctor  says  you  must  go  to  the  barracks."  The 
order  was  given  to  no  one  else,  and  not  having  recovered  sufficiently 
for  the  change,  I  replied  that  I  would  not  go  until  ordered  to  do  so 
by  the  surgeon  in  person.  Curry  left,  and,  in  a»few  minutes,  young 
Doctor  Miller  came  in,  and  told  me  to  get  ready  for  the  barracks. 
Protesting  against  the  inhumanity  of  his  order,  I  crawled  on  my 
hands,  right  foot  and  hips  to  the  door  of  the  ward,  and  near  by,  in 
a  small  ante-room,  put  on  my  old  suit  of  clothes,  laying  aside  my 
hospital  garb.  I  was  then  directed  to  the  door  of  the  hospital, 
down  a  long,  bleak,  windy  passage,  near  the  gate  to  the  officers' 
barracks.  Here  I  waited  for  my  crutches  and  further  orders. 
Very  soon  I  saw  Captain  McSherry  approaching,  and  others  of  my 
ward  and  those  adjoining  followed.     Colonel  James  W.  Hinton 

246  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

was  of  the  number.  Colonel  Hinton  inquired  of  me,  "  what  is  the 
matter?"  "I  suppose  we  are  to  be  punished  as  accessories  to  the 
murder  of  Abe  Lincoln,"  I  replied.  "Schoepff  has  ordered  every 
man  that  can  walk  from  the  hospital  to  the  barracks.  He  evidently 
regards  us  as  accomplices  of  Wilkes  Booth,"  said  the  Colonel. 
Many  who  were  quite  sick — some  of  the  scurvy  afflicted  among 
them— hobbled  slowly  and  painfully  out  of  their  wards,  and  the 
long,  cold  hall  was  soon  crowded  with  the  sick,  the  lame  and  the 
halt.  Such  a  rigid  course  is  senseless  and  cruel.  It  shows  weak- 
ness, cowardice  and  malice.  Courage  and  humanity  accompany 
each  other;  cowardice  and  cruelty  are  comrades.  After  alternately 
standing  and  sitting  on  the  floor  for  hours,  the  gate  of  the  dreaded 
barracks  was  opened,  and  we  were  again  ushered  into  the  prison 


"A  prison,  heavens,  I  loathe  the  hated  name, 

Famine's  metropolis, the  sink  of  shame, 

A  nauseous  sepulchre ,  whose  craving  womb 

Hourly  inters  poor  mortals  in  its  tomb." 

The  plank  walk  near  and  space  in  front  of  the  gate  were  filled 
with  anxious  and  curious  Confederate  officers,  who  eagerly  asked 
the  news.  No  papers  had  been  allowed  them  during  the  day.  I 
headed  the  long  procession,  and  repeated,  as  I  walked,  "Abe  Lincoln 
was  killed  last  night."  The  'news  spread  like  wildfire,  and  a  few 
thoughtless  fellows  seemed  overjoyed  at  it,  throwing  up  their  hats, 
dancing,  jumping,  and  even  shouting  aloud.  Their  imprudence 
caused  General  Schoepff  to  order  his  guards  to  fire  upon  any  Rebel 
manifesting  pleasure  at  the  news,  and  he  actually  had  the  huge 
guns  of  the  fort  turned  frowningly  toward  us.  A  large  majority  of 
the  prisoners  regret  Lincoln's  death,  and  in  the  wonderful  charity 
which  buries  all  quarrels  in  the  grave,  the  dead  President  was  no 
longer  regarded  as  an  enemy,  for,  with  the  noble  generosity  native 
to  Southern  charact^-,  all  resentment  was  hidden  in  his  death.  My 
copy  qf  the  Inquirer  was  in  great  demand,  was  borrowed  by  officers 
in  different  divisions,  and  the  astounding  particulars  of  Lincoln's 
terrible  death  were  read  and  reread  to  crowds  of  officers,  all  eager 
to  drink  in  every  word  of  the  startling  account.  I  occupied  my 
old  quarters  in  twenty-seven,  with  Captain  Hewlett  as  my  bunk- 
mate.     ]\Iy  friends  welcome  my  return  very  cordially. 

April  IQth  to  Idth — Most  of  the  officers  are  greatly  discouraged, 
and  have  given  up  all  hope  of  the  success  of  our  cause.  I  still 
have  hope  from  the  Southern  Fabius,  General  Joseph  Johnston. 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  247 

He  is  prudent  and  skillful.  We  have  been  deprived  of  mails  for 
several  days,  and  have  had  many  minor  but  desirable  privileges 
taken  from  us.  The  guns  of  the  fort  are  still  turned  towards  us, 
and  the  guards  are  very  harsh  and  peremptory  in  their  orders. 
The  barracks  have  been  enlarged  for  the  reception  of  more  pris- 
oners, and  field  and  staff  officers  separated  from  the  others  and 
placed  in  a  newly  erected  division  to  themselves.  General  R.  L. 
Page  and  General  Rufus  Barringer  are  the  ranking  officers  of  the 
party.  I  attend  surgeon's  call  every  morning.  The  doctor  is  a 
drunken  sot,  and  seldom  attends  his  nine  o'clock  morning  sick  call, 
but  sends  his  detailed  Rebel  clerk,  a  young  Mississippi  lawyer,  from 
the  privates'  pen,  who  sits  on  the  outside  of  the  fence  and  listens  to 
the  grievances  of  the  sick  officers  through  a  "  pigeon  hole,"  size  eight 
by  twelve  inches,  which  the  sick  approach, one  by  one,  in  his  turn, 
and,  peeping  through,  make  known  their  wants.  This  little  "hole 
in  the  wall "  is  crowded  for  hours  frequently,  and  the  young,  in- 
experienced, but  accommodating  Rebel  substitute  for  the  Yankee, 
surgeon  does  his  best  to  serve  his  patients.  He  tries  to  supply 
such  medicines  as  are  called  for.  Itch  is  a  very  common  disease, 
and  some  of  the  neatest  of  the  officers  suffer  from  its  trying  annoy- 
ance. Calls  for  sulphur  and  lard  or  grease,  and  epsom  salts  are 
numerous.  A  number  of  officers  "take  in  washing,"  calling  for 
clothes  every  Monday,  or  as  their  customers  may  direct.  Five  cents 
per  garment  is  the  charge,  and  the  washermen  pull  off  their  coats, 
roll  up  their  sleeves,  and  work  with  a  vim,  using  the  water  from 
the  ditch. 

April  20th  to  2Sd  (Sunday) — A  large  mail  was  delivered  to-day 
(23d).  I  received  a  letter  from  my  beloved  sister,  Mrs.  M.  C.  H., 
dated  La  Grange,  Georgia,  February  6th,  and  postmarked  Old 
Point  Comfort,  Virginia,  March  31st,  and  Point  Lookout,  Mary- 
land, April  11th.  It  had  been  sent  from  the  latter  place  to  Old 
Capitol,  Washington,  D.  C,  and  thence  to  Fort  Delaware.  It  told 
me  of  the  reception  of  one  of  my  letters  by  brother  James,  the 
latest  and  only  one  since  October  27th,  and  pained  and  saddened 
me  by  news  of  my  dearest  of  mothers  having  had  her  arm  broken 
in  December.  She  was  reported  nearly  well  though.  No  particulars 
were  given,  as  all  flag  of  truce  letters  are  limited  to  one  page. 
Brothers  John  and  Lemuel  are  in  service  at  Andersonville  prison. 
The  former  is  major  of  the  First  Georgia,  and  the  latter  is  a 
sergeant  under  Captain  Wirz.  I  know  they  are  kind  to  the  prisoners 
under  their    charge.      Major    Sherrar,   of   Maryland,   slapped   or 

248  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

kicked  some  cowardly  fellow,  who  had  solicited  the  oath  and 
release  from  prison,  and,  when  reported  to  Ahl,  was  ordered 
to  the  pen  occupied  by  the  "galvanized"  men.  Here  he  was 
seized,  and  placed  violently  and  forcibly  upon  a  blanket,  and 
swinging  him  rapidly  was  hurled  repeatedly  high  in  air,  until 
exhausted  and  almost  dead  from  the  shameful  violence.  All 
are  justly  indignant  at  such  tyrannical  conduct  on  the  part  of 
the  ignoble  Ahl.  An  adjutant  of  a  Virginia  regiment  bribed  a 
sentinel  to  mail  a  letter  to  his  sweetheart  in  Baltimore  for  him,  but 
the  letter  was  discovered  and  detained.  The  adjutant  was  sent  for 
and  asked  to  explain  how  he  mailed  the  letter,  which  he  declined 
to  do.  Whereupon  he  was  hung  up  by  the  thumbs,  sustaining  his 
entire  weight  in  that  painful  position.  Occasionally  he  was  lowered 
and  again  the  name  of  the  guard  who  mailed  his  letter  demanded, 
but  he  invariably  refused  to  tell.  His  thumbs  were  almost  torn 
from  his  hands,  their  joints  were  torn  apart,  and  the  poor,  brave, 
faithful,  honorable  fellow  fainted  at  last  from  excess  of  pain  from 
the  cruel  torture.  He  cannot  now  use  his  swollen  hands,  and  is 
fed  by  his  messmates.  He  is  entirely  helpless  so  far  as  his  hands 
and  arms  are  concerned.  Such  conduct  as  this  on  the  part  of 
Schoepff  and  Ahl  does  not  soften  our  asperity  towards  the  Yankee 
Government,  nor  make  us  willing  to  swear  fealty  to  it. 

April  24:th  and  loth — Captain  Ahl  came  into  the  pen,  arranged 
the  officers  in  three  sides  of  a  hollow  square,  and  had  the  roll 
called  alphabetically,  offering  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  all,  with  a 
promise  of  early  release,  if  accepted.  Nearly  900  out  of  2,300 
agreed  to  take  it.  It  was  a  trying  and  exciting  time  as  each  name 
was  called  and  the  response  "Yes"  or  "No  "was  announced.  I 
answered  "  No  "  with  emphasis  and  bitterness.  Born  on  Southern 
soil,  reared  under  its  institutions,  nurtured  upon  its  traditions,  I 
cannot  consent  to  take  the  hated  oath.  The  very  thought  is  repul- 
sive in  the  extreme. 

April  2^th  to  29th — The  distressing  news  of  the  surrender  of 
General  Johnston  to  Sherman  in  North  Carolina  is  announced  in 
words  of  exultation  by  the  Northern  papers.  The  cup  of  bitterness 
and  sorrow  seems  full.  Those  officers  who  had  declined  the  oath 
were  again  ordered  out,  the  roll  called  a  second  time,  and  the  oath 
again  offered.  Hundreds  who  had  promptly  and  boldly  replied 
"No"  when  their  names  were  called  after  Lee's  surrender,  now 
faintly  and  reluctantly  answered  "  Yes."  What  a  painful  mental 
struggle  they  must  have  passed  through.     My  own  messmates 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  249 

pronounced  the  .fatal  "  Yes,"  but  they  do  not  allude  to  it  in  our 
conversations.  When  my  name  was  called,  I  promptly  and  de- 
fiantly answered  at  the  top  of  my  voice  "No."  My  messmates  are 
very  reticent,  and  are  evidently  dissatisfied,  grieved  and  humiliated. 
I  am  sorry  for  them,  and  feel  some  indignation  at  their  course. 
The  armies  of  Dick  Taylor  and  Kirby  Smith  are  still  left,  and  no 
one  should  give  up  the  cause  so  long  as  there  is  an  armed  man  in 
the  field,  and  I  feel  that  I  would  be  disgraced  if  I  should^  consent 
to  such  a  course  while  we  have  an  army  ready  to  do  battle,  and 
our  President  is  still  firm  and  resolute,  and  even  now  perhaps  with 
the  army  of  his  brother-in-law.  General  Taylor.  A  bold  young 
North  Carolinian,  Lieutenant  Hugh  Randolph  Crichton,  in  my 
division,  openly  denounces  the  precipitation  of  those  who  have 
agreed  to  swallow  the  detested  oath.  Captain  J.  W.  Fannin,  of 
Tuskegee,  Alabama;  "Captain  A.  C.  Gibson,  of  La  Grange,  Georgia; 
Lieutenant  William  A.  Scott,  of  Auburn,  Alabama;  Major  N.  R. 
Fitzhugh,  of  Scottsville,  Virginia,  and  others,  come  to  my  bunk 
frequently  and  earnestly  discuss  our  exciting  and  heart-sickening 
surroundings.  All  of  them  have  declined  the  oath,  and  the  two 
former  say  they  will  remain  firm  as  long  as  I  do.  Officers  are 
having  meetings  by  States,  and  trying  to  take  united  action.  The 
Alabamians  assembled  in  Division  24.  Colonel  Steedman,  of  the 
First  Alabama,  was  called  to  the  chair,  and  several  short  speeches 
were  made,  but  no  definite  action  was  taken.  I  was  a  quiet  spec- 
tator, but  mentally  resolved  not  to  be  bound  by  any  action  looking 
to  taking  the  oath. 

'  Ap'il  oOth  to  May  4;:^.— Another  offer  of  the  villainous  oath,  and 
only  165  of  the  entire  number  of  officers  in  the  barracks  now  con- 
tinue to  resolutely  decline  it.  I  again  refused.  Lieutenant  Crichton 
proposed  to  me  that  we  accept  banishment  in  preference  to  the 
oath.  I  replied  that  I  preferred  anything  to  the  latter.  My  friends 
are  calling  my  attention  to  my  crutches  and  helpless,  crippled 
condition,  and  warn  me  not  to  excite  the  anger  of  the  Yankees  by 
my  persistent  refusal  of  the  oath.  My  lady  friends — among  them 
Mrs.  Mary  F.  Chandler,  of  City  Spring,  Richmond,  Virginia,  the 
only  sister  of  Captain  Keeling,  Miss  Jamison,  of  Baltimore,  and 
others — write  urging  me  to  consent  to  take  it.  I  appreciate  their 
motives,  but  feel  it  my  duty  to  refuse  it  to  the  last  extremity.  My 
resolution  is  determined  and  unwavering.  To  take  it  would  be 
swearing  against  my  wishes  and  my  conscience.  The  Confederate 
cause  is  right  and  holy,  and  I  cannot  swear  not  to  aid  or  comfort 

250  ,  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

it  and  its  still  faithful  defenders.  None  but  a  base  and  cowardly 
despotism  would  force  a  man  to  swear  against  his  own  conscience, 
to  do  something  he  can  only  do  through  perjury.  To  swear  under 
such  circumstances  is  to  suppress  the  noblest  impulses  of  the 
heart.  Is  it  not  cruel  and  contemptible  to  take  advantage  of  our 
misfortunes,  of  our  dire  extremity,  and  offer  us  the  oath  so  repeatedly 
and  insultingly,  especially  when  it  is  well  known  we  would  never 
take  it  except  under  compulsion?  Those  prisoners  who  still  refuse 
the  oath  held  a  consultation  meeting  in  Division  22.  General 
Barringer  made  a  long  speech,  urging  all  of  us  to  accept  the  terms 
of  the  Yankees  and  go  home,  and  declared  that  we  would  be  ban- 
ished from  the  country  if  we  persisted  in  declining  the  proffered 
oath.  I  sat  on  a  bunk  near  Major  Fitzhugh,  of  Virginia,  and 
Captain  W.  H.  Bennett,  of  Georgia,  and  when  General  Barringer 
concluded  his  speech,  amid  profound  silence,  Ihe  cry  of  "Fellows !' 
Fellows!"  arose,  and  Captain  .John  W.  Fellows,  of  General  Beale's 
staff,  from  Arkansas,  but  formerly  of  New  York  city,  mounted  a  box 
and  eloquently  responded  to  the  call.  He  began  by  saying:  "Gen- 
eral Barringer  says  if  we  do  not  tamely  submit,  we  shall  be  banished 
from  the  country.  What's  banished  but  set  free  from  daily  contact 
with  the  things  we  loathe?  Banished!  we  thank  you  for  it! 
Twould  break  our  chains,  etc.,  etc."  He  was  applauded  throughout, 
and  rapturously  as  he  closed  urging  us  to  remain  faithful  unto  the 
bitter  ;end.  Colonel  Van  H.  Manning,  of  the  First  Arkansas,  fol- 
lowed in  the  same  line,  and  made  an  excellent  speech,  full  of  fire 
and  stirring  eloquence. 

May  5th  to  10th — General  Dick  Taylor  has  surrendered  to  General 
Canby  all  the  forces  east  of  the  Mississippi  river.  Everything 
grows  darker  and  more  hopeless.  The  Trans-Mississippi  army, 
under  General  Kirby  Smith,  alone  remains.  A  few  of  us,  "  like 
drowning  men  catching  at  straws,"  still  hope  for  exchange  and 
deliverance  through  this  source.  Captain  Brown  has  received 
some  money  from  Mr.  J.  M.  Bruff,  of  Baltimore;  Lieutenant  Ar- 
rington  from  Mrs.  Kearney,  of  Kearney sville,  Indiana;  Captain 
Hewlett  from  friends  in  Clarkesville,  Tennessee;  and  I  from  Misses 
McSherry  and  Jamison.  We  live  very  well  by  making  purchases 
from  the  sutler. 

3Iay  11th  to  ISth — I  have  little  heart  for  conversation,  and  employ 
myself  reading  and  indulging  bitter  fancies.  My  nights  are  restless, 
and  hours  are  spent  in  anxious,  troubled  thoughts.  It  is  said  there 
are  only  forty  left  who  still  decline  the  oath.     The  others  have 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park.  251 

yielded  to  the  great  pressure.  Lieutenant  Critchton  and  Captains 
Gibson  and  Fannin  remain  firm  and  counsel  with  me  daily.  Re' 
ceived  ten  dollars  from  Mrs.  Martha  J.  Sullivan,  of  Baltimore,  with 
a  noble  letter,  full  of  sweet,  womanly  sympathy,  counseling  me  to 
jdeld  to  the  requirements  of  the  Yankee  Government,  and  secure 

release   from   longer    confinement.      Miss    Gertie    C ,   now   at 

Baltimore  Female  College,  sent  me  her  photograph,  a  very  hand- 
some one.  A  prison  newspaper,  all  in  manuscript,  has  made  its 
appearance.  It  is  a  single  sheet  of  foolscap,  all  written  neatly 
with  the  pen,  and  evidently  by  several  hands.  "  The  Prison  Times  " 
is  its  name.  It  is  divided  into  columns,  and  every  page  has  its 
contents  properly  classed.  'The  head  is  prettily  done  in  ornamental 
letters.  The  motto  is  ^' en  temps  et  lieny  The  number  out  is  the 
second  issue.  There  is  a  prospectus  and  a  salutatory.  There  is  a 
column  of  miscellany  followed  by  a  column  of  advertisements. 
"  Lieutenant  White,  of  Thirty -third  North  Carolina,  will  execute  on 
metal  all  kinds  of  engravings;"  "Lieutenant  B.  F.  Curtright,  Di- 
vision 24,  manufactures  gutta-percha  rings,  chains  and  breastpins;" 
"tailoring  is  done  by  Griggs  and  Church ;"  "  washing  and  ironing  by 
J.  G.  Davenport,  of  Tenth  Georgia  battalion,  and  by  Lieutenant  J. 
C.  Boswell,  Thirty-third  Georgia  regiment;"  "Broughton  and 
Walker  keep  a  shaving  and  shampooing  shop."  The  editors  are 
George  S.  Thomas,  Captain  Sixty-fourth  Georgia;  W.  H.  Bennett, 
Captain  and  Adjutant  same  regiment,  and  F.  J.  Cassidy,  Lieutenant 
Eleventh  South  Carolina  volunteers.  The  editorials  consist  of  a 
"Salutatory,"  "Our  Prison  World,"  "A  Good  Work,"  "A  Local," 
"Our  Paper,"  "Miscellaneous,"  "Report  of  the  Markets,"  and  there 
are  several  original  communications. 

May  19th  to  Slst — The  mortifying  news  of  the  capture  of  Presi- 
dent Davis,  near  Washington,  Georgia,  is  received,  and  the  false 
report  of  his  attempt  to  escape  in  female  attire  is  circulated  and 
maliciously  harped  upon  by  the  fanatical  Yankee  newspapers. 
While  I  feel  sure  the  report  is  totally  untrue,  yet  I  confess  I  think 
he  would  have  been  entirely  justified  in  it,  if  he  had  sought  to 
escape  by  such  means.  Louis  Napoleon  once  escaped  from  a  dun- 
geon in  female  garb,  and  no  disgrace  or  shame  attaches  to  him  for 
it.  But  it  is  a  ringing  and  lasting  shame  to  the  Yankee  nation 
that  our  great  chief  has  been  compelled  to  endure  the  severest, 
bitterest  attempt  to  humiliate  him  and  disgrace  his  people  by  being 
basely  manacled  with  irons.  While  thoroughly  indignant  we  feel 
that  the  disgrace  of  the  cruel  deed  all  belongs  to  President  Johnson 

252  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

and  Secretary  Stanton,  none  whatever  to  our  great,  beloved,  vicarious 
sufferer.  Our  hearts  were  chilled,  our  countenances  grew  pale,  and 
we  trembled  with  agony,  as  we  heard  whispered  from  lip  to  lip 
"Jeff.  Davis  is  captured."  We  were  sickened,  palsied  by  the  pain- 
ful, overpowering  announcement.  The  illustrious,  undaunted  head 
of  our  Confederacy  is  a  manacled  prisoner.  Our  honored,  beloved 
President  a  chained  captive,  his  Cabinet  prisoners  or  fugitives,  our 
cause  lost,  our  country  ruined,  our  native  land  desolated,  our 
gallant  armies  surrendered.  The  grand  head,  the  noble  embodi- 
ment of  our  holy  cause,  the  faithful  friend  and  servant  of  the 
South,  President  Davis,  is  now  shut  up  in  the  dreary  prison  walls^ 
of  Fortress  Monroe.  He  is  our  uncomplaining,  dignified,  heroic,- 
vicarious  sufferer.  How  dull  and  leaden  must  be  the  heavy  hours 
in  his  weary,  weary  prison  cell.  May  a  Gracious  God  sustain  and 
comfort  him  in  his  wretchedness  and  misery. 

On  the  26th  my  last,  fond  hope  was  completely  crushed.  Gen- 
eral Kirby  Smith  surrendered  his  forces  in  the  Trans-Mississippi 
Department  to  General  Canby  at  Baton  Rouge.  My  very  last  hope 
has  gone.  What  shall  I  do?  If  the  alternative  of  banishment 
from  the  country  was  offered,  I  would  unhesitatingly  accept  it. 
But  it  is  the  hated  oath  of  allegiance  or  perpetual  imprisonment. 
Both  are  terrible,  revolting. 

Ju7ie  1st  to  5th — A  novel,  called  "Too  Strange  not  to  be  True,'- 
received  from  Miss  McSherry,  and  promptly  read.  Farther  O'Con- 
nor, of  Philadelphia,  made  a  visit  to  the  Catholic  prisoners.  It  is  a 
notable  fact  that  no  Protestant  minister  in  the  entire  North  has 
ever,  to  my  knowledge,  visited  the  prison.  A  few  Catholic  priests 
have  been  more  considerate.  The  "Prison  Christian  Association" 
has  weekly  lectures  from  its  members.  Colonel  Hinton  delivered 
a  very  fine  one  on  "Benevolence."  Rev.  Mr.  Kinsolving,  Captain 
Harris  and  others  will  doubtless  follow.  Prayers  continue  to  be 
offered  by  some  oflBcer  in  each  division  at  nine  o'clock  ever}^  night. 
I  am  collecting  the  autographs  of  the  brave  men  who  to  the  last 
have  refused  the  oath  of  allegiance,  nearly  all  of  whom  now,  since 
the  surrender  of  Kirby  Smith  and  his  army,  are  willing  to  take 
the  oath  when  again  offered,  in  accordance  with  the  proclamation 
of  President  Johnson.  Among  these  true  men  whose  autographs 
I  have  are  Major  J.  Raiford  Bell,  Twelfth  Mississippi  infantry, 
Satartia,  Mississippi;  Adjutant  Francis  E.  Ogden,  Seventh  Loui- 
siana regiment,  Natchez,  Mississippi;  Lieutenant  Collin  W.  Gibson, 
Twelfth  Mississippi  regiment,  Natchez,  Mississippi ;  Lieutenant  J. 

Diary  of  Captain  Robert  E.  Park. 


W.  Lawrence,  Seventeenth  North  Carolina  regiment,  Greenville, 
North  Carolina;  Adjutant  Alex,  S.Webb,  Forty-fourth  North  Caro- 
lina regiment,  Oaks,  North  Carolina;  Lieutenant  Hugh  R.  Crichton, 
Porty-seventh  North  Carolina  regiment,  Louisburg,  North  Carolina  ; 
Lieutenant  A.  H.  Mansfield,  Eighth  North  Carolina  regiment, 
Greenville,  Nortli  Carolina;  Captain  George  Sloan,  Fifty-first  North 
Carolina  regiment,  Fayetteville,  North  Carolina;  Lieutenant  Wil- 
liam M.  Sneed,  Twelfth  North  Carolina  regiment,  Townesville,  North 
Carolina ;  Lieutenant  Patrick  H.  Winston,  Eleventh  North  Carolina 
regiment,  Franklinton,  North  Carolina;  Adjutant  David  W.  Gates, 
Thirty-seventh  North  Carolina  regiment,  Charlotte,  North  Carolina; 
Colonel  James  M.  Whitson,  Eighth  North  Carolina  regiment,  Poplar 
Branch,  North  Carolina;  Colonel  J.  T.  Morehead,  Fifty-third  North 
Carolina  regiment,  Greensboro,'  North  Carolina,  Captain  J.  W. 
Fannin,  Sixty-first  Alabama  regiment,  Tuskegee,  Alabama:  Adju- 
tant S.  D.  Steedman,  First  Alabama  regiment,  Steedman,  South 
Carolina;  Lieutenant-Colonel  M.  B.  Locke,  First  Alabama  regiment, 
Perote,  Alabama;  Lieutenant  R.  H.  Wicker,  Fifteenth  Alabama 
regiment,  Perote,'Alabama;  Adjutant  William  R.  Holcombe,  Ninth 
Alabama  regiment,  Athens,  Georgia ;  Lieutenant  W.  A.  Scott, 
Twelfth  Georgia  artillery,  Auburn,  Georgia;  Lieutenant  Frede- 
rick M.  Makeig,  Fourth  Texas  regiment,  Bold  Spring,  Texas; 
Lieutenant  William  H.  Eflinger,  Eleventh  Virginia  cavalry,  Har- 
risonburg, Virginia;  Major  Norman  R.  Fitzhugh,  Chief  Quarter- 
master Cavalry  Corps,  Army  Northern  Virginia,  Scottsville,  Vir- 
ginia; Captain  Julian  P.  Lee,  A.  A.  General,  Richmond,  Virginia; 
Colonel  R.  C.  Morgan,  P.  A.  C.  S.,  Lexington,  Kentucky;  Captain 
M.  B.  Perkins,  Sixth  Kentucky  cavalry,  Somerset,  Kentucky; 
Captain  C.  C.  Corbett,  M.  D.,  Fourteenth  Kentucky  cavalry,  Florence, 
Georgia;  Colonel  T.  W.  Hooper,  Twenty-first  Georgia  infantry, 
Rome,  Georgia;  Captain  A.  C.  Gibson,  Fourth  Georgia  infantry^ 
La  Grange,  Georgia ;  Captain  L.  J.  Johnson,  Twenty-fifth  Tennessee 
regiment,  Cooksville,  Tennessee.  These  are  the  names  of  twenty- 
nine  of  the  faithful  forty  who  firmly  declined  all  offers  of  the  oath 
■of  allegiance  to  the  United  States  Government  until  after  the  sur- 
render of  the  last  armed  body  of  Confederates.  I  am  proud  of 
being  one  of  the  forty,  and  wish  I  had  all  of  their  names.  We 
have  waited  until  even  Mosby  has  surrendered  his  Partisan  Rangers. 
Yet  I  accord  equal  courage  and  equal  patriotism  with  myself  to 
those  gallant  men  who  thought  best  to  accept  President  Johnson's 
terms  after  the  surrender  of  Lee  and  Johnston.     They  merely  felt 

254  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  utter  hopelessness  of  further  resistance  earlier  than  I  did,  and 
accepted  the  dreaded  but  inevitable  situation  sooner.     The  ftiithfu 
forty  have  at  last  most  reluctantly  come  to  the  sad  and  painful 
conclusion   that  further  resistance  is  useless,  and    will  no  longer 
refuse  the  oath  if  offered. 

June  6th  to  12th — Captain  Waldhauer,  of  Georgia  Hussars,  from 
Savannah,  Georgia,  a  small,  quiet,  gentlemanly  officer,  who  had 
lost  his  right  arm  in  battle,  but  on  recovery,  returned  to  the  com- 
mand of  his  company,  .and  was  captured  while  bravely  fighting 
below  Petersburg,  has  been  released.  He  sent  me  from  Philadelphia 
a  large  blank  book,  of  which  I  propose  to  make  a  prison  Album. 
Several  of  my  friends  have  contributed  articles,  at  my  request, 
writing  brief  biographical  sketches  of  themselves,  giving  their  war 
histories,  the  battles  in  which  they  have  been  engaged,  circumstances 
of  their  capture,  prison  life,  etc.  Articles  which  I  value  very  highly 
have  been  written  by  Captain  J,  W.  Fannin,  Sixty-first  Alabama; 
Lieutenant  W.  S.  Bird,  Eleventh  Alabama;  Captain  T.  W.  Harris, 
Twelfth  Georgia  regiment ;  Lieutenant  G.  R.  Waldman,  Forty-fourth 
Virginia;  Captain  J.  Whann  McSherry,  Thirty-sixth  Virginia i 
Captain  W.  A.  McBryde,  Third  Alabama;  Lieutenat  H.  C.  Pool, 
Tenth  North  Carolina  troops;  Lieutenant  James  K.  Kinman, 
Twelfth  Georgia  battalion  infantry;  Lieutenant  A.  H.  Mansfield, 
Eighth  North  Carolina;  Lieutenant  W.  A.  Scott,  Twelfth  Georgia 
artillery;  Captain  A.  E.  Hewlett,  Twelfth  Alabama;  Captain  W. 
H.  Harrison,  Thirty-first  Georgia,  and  Colonel  J.  W.  Hinton, 
Sixty-eighth  North  Carolina. 

June  IZth  to  15th — Miss  Jamison  has  sent  me  a  satchel,  a  citizen's 
coat  and  other  articles,  stating  that  they  were  presented  by  a  beau- 
tiful Cuban  girl.  Miss  Susie  Matthews.  I  owe  them  both  many 
thanks.*  Transportation  for  all  the  crippled  officers  was  obtained, 
and  in  company  with  Captain  Russell  and  Captain  Rankin,  of 
Georgia,  Adjutant  Reagan,  of  Tennessee,  and  a  large  number  of 
other  wounded  officers,  I  was  escorted  to  the  fort,  where  the  oath 
was  read  to  us,  while  we  stood  with  our  right  hands  raised  aloft. 
I  managed  to  drop  to  the  rear  and  lowered  my  hand  during  its 
reading.  Soon  we  took  a  boat  for  Philadelphia,  and  began  to 
realize  that  the  war  was  indeed  over,  and  we  on  the  way  to  our 
respective  homes. 

■•I  am  happy  to  say  that  as  soon  as  possible  after  my  return  home  I  took  occasion  to  pay 
liacls;  all  moneys  received  (luring  my  imprisonment  to  Mr.  J.  M.  Coulter,  Miss  E.  Jamison  and 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Sullivan,  of  Baltimore,  and  Miss  A.  L.  McSherry,  of  Martinsburg.  They  were  true 
friends  tome  while  "sick  and  in  prison,"  and  my  gratitude  to  them  for  their  disinterested 
kindness  will  end  only  with  my  life.    May  kind  heaven  prosper  them. 

K.  E.  P. 

Torpedoes.  255 


By  General  6.  J.  Rains,  Chief  of  the  Confederate  Torpedo  Service. 

[The  following  will  be  read  with  interest,  both  on  account  of  the  topic  of 
which  it  treats,  and  tlie  high  authority  from  which  it  comes.] 

There  is  no  fixed  rule  to  determine  the  ethics  of  war — that 
legalized  murder  of  our  fellow-men — for  even  mining  is  admited 
with  its  wholesale  destruction. 

Each  new  weapon,  in  its  turn,  when  first  introduced,  was  de- 
nounced as  illegal  and  barbarous,  yet  each  took  its  place  according 
to  its  efficacy  in  human  slaughter  by  the  unanimous  consent  of 

Gunpowder  and  fire-arms  were  held  to  be  savage  and  anti-chris- 
tian,  yet  the  club,  the  sling,  the  battle-axe,  the  bow  and  arrow,  the 
balister  or  cross-bow  with  the  tormentum,  javelin  and  spear,  gave 
way  to  the  match-lock  musket,  and  that  to  the  flint-lock,  and  that 
to  the  percussion. 

The  rifle  is  now  fast  superseding  the  musket,  being  of  further 
range,  more  accurate  in  direction  and  breech-loading. 

The  battering-ram  and  catapult  gave  way  to  the  smooth-bore 
cannon,  chain,  bar  and  spherical  shot,  which  is  now  yielding, 
except  in  enormous  calibre  15-inch  and  more,  to  rifle-bores  and 
elongated  chilled  shot  (yet,  on  account  of  inertia,  rifle  calibre  should 
never  exceed  ten  inches). 

Torpedoes  come  next  in  the  catalogue  of  destructives,  the  modern 
ne  plus  ultra  of  warlike  inventions. 

The  world  indeed  is  in  throes  of  fire  and  marine  monsters. 
While  war  is  looming  up  between  Russia  and  Turkey,  other  nations 
are  striving  in  guns,  iron-clads  and  torpedo  ships,  for  maritime 
supremacy.  The  powers  of  electricity  in  light-giving  and  heat-con- 
trolling to  examine  and  blind  an  adversary  by  its  glare  at  night, 
and  fire-torpedoes  for  his  destruction  at  all  times,  and  the  capa- 
bility of  steel  and  iron  with  Professor  Barfly's  superheated  steam  in 
endurance,  o0"ensive  and  defensive,  will  be  called  into  action  to  resist 
the  100-ton  guns  of  Italy  and  other  formidable  calibres,  also  torpedo 
boats  like  the  Thornycroft  of  France,  the  Lightning  of  England, 
and  the  Porter  Alarm  of  the  United  States. 

Iron-clads  are  said  to  master  the  world,  but  torpedoes  master  the 
iron-clads,  and  must  so  continue  on  account  of  the  almost  total 

256  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

incompressibility  of  water  and  the  developed  gasses  of  the  fired 
gunpowder  of  the  torpedo  under  the  vessel's  bottom  passing 
through  it,  as  the  direction  of  least  resistance. 

While  other  nations  are  pursuing  the  science  of  assault  and 
defence  theoretically  and  experimentally,  the  United  States  has  had 
more  practical  experience  with  the  torpedo,  and  better  understands 
its  capabilities,  wisely  discarding  the  iron  and  steel  leviathians  of 
the  deep  for  models,  as  the  Dreadnaught,  Inflexible,  Devastation, 
Alexandria,  Iron  Duke,  Duillio,  &c. 

During  the  war  with  the  Confederacy,  there  were  123  torpedoes 
planted  in  Charleston  harbor  and  Stono  river,  which  prevented  the 
capture  of  tluit  city  and  its  conflagration.  There  were  101  torpe- 
does planted  in  Roanoke  river,  North  Carolina,  by  which,  of  twelve 
vessels  sent  with  troops  and  means  to  capture  Fort  Branch,  but 
five  returned.  One  was  sunk  by  the  fire  from  the  fort,  and  the 
rest  by  torpedoes.  Of  the  five  iron-clads  sent  with  other  vessels  to 
take  Mobile,  Alabama  (one  was  tin-clad),  three  were  destroyed  by 
torpedoes.  There  were  fifty-eight  vessels  sunk  by  torpedoes  in  the 
war,  and  some  of  them  of  no  small  celebrity,  as  Admiral  Farragut's 
flag-ship  the  Harvest  Moon,  the  Thorn,  the  Commodore  Jones,  the 
Monitor  Patapsco,  Ram  Osage,  Monitor  Milwaukee,  Housatonic 
and  others.  (Cairo  in  Yazoo  river).  Peace  societies  we  must  ac- 
knowledge a  failure  in  settling  national  differences  by  arbitration, 
since  enlightened  nations  goto  war  for  a  mere  political  abstraction, 
and  vast  armies  in  Europe  are  kept  ready  for  action,  to  be  frustrated, 
however,  by  this  torpedo  sj^stem  of  mining,  carried  out  according  to 

For  three  years  the  Confederate  Congress  legislated  on  this  subject, 
passing  each  house  alternately  for  an  organized  torpedo  corps  until 
the  third  year,  when  it  passed  both  houses  with  acclamation,  and 
$6,000,000  appropriated,  but  too  late,  and  the  delay  was  not  short- 
ened by  this  enormous  appropriation. 

Could  a  piece  of  ordnance  be  made  to  sweep  a  battle  field  in  a 
moment  of  time,  there  soon  would  be  no  battle  field,  or  could  a 
blast  of  wind  loaded  with  deadly  mephitic  malaria  in  one  night, 
sent  like  the  destroying  angel  in  Sanacherib's  army,  or  the  earth  be 
made  to  open  in  a  thousand  places  with  the  fire  of  death  for  de- 
struction, as  in  the  days  of  Korah,  Dothan  and  Abiram,  to  which 
this  system  tends,  then  and  then  only  may  we  beat  the  sword  into 
the  ploughshare,  the  spear  into  the  pruning-hook,  and  nations 
learn  wars  no  more. 

Torpedoes.  257 

The  following  will  show  who  is  the   founder  of  this  arm  of 
service : 


"In  the  experiments  with  the  torpedo  lately  in  the  Florida 
channel,"  saj^s  an  Eastern  paper,  "the  country  has  been  furnished 
with  a  more  complete  exhibition  of  the  destructive  capacities  of 
this  submarine  projectile,  than  is  now  known  to  military  and  naval 
science."  Admiral  Porter,  in  his  recent  report,  called  particular 
attention  to  the  torpedo  as  a  defensive  and  offensive  weapon,  and 
urged  upon  the  navy  a  thorough  study  of  its  powers  as  a  destruc- 
tive agent  in  warfare.  We  therefore  congratulate  the  service  upon 
the  success  of  the  torpedo  exercises.,  believing  that  they  will  com- 
mand the  attention  of  all  the  navies  in  the  world.  Enthusiasts 
claim  that  naval  warfare  has  been  substantially  revolutionized 
by  its  invention;  and  the  exercises  of  the  squadron  during  the 
closing  days  of  February,  prove  that  "this  newfangled  concern" 
is  not  to  be  despised,  as  the  navy  often  learned  to  its  sorrow  during 
the  protracted  blockade  of  the  Southern  coast  at  the  time  of  the 
recent  war.  The  Wabash,  Congress,  Ticonderoga,  Canandaigua, 
Ossipee,  Colorado,  Brooklyn,  Wachusett,  Kansas,  Lancaster,  Alaska, 
Franklin,  Fortune  and  Shenandoah,  participated  in  the  practice. 
This  recalls  to  mind  the  following  narration,  well  known  to 
some  of  our  readers:  During  the  war  with  the  Seminole  Indians 
in  Florida,  April,  1840,  the  Seventh  United  States  infantry 
was  stationed  at  posts  in  the  interior  of  the  peninsula,  and  the 
country  had  been  divided  into  squares  of  twenty  miles  each,  and 
the  headquarters  located  at  Fort  King,  the  former  agency,  which 
was  commanded  by  Colonel  Whistler,  and  Captain  G.  J.  Rains 
commanded  at  Fort  Micanopy,  just  twenty-five  miles  distant. 

Though  there  was,  and  had  been  since  the  beginning  of  hostili- 
ties, an  Indian  town  within  sound  of  drum  at  Fort  King;  yet  it 
was  so  surrounded  by  swamp  that  it  had  not  been  discovered,  and 
some  twenty  miles  journey  was  required  to  reach  it,';  and  the 
Indians  so  located  their  depredations  in  Micanopy  square,  that 
Colonel  Whistler  made  representation  that  there  the  enemy  was  to 
be  found  and  not  at  Fort  King,  and  General  Taylor  changed  the 
headquarters  accordingly.  The  colonel's  command,  consisting  of 
several  companies  of  infantry  and  dragoons,  was  transferred  to 
Fort  Micanopy,  and  Captain  Rains  and  his  command,  one  company 
with  diminished  numbers,  to  Fort  King. 

258  Southern  Historical  Society  Payers. 

Here  the  Captain  soon  discovered  he  was  in  a  hornet's  nest,  and 
so  reported,  but  was  unheeded.  The  Indians  perceived  at  once 
the  disparity  in  numbers  from  their  spies,  and  that  their  opponents 
were  few  at  that  post,  and  they  became  bold  accordingly.  Captain 
Rains'  men  were  so  waylaid  and  killed  that  it  became  dangerous  to 
walk  even  around  the  post,  and  finally  two  of  his  best  men  were 
waylaid  and  murdered  in  full  view  thereof.  Desperate  diseases 
often  require  desperate  remedies,  and  as  the  preservation  of  the 
lives  of  his  command  required  it,  the  following  was  resorted  to  by 
the  Captain.  The  clothing  of  the  last  victims  was  made  to  cover  a 
torpedo  invented  by  him,  and  it  was  located  at  a  small  hammock 
and  pond  of  water  in  a  mile  or  two  of  the  post  where  the  Indian 
war  parties  had  to  get  water. 

Some  day  or  two  elapsed,  when  early  one  night  the  loud  booming 
sound  of  the  torpedo  was  heard,  betraying  the  approach  of  a  hostile 
party.  Quickly  Commander  Rains  and  some  dragoons  who  hap- 
pened to  be  at  the  post  rode  to  the  spot ;  yet  all  was  still  and  but 
an  opossum  found,  which  the  Indians  with  tact,  near  where  the 
torpedo  had  been,  left  to  deceive.  A  yell  indeed  was  heard,  but 
the  dragoons  supposed  it  to  be  from  the  infantry  which  were 
arriving,  and  the  latter  thought  it  to  come  from  the  former.  On 
returning  to  the  post  the  facts  of  the  yell  appearing  and  the  animal 
found,  discovered  to  have  been  killed  by  a  rifle  bullet,  early  next 
morning  Captain  Rains  with  sixteen  men,  all  which  could  be 
spared  from  garrison  duty,  for  the  dragoons  had  left,  repaired  to 
the  hammock,  some  four  or  five  acres  in  extent,  and,  spreading  out 
his  men  as  skirmishers,  swept  through  it.  The  copse  was  surrounded 
by  pines  and  was  full  of  bushes  and  beds  of  needle  palmettoes, 
impenetrable  except  next  to  the  roots,  where  lay  concealed  some 
hundred  and  more  infuriated  savages,  all  ready  for  action.  They 
were  passed  undiscovered  until  the  soldiers  had  reached  the  pond, 
a  small  one  of  five  or  six  yards  across,  and  were  examining  the 
spot  of  the  torpedo,  which  gave  evidences  of  its  destructive  effects. 

A  little  dog  which  had  accompanied  the  command  here  became 
furious,  barking  in  the  thicket  of  bushes  and  needle  palmettoes. 
"  What  is  that  dog  barking  at?"  said  Captain  Rains.  "  Nothing,  sir," 
said  one  of  the  soldiers,  "  but  a  rabbit."  Quickly  he  changed  his 
place  and  again  became  furious,  barking  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  pond.  "  Sergeant  Smith,"  said  Captain  Rains  to  his  first  sergeant 
near  by,  "see  what  that  dog  is  barking  at?"  The  poor  fellow 
turned  and  advanced  some  four  or  five  paces  with  the  soldiers  near 

Tor'pedoes.  259 

liim,  and,  shouting  Indians,  he  and  his  men  fired  their  guns  sim- 
ultaneously with  the  enemy  lying  in  covert. 

The  whole  hammock  in  a  moment  was  alive  with  Indians,  yelling 
and  firing  rapidly.  The  little  party  of  soldiers  was  surrounded,  and 
the  captain  shouted,  "  men  clear  the  hammock,  take  the  trees  and 
give  them  a  fair  fight."  No  sooner  commanded  than  executed. 
The  sergeant  came  to  his  officer  with  blood  running  from  his 
mouth  and  nose,  and  said,  "  Captain,  I  am  killed."  Too  true;  it  was 
his  last  remark.  He  was  a  brave  man,  but  his  captain  could  do 
nothing  then  but  tell  him  to  get  behind  a  tree  near  by. 

As  the  hammock  was  occupied  by  the  foe  and  the  military  behind 
the  trees  at  theend  furthest  from  the  post,  the  order  was  given  to 
charge,  and  the  men  rushed  into  the  thicket,  driving  the  enemy 
right  and  left  flying  before  the  bayonet  and  getting  behind  trees 
outside  the  hammock,  the  troops  passing  through  their  centre. 
From  the  nature  of  the  place  on  arriving  at  the  other  end  of  the 
thicket,  the  soldiers  were  much  scattered,  and  the  firing  still  going 
on,  no  little  exertion  was  required  for  the  captain  to  rally  his  men, 
and  while  thus  engaged  he  was  badly  wounded,  shot  through  the 
body,  but  continued  his  efforts  until  successful  and  the  enemy 
driven  from  the  ground.  The  captain  was  carried  to  the  fort  in 
the  arms  of  his  men. 


We  have  thus  numbered  them,  as  all  others  before  made  were 
abortions.  We  remember  the  doggerel  of  the  battle  of  the  kegs  of 
the  revolution,  and  a  more  subsequent  attempt  to  blow  up  British 
shipping  blockading  our  ports  in  the  war  of  1812,  which  prema- 
ture explosions  rendered  ineffective,  and  even  Lord- Admiral  Lyon's 
flag-ship,  at  Cronstadt,  which  had  her  stern  nearly  blown  out  of 
water  by  a  torpedo,  set  by  the  Russians  during  the  Crimean  war, 
was  found  in  the  dry-dock  at  Liverpool  not  to  have  had  a  plank 
started.  Our  story  of  the  first  torpedo  ended  in  the  fighting  of 
sixteen  soldiers  and  an  officer  with  some  one  hundred  or  more  In- 
dians, and  among  the  casualties  the  wounding  of  the  officer  and 
his  being  carried  to  Fort  King  in  the  arms  of  his  men.  Another 
and  second  torpedo  had  been  previously  plac,ed  at  the  post  by  him^ 
and  soon  after  the  fight  a  thousand  or  more  troops  were  collected 
there,  and  it  became  such  an  object  of  dread  to  the  whole  army 
that  a  soldier  guard  was  put  over  it  until  Captain  Rains  was  able 
to  go  and  take  it  in.     "Suppose,"  said  one  officer  to  another,  high 

260  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

in  rank,  "that  the  Captain  had  died  of  his  wound,  what  would 
you  have  done?  "  "  I  thought,"  said  he,  "  of  firing  at  it  with  a  six- 
pounder  at  a  safe  distance,  and  thys  Icnoclving  it  to  pieces."  The 
occasion  of  the  first  submarine  torpedo  was  as  follows:  Soon  after 
the  battle  of  Seven  Pines  (called  in  Northern  prints  "Fair  Oaks") 
General  R.  E.  Lee,  commanding,  sent  for  General  Rains  and  said 
to  him:  "The  enemy  have  upwards  of  one  hundred  vessels  in  the 
James  river,  and  we  think  that  they  are  about  making  an  advance 
that  way  upon  Richmond,  and  if  there  is  a  man  in  the  whole 
Southern  Confederacy  that  can  stop  them,  you  are  the  man.  Will 
you  undertake  it?"  "I  will  try,"  was  the  answer;  and  observing 
that  ironclads  were  invulnerable  to  cannon  of  all  calibre  used  and 
were  really  masters  of  rivers  and  harbors,  it  required  submarine 
inventions  to  checkmate  and  conquer  them.  So  an  order  was 
issued  forthwith  putting  General  Rains  in  charge  of  the  submarine 
defences,  and  on  the  James  river  banks,  opposite  Drewry's  Bluff,  was 
the  first  submarine  torpedo  made — the  primo-genitor  and  predeces- 
sor of  all  such  inventions,  now  world  renowned,  as  civilized  nations 
have  each  a  torpedo  corps.  And  if,  as  has  been  asserted,  that 
"naval  warfare  has  been  substantially  revolutionized"  by  them, 
there  is  no  doubt  but  that  is  the  case  on  land,  and  the  tactics  of 
the  world  has  been  changed,  perhaps,  under  the  providence  of  God, 
making  a  vast  stride  to  arbitration  of  nations  and  universal  peace. 

Note. — Having  read  the  MS.  of  General  Rains'  valuable  paper, 
I  desire  to  say  that  the  total  number  of  vessels  sunk  by  torpedoes 
in  Mobile  bay  was  twelve,  instead  of  three,  viz:  three  ironclads,  two 
tinclads  and  seven  transports. 

D.  H.  Maury, 
Late  Maj 07'- General  C.  S.  A. 

Report  of  General  Jones  of  Operations  at  Charleston.  261 

Report  of  Major-General  Samuel  Jones  of  Operations  at  Charleston, 
South  Carolina,  from  December  5th  to  27th,  1864. 

[The  following  is  from  the  original  MS.  kindly  furnished  us  by  the  gallant 
•oldier  who  prepared  it,  and  never  before  published  to  our  knowledge.] 

Charleston,  South  Carolina,  January  11th,  1865. 

Colonel — The  report  of  operations  of  the  troops  under  my  com- 
mand, in  the  late  campaign  ending  in  the  evacuation  of  Savannah, 
called  for  by  the  Lieutenant-General  commanding  on  the  2d  instant, 
has  been  delayed  because  of  my  absence  from  my  headquarters  on 
other  duty,  and  the  failure  of  some  of  the  subordinate  commanders 
to  forward  to  me  their  reports.  They  have  not  all  yet  been  received, 
but  as  I  have  been  ordered  to  another  and  distant  command,  I 
respectfully  submit,  without  longer  delay,  the  following  report : 

The  dispatch  from  the  Lieutenant-General  commanding,  then  in 
Savannah,  directing  me  to  establish  my  headquarters  at  or  near 
Pocotaligo,  was  received  in  this  city  about  sunset  on  the  4th  ultimo. 
I  started  by  the  first  train,  but  owing  to  detentions  on  the  road,  did 
not  reach  Pocotaligo  until  nearly  sunset  on  the  fifth.  I  was  not 
informed  as  to  the  number,  description  or  location  of  the  troops  in 
that  vicinity,  and  immediately  endeavored  to  obtain  information 
on  those  points.  I  ascertained  that  the  troops,  with  the  exception 
of  the  Fifth  and  Forty-seventh  Georgia  regiments,  a  battalion  of 
the  Thirty-second  Georgia  regiment,  the  artillery,  a  part  of  the 
Third  South  Carolina  cavalry  and  Kirk's  squadron,  were  composed 
of  Georgia  and  South  Carolina  reserves,  and  South  Carolina  militia, 
and  occupied  positions  extending  from  Pocotaligo  to  Savannah 
river,  and  up  that  river  beyond  Sister's  ferry.  Those  at  and  near 
Grahamville  were  commanded  by  Brigadier-General  Chesnut,  those 
at  and  near  Coosawhatchie  by  Brigadier-General  Gartrell.  They 
had  arrived  but  a  few  days  previously,  and  until  my  arrival  were 
under  the  immediate  orders  of  the  Lieutenant-General  command- 
ing or  other  officer  under  him.  The  reserves  were  very  imperfectly 
organized,  and  the  militia  without  organization,  and  many  of  the 
men  were  without  arms.  Having  obtained  as  accurate  information 
as  I  could  of  their  numbers  and  positions,  and  the  positions  and 
movements  of  the  enemy,  I  ordered  Brigadier-General  Chesnut  to 
send  the  Forty-seventh  Georgia  regiment  and  a  section  of  artillery 
by  railroad,  to  be  thrown  thence  to  any  point  that  might  be  threat- 
ened, the  train  to  remain  at  Coosawhatchie  and  be  held  in  readiness 

262  Sovihern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

to  move  the  troops  at  any  moment.  This  order,  I  regret  to  say, 
was  not  promptly  obeyed.  Dispatches  received  during  the  night 
indicated  that  the  enemy  was  threatening  Coosawhatchie  by  way 
of  Bee's  creek  and  the  Coosawhatchie  river.  At  ten  o'clock  the 
morning  of  the  6th,  General  Gartrell  telegraphed  me  that  the  enemy 
was  landing  from  twelve  barges  at  Gregory's  point  on  Tulifinny 
river;  that  he  had  moved  forward  a  part  of  his  force  to  meet  them. 
The  battalion  of  South  Carolina  cadets,  having  arrived  at  Pocotaligo , 
was  ordered  to  guard  the  Tulifinny  trestle,  and  aid  in  checking 
any  advance  on  Coosawhatchie.  A  section  of  artillery,  supported  by 
the  battalion  of  the  Thirty-second  Georgia  regiment,  was  ordered 
to  a  point  on  the  left  of  the  Tulifinny,  from  which  it  was  thought 
it  could  drive  off  or  annoy  the  enemy's  transports  and  barges,  and 
I  started  myself  to  ride  to  Coosawhatchie.  But  before  reaching 
Tulifinny  bridge,  the  enemy,  having  landed  in  much  larger  force 
than  was  at  first  supposed,  had  pressed  forward  up  Gregory's  neck 
to  the  Coosawhatchie  or  State  road,  and  having  driven  back  a 
battalion  of  the  Fifth  Georgia  regiment  (about  one  hundred  and 
fifty  men),  interposed  between  me  and  Coosawhatchie. 

Brigadier-General  Gartrell  has  not  submitted  a  report,  but  I 
ascertain  from  a  conversation  with  him  and  his  subordinate  com- 
manders, that  on  first  receiving  information  of  the  advance  of  the 
enemy,  he  sent  forward  only  a  small  battalion  (one  hundred  and 
fifty  men)  of  the  Fifth  Georgia,  which  encountered  the  enem}!-  on 
the  Gregory's  Point  road,  about  a  mile  from  its  junction  with  the 
State  road,  and  drove  back  the  advance  guard.  But  the  enemy, 
discovering  that  the  handful  of  men  in  their  front  was  not  the 
twentieth  part  of  their  own  number,  pressed  forward  and  nearly 
enveloped  the  Fifth  Georgia,  forcing  it  back.  The  Georgia  reserve 
and  a  section  of  artillery  were  then  sent  by  Gartrell  to  the  support 
of  the  Fifth  Georgia,  but  it  was  too  late;  the  entire  line  soon  gave 
way,  fell  back  in  confusion,  crossed  the  Coosawhatchie  river  and 
partially  destroyed  the  bridge  immediately  under  the  guns,  and 
within  easy  and  effective  musket  range  of  our  works  at  Coosaw- 
hatchie. Major  John  Jenkins,  whom  I  had  sent  forwad  to  ascertain 
the  position  of  the  enemy,  was  conducting  the  battalion  of  cadets 
under  Major  White  into  action,  and  that  gallant  body  of  youths 
was  moving  at  double  quick,  manifesting  an  eagerness  to  encounter 
the  enemy,  which  they  subsequently  so  handsomely  sustained  in 
action,  and  would  in  ten  minutes  have  opened  fire  on  the  enemy's 

Report  of  General  Jones  of  Operations  at  Charleston.  263 

right,  when  our  line  gave  way  as  above  stated,  and  the  cadets  were 
withdrawn  to  the  railroad. 

The  enemy  having  secured  a  footing  at  the  junction  of  the  Gre- 
gory's Point  and  State  roads,  immediately  commenced  entrenching, 
and  I  had  no  troops  at  hand  with  which  to  attack  them  that  even- 
ing. During  the  night  of  the  6th,  I  concentrated  on  the  railroad, 
near  the  Tulifinny  trestle,  all  the  available  troops  I  could  collect, 
being  the  Forty-seventh  Georgia  and  a  battalion  of  the  Thirty- 
second  Georgia  regiments,  a  company  of  the  First  South  Carolina 
artillery,  the  battalion  of  cadets  and  one  of  North  Carolina  reserves 
that  had  just  arrived,  and  Buckman's  battery  of  artillery;  and 
ordered  Colonel  Edwards,  the  senior  colonel,  to  attack  the  enemy 
with  that  force  at  day-dawn  the  next  morning.  General  Gartrell 
was  ordered  to  make  a  spirited  demonstration  of  attack  from 
Coosawhatchie  as  soon  as  he  should  hear  Colonel  Edwards'  guns, 
and  if  Edwards'  attack  proved  successful,  to  press  forward  the 
attack  from  Coosawhatchie  with  all  vigor.  Colonel  Edwards  at- 
tacked as  directed,  with  the  result  shown  by  his  report,  herewith 
forwarded.  The  demonstration  from  Coosawhatchie  was  not  made 
with  any  spirit,  and  this  effort  to  dislodge  the  enemy  failed. 

Not  having  a  suflicient  number  of  reliable  troops  to  renew  the 
attack,  I  endeavored  by  defensive  works  to  hold  the  railroad,  and 
the  enemy  was  thus  unavoidably  allowed  time,  of  which  they 
availed  themselves,  to  strengthen  their  j^osition  on  Gregory's  neck. 
In  the  mean  time,  I  had  ordered  Brigadier-General  B.  H.  Robert- 
son from  his  sub-division  to  the  immediate  command  of  the  troops 
from  Bee's  creek  to  Pocotaligo.  On  the  morning  of  the  9th,  the 
enemy,  endeavoring  to  get  possession  of  the  railroad,  vigorously 
assailed  our  left  near  Tulifinny  trestle  and  were  repulsed.  Later 
in  the  day,  they  concentrated  and  attacked  our  line  near  Coosaw- 
hatchie, and  were  again  repulsed.  Failing  in  this  attack  they  never 
renewed  it,  but  strengthened  their  position  within  less  than  a  mile 
of  the  railroad,  and  established  several  batteries  with  which  they 
endeavored,  but  unsuccessfully,  to  prevent  us  from  using  it. 

On  the  11th,  under  instructions  from  the  Lieutenant-General 
commanding,  Brigadier-General  Taliaferro  was  assigned  to  the  im- 
mediate command  of  the  troops  from  Bee's  creek  to  Pocotaligo. 

I  have  stated  thus  minutely  the  operations  of  very  small  bodies 
of  troops  during  the  6th,  7th  and  9th,  because  the  result  of  those 
operations  decided  my  subsequent  action.  If  the  Forty-seventh 
Georgia  regiment  and  the  section  of  artillery,  which  I  ordered  up 

264  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

from  Grahamville  within  an  hour  after  my  arrival  at  Pocotaligo, 
had  been  sent  to  Coosawhatchie,  as  I  directed,  or  if,  instead  of 
sending  forward  only  a  battalion,  General  Gartrell  had  employed 
all  of  his  available  force  to  engage  the  enemy  on  the  Gregory's 
Neck  road,  leaving  a  small  support  for  the  guns  in  the  fort  at  Coo- 
sawhatchie, I  think  the  enemy  would  not  have  succeeded  in  establish- 
ing themselves  on  Gregory's  neck.  The  position  they  succeeded  in 
securing  was  strong,  being  on  a  peninsula,  not  more  than  a  mile 
and  a  half  in  width,  between  the  Coosawhatchie  and  Tulifinny, 
with  both  flanks  protected  by  those  rivers  and  swamps,  some  of 
them  thickly  wooded.  They  also  occupied  Mackey's  point,  making 
it  necessary  that  I  should  employ  a  part  of  my  small  force  to 
watch  the  enemy  on  Graham's  neck,  to  guard  against  a  movement 
on  the  railroad  from  that  quarter.  I  was  convinced  that  I  could 
not,  with  the  force  at  my  command,  dislodge  the  enemy  from  his 
position  by  a  direct  attack  in  front,  and  therefore  directed  my  atten- 
tion to  their  rear.  The  only  plan  offering  any  prospect  of  success 
was  an  attack  in  the  rear  from  the  Tulifinny  side.  To  do  this  it 
was  necessary  to  bridge  that  stream  and  concentrate  a  column  of 
reliable  troops  to  attack  the  enemy  in  his  entrenchments.  The 
means  of  bridging  the  stream  were  procured,  and  I  selected  the 
most  suitable  point  of  passage,  but  at  no  time  was  I  able  to  con- 
centrate for  the  attack  more  than  a  thousand  troops  reliable  for 
such  service;  for,  by  the  concurrent  testimony  of  the  subordinate 
commanders,  the  reserves  and  militia  could  not  be  relied  on  to 
attack  the  enemy  in  their  entrenchments.  The  number  of  the 
enemy  on  Gregory's  neck  I  estimate  at  between  four  and  five  thou- 

[Note. — It  was  the  same  body  of  troops.  General  Hatch  com- 
manding, that  was  defeated  at  Honey  Hill,  on  the  30th  November. 
It  was  then  said  to  consist  of  5,000  men  of  all  arms.  General 
Grant,  in  an  oflicial  report,  states  the  Federal  loss  at  Honey  Hill  to 
have  been  746  in  killed,  wounded  and  missing.  Six  days  later.  Gen- 
eral Hatch  landed  with  his  command  on  Gregory's  neck,  and  it  is 
reasonable  to  estimate  the  number  between  four  and  five  thousand.] 

Under  instructions  from  the  Lieutenant-General  commanding, 
directing  me  if  I  could  not  dislodge  the  enemy  from  his  position^ 
to  strengthen  my  own  so  as  to  hold  the  railroad,  and  send  him  all 
the  troops  I  could  spare,  I  sent  him  the  part  of  General  Young's 
brigade  that  had  arrived,  and  a  few  other  troops,  to  operate  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  Savannah,  and  directed  my  attention  to 

Report  of  General  Jones  of  Operations  at  Charleston.  265 

holding  the  road  to  Savannah  river,  watching  and  obstructing  the 
crossings  on  that  stream,  and  making  preparations  for  dislodging  the 
enemy  on  Gregory's  neck,  whenever  I  could  collect  the  necessary 

Whilst  these  operations  were  in  progress  near  Coosawhatchie, 
Brigadier-General  Chesnut  guarded  the  road  from  Bee's  creek  to 
Harduville,  and  Colonel  Culcork  guarded  the  line  of  the  Savannah 
river  to  Hudson's  ferry,  until  the  arrival  in  that  vicinity  of  Major- 
General  Wheeler  and  Brigadier-General  Young. 

I  regarded  it  as  my  especial  duty  to  hold  the  Charleston  and 
Savannah  railroad,  and  keep  open  communication  to  Savannah 
river.  This  was  done,  for  though  the  enemy  succeeded  in  establish- 
ing batteries  within  easy  range  of  the  railroad,  and  used  their 
artillery  very  freely,  we  held  that  road ;  the  passage  of  trains  was 
never  interrupted ,  and  only  one  locomotive  and  one  box  car  damaged, 
and  two  rails  broken,  until  after  Savannah  had  been  evacuated 
and  the  troops  and  material  brought  from  that  city  secured.  Trains 
were  passing  over  the  road  up  to  the  27th  December,  when,  under 
instructions  from  the  Lieutenant-General  commanding,  I  turned 
over  the  immediate  command  of  the  troops  in  that  vicinity  ta 
Major-General  McLaws. 

Whilst  these  operations  were  going  on  from  Pocotaligo  to  the 
Savannah  river,  the  other  troops  under  my  command  held  securely 
Charleston  and  its  harbor,  and  all  of  the  coast  of  South  Carolina 
in  our  possession.  The  artillery  and  other  veteran  troops  behaved 
throughout  with  their  accustomed  steadiness  and  gallantry,  and  the 
South  Carolina  cadets.  Major  White  commanding,  who  for  the  first 
time  felt  the  fire  of  the  enem}',  so  bore  themselves  as  to  win  the  ad- 
miration of  the  veterans  who  observed  and  served  with  them. 

For  the  casualties,  which  considering  the  heavy  fire  to  which  the- 
troops  were  exposed  for  many  days,  were  very  few ;  and  for  other 
details,  I  respectfully  refer  to  the  reports  of  subordinate  com- 

I  am,  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Samuel  Jones,  Major-General. 

To  Colonel  T.  B.  Kay,  A.  A.  <?.,  Department 

South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida,  Charleston,  South  Carolina. 

266  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Headquarters  Adams  Run,  South  Carolina, 
January  5,  1865. 
Major  Charles  S.  Stringfellow, 

Assistant  Adjutant-General.,  Charleston.,  South  Carolina: 

Major — I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  in  obedience  to  in- 
structions from  Major-General  Jones,  I  assumed  command  of  all 
the  troops  between  Bee's  creek  and  Tulifinny  trestle  on  the  8th  of 
December,  ultimo. 

About  9  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  9th,  the  enemy  opened 
on  the  left  of  my  line  a  very  rapid  and  continuous  fire,  from  some 
eight  guns.  His  line  of  skirmishers  advanced  about  10  o'clock, 
and  immediately  after  the  entire  left  became  hotly  engaged,  our 
men  fighting  behind  temporary  earth  works.  Several  attempts  were 
made  to  carry  our  lines,  but  all  were  handsomely  repulsed.  The 
troops  fought  with  great  spirit.  Foiled  in  his  undertaking,  the 
enemy  moved  to  his  left,  in  the  direction  of  Coosawhatchie.  The 
engagement  was  renewed  most  vigorously  on  our  right  at  3  o'clock 
P.  M.,  and  after  an  obstinate  resistance  by  the  enemy,  lasting  some 
two  hours,  he  was  driven  eight  hundred  yards  from  his  original  line. 

The  Thirty-second  and  Forty-seventh  Georgia  regiments,  the 
Seventh  North  Carolina  battalion,  and  the  battalion  of  South  Caro- 
lina cadets,  all  under  the  immediate  command  of  Colonel  Edwards, 
occupied  the  left;  the  Fifth  Georgia  regiment,  the  First  and  Third 
Georgia  reserves,  under  Colonel  Daniel,  the  right.  It  was  reported 
that  General  Gartrell  was  slightly  wounded,  by  a  fragment  of  a  shell, 
before  he  reached  the  field. 

The  German  artillery,  Captain  Bachman,  rendered  very  efficient 
service  on  the  left,  as  was  proved  by  the  number  of  dead  found  in 
their  front.  Major  Jenkins,  commanding  the  cadets,  was  particularly 
conspicuous  during  the  morning  fight. 

Colonel  Edwards  deserves  especial  credit  for  the  admirable  dis- 
position of  his  troops. 

The  enemy's  loss,  though  not  accurately  ascertained,  must  have 
been  heavy,  as  quite  a  number  of  his  dead  were  left  on  the  field. 

Our  casualties  during  the  day  were  fifty -two  killed  and  wounded. 
A  tabulated  list  is  herewith  enclosed. 

Both  the  officers  and  men  of  my  command  behaved  well.  Cap- 
tains Haxalland  Worthingtonand  Lieutenants  Johnston  and  Stoney 
rendered  most  valuable  assistance  in  the  execution  of  orders  while 
the  fight  was  progressing. 

I  am.  Major,  most  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

B.  H.  Robertson,  Brigadier- General. 

Report  of  General  Jones  of  Operations  at  Charleston.  267 

Headquarters  Tulifinny  Works,  South  Carolina, 

December  19,  1864. 
Major  Charles  S.  Stringfellow, 

Assistant  Adjutant- General^  Charleston^  South  Carolina: 

Major — In   obedience  to  instructions   from   Major-General 
Jones,  dated  Pocotaligo,  December  6,  1864,  directing  me  to  attack 
the  enemy  early  on  the  7th,  in  his. position  near  this  point,  I  made 
the  following  disposition  of  the  force  under  my  command,  consist- 
ing of  about  two  hundred   men  of  the   Forty-seventh   regiment 
Georgia  volunteers,  commanded  by  Captain  I.  C.  Thompson ;  two 
companies  of  the  Thirty-second  Georgia,  with  the  Augusta  battalion 
local  troops ;  one  company  of  the  First  South  Carolina  infantry, 
Captain  King,  and  one  hundred  and  thirty  South  Carolina  militia, 
commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bacon,  of  the  Thirty-second 
Georgia,  and  the  battalion  of  South  Carolina  cadets,  commanded 
by  Major  J.  B.  White,  making  in  all  seven  or  eight  hundred  men. 
Early  in  the  morning,  four  companies  were  thrown  forward  as 
skirmishers,  under  command  of  Major  White.     The  line,  composed 
of  the  Forty-seventh  Georgia  on  the  right,  and  the  troops  under 
command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bacon,  on  the  left,  moved  just  in 
rear  of  the  skirmishers.     In  a  thick  wood,  near  a  bend  in  the  old 
Pocotaligo  road,  the  right  of  my  skirmish  line  struck  the  enemy. 
The  front  was  then  changed  graduall}^  to  the  right,  until  the  line 
crossed  the  said  road,  at  nearly  right  angles,  when  it  confronted  the 
enemy  and  became  engaged  throughout  its  entire  length.     At  this 
stage  of  the  action  the  command  of  Lieutenant-folonel  Nesbett 
arrived  and  was  posted  on  the  left  of  my  line  of  battle.     Our 
skirmishers  drove  the  enemy  vigorously  until  the  right  of  the  line 
became  engaged  with  the  enemy's  line  of  battle,  our  left  at  the 
same  time  overlapping  his  right.     This  position  was  maintained 
until  after  Colonel  Daniel's  demonstration  on  my  right,  when  the 
enemy  made  new  dispositions  on  and  extending  beyond  my  left. 
It  becoming  apparent  that  the  enemy's  force  considerably  out- 
numbered mine,  which  consisted  largely  of  raw  troops,  it   was 
deemed  impracticable  to  attack  him  in  force,  without  which  it  was 
impossible  to  drive  him  from  his  position.     I  therefore  withdrew,, 
in  good  order,  unpursued  by  the  enemy,  to  my  present  position. 
The  troops  engaged,  which  were  my  skirmishers  only,  behaved  with 
great  gallantry. 

By  permission  of  the  Major-General  commaning,  we  began,  on 
the  morning  of  the  8th,  to  fortify  our  position.     The  work  was 

268  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

continued  uninterruptedly  until  the  morning  of  the  9th,  when  the 
enemy  drove  in  our  pickets  and  advanced  in  force  to  Avithin  two 
hundred  and  fifty  yards  of  our  position.  We  opened  upon  him 
with  artillery  and  musketry,  and  in  a  very  short  time  drove  him 
back  with  considerable  loss.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day, 
in  the  attempt  to  re-establish  our  picket  line,  the  enemy  was 
found  in  the  wood  on  our  right  within  a  hundred  yards  of  the 
railroad.  After  severe  fighting  for  about  two  hours,  he  was  driven 
off  and  our  line  re-established.  On  the  next  morning  it  was  ascer- 
tained that  he  had  fallen  back  to  his  original  position,  and  our 
picket  line  was  advanced  four  or  five  hundred  yards  beyond  its 
former  position. 

The  casualties  amounted  in  all  to  four  killed,  one  commissioned 
oflScer  and  thirty-one  men  wounded,  many  of  them  very  slightly. 

Judging  from  the  unburied  dead,  the  graves  and  other  evidences 
found  upon  the*  field,  the  enemy  must  have  suffered  a  loss  of  not 
less  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  in  the  fighting  of  the  9th,  and  not 
less  than  fifty  in  that  of  the  7th,  making  in  all  a  loss  of  not  less 
than  three  hundred  (300). 

Respectfully  submitted, 

A.  C.  Edwards,  Colonel  Commanding. 

I  omitted  to  mention,  in  enumerating  the  force  under  my  com- 
mand on  the  7th  instant,  the  three  pieces  of  Captain  Bachman's 
battery,  which,  owing  to  the  character  of  the  country,  it  was  found 
impracticable  to  use  in  the  action. 

A.  C.  Edwards,  Colonel  Commanding. 

Sketch  of  the  Late  General  S.  Cooper.  269 

Sketch  of  the  Late  General  S.  Cooper. 

By  General  Fitz.  Lee. 

[We  cannot,  as  a  rule,  publish  obituary  notices  or  biographical  sketches  of 
even  our  most  distinguished  men  ;  but  we  are  sure  all  will  recognize  the  pro- 
priety of  giving  tlie  following  sketch  of  our  Senior  General,  whose  death  has 
been  so  widely  lamented.] 

Students  of  military  history  cannot  fail  to  be  impressed,  when 
war  is  aufait  accompli,  with  the  great  advantage  possessed  by  those 
nations  who  have  justly  placed  a  value  upon  system  and  organiza- 
tion in  the  preparation  of  their  armies. 

The  military  genius  implanted  by  nature  in  a  Cassar,  a  Hannibal, 
a  Wellington,  or  a  Napoleon,  might  never  have  burst  forth  with 
such  overpowering  light  as  to  dazzle  with  its  rays  a  wondering 
world,  had  not  the  human  tools  with  which  they  worked  been  so 
formed,  so  fashioned,  as  to  be  perfectly  flexible  when  placed  in 
their  hands  by  some  almost  hidden  but  powerful  agent,  who, 
grasping  the  subject  with  a  master's  mind,  adapted  the  various  de- 
partments of  war  in  such  a  way  as  to  work  harmoniously  together, 
and  to  be  most  effective.  Strategy  and  grand  tactics  are  indeed  a 
powerful  machine,  but  to  be  used  to  full  working  strength,  requires 
an  exact  adjustment  of  all  component  parts. 

To  "set  a  squadron  in  the  field,"  there  must  be  arms,  subsistence 
stores,  transportation  and  shelters,  clothing  and  medical  supplies. 
The  quartermaster's,  commissary,  ordnance  and  medical  depart- 
ments, though  separate  and  distinct  in  their  several  spheres,  must 
be  made  conformable  with  each  other,  with  scrupulous  care,  by 
the  constitutional  commander-in-chief  and  his  war  secretary ;  and 
their  chief  counsellor  is  the  soldier  at  the  head  of  the  adjutant- 
general's  department,  through  whom  all  official  orders  are  promul- 
gated. An  efficient  executive  leader  in  that  department  is  felt 
from  an  army  corps  to  a  corporal's  guard. 

Chronicles  of  the  important  events  in  the  rise  and  fall  of  nations 
are  filled  with  instructive  instances  that  might  be  drawn  upon  in 
illustration  of  this  fact,  whilst  the  pages  of  history,  where  results 
are  summed  up  and  explanatory  reasons  given  for  them,  abound 
in  examples.  To  keep  this  paper  within  proper  limits,  I  shall  only 
briefly  refer  to  one,  viz:  the  Franco-Prussian  war  of  1870. 

The  French  Emperor,  it  is  recollected,  declared  war  because  the 
King  of  Prussia  would  not  promise  that  the  head  of  the  Catholic 

270  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

branch  of  the  royal  family,  Prince  Leopold  of  Hohenzollern, 
should  never  again  be  a  candidate  for  the  throne  of  Spain.  The 
great  and  unquestioned  ability  of  Louis  Napoleon  was  deemed 
evidence  that  all  things  were  duly  weighed,  and  that  his  organiza- 
tion and  preparations  were  at  least  complete.  The  French  army 
numbered  some  350,000  trained  soldiers.  The  population  of  France 
was  38,067,064,  in  relation  to  which,  says  the  president  of  the  legis- 
lative body  to  the  Emperor,  as  he  was  about  to  depart  for  the 
frontier:  "Behind  you,  behind  our  army  accustomed  to  carry  the 
noble  flag  of  France,  stands  the  whole  nation,  ready  to  recruit  it." 

On  the  other  side,  Prussia  had  a  population  of  some  twenty-four 
millions,  or,  including  the  North  German  Confederation  (of  which 
she  is  a  part)  of  some  thirty  millions.  Her  standing  army  num- 
bered less  than  400,000.  To  what  was  due,  then,  the  astounding 
results  of  that  conquest,  for  the  world  was  prepared  for  a  gigantic 
and  not  unequal  combat?  Why, in  the  short  space  of  six  months, 
do  we  witness  a  Sedan,  with  a  capitulation  by  McMahon  of  90,000 
men?  a  Metz,  with  a  surrender  of  nearly  200,000  by  Bazaine?  a 
Strasburg,  giving  up  17,000  soldiers?  and  speedily  the  fall  of  Paris, 
with  awar  indemnity  to  be  paid  the  victors  of  five  milliards  of  francs? 
Why  such  a  series  of  victories  for  Germany,  such  inglorious  defeats 
for  France  ?  Why  such  a  rapid  fall  of  the  curtain  upon  such  a 
striking  tableau  vivant?  We  trace  it  to  the  weakness  and  ineffi- 
ciency of  the  military  organization  of  France,  and  to  the  wisdom 
of  the  system  which  gave  the  preponderating  power  of  the  reserves 
to  Germany — the  marvellous  comprehensive  military  method  that 
brings,  at  the  tap  of  the  drum,  thousands  of  drilled,  disciplined 
men  to  the  support  of  the  main  body,  as  opposed  to  a  conscription 
or  enlistment  of  raw  levies  from  the  population  at  large. 

King  William  and  Von  Moltke  strongly  felt  the  hand  of  Sham- 
horst,  who  undertook  the  reorganization  of  the  military  resources 
of  Prussia  after  Jena  in  1806 — an  honor  in  our  war  which  such 
leaders  as  Albert  Sydney  Johnson,  Lee,  Johnston,  Beauregard  and 
Jackson  must  share  with  a  Cooper.  It  is  the  astute,  clear,  calm 
and  penetrating  minds  of  Shamhorst  and  Cooper,  whose  judgment 
and  masterly  ability  quietly  plan,  arrange  and  direct  the  machinery 
which  is  to  be  put  in  motion  by  the  brilliant  army  chieftains,  such 
as  I  have  mentioned,  that  wins  success. 

General  Samuel  Cooper  possessed  an  inheritable  right  to  his 
enviable  eminence. 

From  Dorsetshire,  England,  his  great  grandfather  came,  and  set- 

Sketch  of  the  Late  General  S.  Cooper:  271 

tied  in  Massachusetts.  This  paternal  ancestor  had  three  sons — 
John,  the  grandfather  of  General  Cooper,  Samuel  and  William. 
Samuel  was  President  of  Harvard  University  during  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  and  was  proscribed  by  General  Gage  of  the  British 
army,  and  a  reward  offered  for  his  head.  The  son  of  John,  also 
called  Samuel,  was  the  father  of  General  Cooper.  At  eighteen 
years  old,  we  find  him  at  Lexington,  forming  one  of  seventy  men 
that  ''assembled  in  front  of  the  meeting-house,"  to  whom  Major 
Pitcairn,  commanding  the  British  advance,  called  out  "disperse, 
you  rebels,  throw  down  your  arms  and  disperse,"  on  the  morning 
of  the  19th  April,  1775.  Early  manifesting  such  a  heroic  spirit,  it 
was  not  surprising  that  he  should  have  been  found  upon  the  night 
of  16th  June  marching  with  Prescott,  and  working  all  night  upon 
a  redoubt  on  Breed's  Hill  (mistaken  for  Bunker  Hill,  in  the  dark- 
ness of  the  night),  and  obeying  sturdy  old  Putnam's  orders  on  the 
morning  of  the  17th,  not  to  fire  "till  they  could  see  the  whites  of 
the  eyes  of  the  British." 

He  afterwards  served  with  distinction  in  Knox's  regiment  of 
artillery,  and  upon  his  tombstone  appears  the  following  inscrip- 
tion : 

"Sacred  to  the 

memory  of 

Major  Samuel  Cooper 

of  the  Eevolutiouary  Array,  • 

who  in  the  first  onset  struck  for  liberty. 

He  fought  at 

Lexington,  Bunker  Hill,  Brandy  wine,  Monmouth,  Germantown, 

and  on  otlier  sanguinary  fields, 

and  continued  to  wield  the  sword 

in  defence  of  his  country 
until  victory  crowned  her  arms." 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  Major  Cooper  married 
Miss  Mary  Horton,  of  Dutchess  county,  New  York.  Two  sons  and 
six  daughters  were  born  from  this  marriage.  George  and  Samuel 
(the  subject  of  this  memoir)  were  the  sons.  The  former  graduated 
at  West  Point,  but  afterwards  went  into  the  navy. 

Adjutant-General  Cooper  was  born  in  1798,  at  Hackensack  on 
the  Hudson  river,  at  the  family  seat  of  his  maternal  ancestors,  the 
Hortons.  He  entered  the  United  States  Military  Academy  at  West 
Point  when  only  fifteen  years  old,  the  term  of  service  there  then 
being  two  years  only.  His  first  service  was  as  a  lieutenant  of  light 
artillery.  He  was  promoted  a  first  lieutenant  in  the  Third  artillery, 
and  in  1824  was  transferred  to  the  Fourth.  From  1828  to  1836  he 
served  as  aid-de-camp  to  General  Macomb,  then  commanding  the 

272  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

American  army,  and  was  promoted  to  rank  as  captain  11th  June 
of  that  year. 

Upon  the  7th  July,  1838,  he  first  entered  the  War  Department 
as  an  assistant  adjutant-generah  During  the  Florida  war  he  served  \ 
as  chief  of  staff  to  General  Worth,  and  was  in  the  action  of  Pila- 
Kil-Kaha  on  the  19th  April,  1842.  In  1848  he  was  brevetted  colo- 
nel for  meritorious  conduct  in  the  prosecution  of  his  duties  in  con- 
nection with  the  Mexican  war,  and  on  the  15th  July,  1852,  was 
appointed  the  Adjutant-General  of  the  United  States  army.  General 
Winfield  Scott  being  then  its  Commander-in-Chief. 

Whilst  in  the  United  States  army,  he  compiled  his  work  entitled 
"Tactics  for  the  Militia,"  a  book  at  one  time  in  almost  universal 
use  among  the  volunteer  soldiery,  and  extensively  known  as 
"  Cooper's  Tactics." 

In  1827  General  Cooper  married  a  daughter  of  General  John 
Mason,  of  Clermont,  Fairfax  county,  Virginia,  and  a  grand-daughter 
of  George  Mason,  of  Gunston,  "the  Solon  and  the  Cato,  the  law- 
giver and  the  stern  patriot  of  the  age  in  which  he  lived,"  and  to 
whose  memory  the  constitution  of  Virginia  and  her  bill  of  rights 
are  lasting  monuments. 

At  the  head  of  the  Adjutant-General's  Department,  United  States 
army.  General  Cooper  gave  great  satisfaction.  His  qualifications 
and  his 'ability  as  an  officer,  and  his  private  worth  as  a  man,  was 
universally  acknowledged  by  army  officers,  many  of  those  living 
to-day  giving  testimony  that  he  was  the  best  chief  of  that  depart- 
ment the  army  ever  had. 

On  the  17th  March,  1861,  he  resigned  his  commission  as  an 
officer,  having  served  the  United  States  with  a  steady  faithfulness 
and  a  firm  adherence  to  all  of  her  interests  fov  forty-six  years.  In 
view  of  the  fact  of  General  Cooper's  Northern  birth,  this  step  has 
been  the  subject  of  much  comment,  and  some  adverse  criticism. 
His  Northern  friends  profess  to  see  no  reason  why  a  soldier  born 
in  their  section,  holding  a  high  office  of  trust  for  life,  honored  and 
respected,  should,  after  fort3^-six  years'  service,  and  in  the  sixty- 
third  year  of  his  life,  relinquish  a  position  in  which  he  would  not 
be  called  upon  for  field  service,  and  cast  his  fortunes  and  tender 
his  services  to  the  Confederate  Government.  It  has  been  said  by 
them  that  he  was  more  guided  by  the  counsels  of  his  friend,  the 
Hon.  Jefferson  Davis,  and  his  brother-in-law,  Hon.  James  M. 
Mason,  than  by  his  native  and  natural  opinion  and  belief.  To 
those  holding  such  sentiments,  it  may  be  truly  said  they  did  not 

Sketch  of  the  Late  General  S.  Cooper:  273 

indeed  know  their  man.  General  Cooper,  upon  such  an  important 
issue  as  the  one  he  was  called  upon  to  meet  in  his  own  person, 
allowed  no  dictation  and  asked  no  advice.  That  he  should  have 
cast  aside  the  personal  possession  of  comfort  and  plenty  to  the  end 
of  his  days,  and  embarked  with  his  family  and  household  gods 
upon  an  unknown  sea,  over  which  the  storm  clouds  were  riding 
and  the  winds  of  war  were  blowing,  and  upon  which  many  perils 
were  to  be  encountered,  many  difficulties  surmounted,  many  dan- 
gers contested,  before  the  waters  grew  calm  or  the  voyage  prosper- 
ous, is,  in  the  estimation  of  his  Southern  admirers,  the  strongest 
proof  of  the  pure  and  conscientious  character  of  the  old  hero. 
^^Flat  justitia  ruat  ccelum,''^  we  can  almost  hear  him  exclaim,  as  he 
dared  to  follow  his  convictions  of  right,  and  permit  self-interest  to 
be  taken  prisoner  by  conscience  and  duty. 

The  new  Confederacy  of  States,  in  the  act  of  breathing  life  into 
its  corporal  substance,  and  staggering  at  the  amount  of  organiza- 
tion to  be  performed  to  perpetuate  national  existence,  warmly  wel- 
comed Adjutant- General  Cooper's  offer  of  services,  because  they 
found  in  such  a  proposal  the  master  mind,  the  perfect  knowledge 
and  vast  experience,  necessary  to  put  the  intricate  machinery  into 
successful  operation.  The  President  of  the  Confederate  States  had 
served  as  Secretary  of  War  in  Pearce's  Cabinet,  and  was  thus 
brought  into  close  official  relations  with  General  Cooper  in  the  dis- 
charge of  the  latter's  duties  as  Adjutant-General  in  the  United 
States  army.  No  one  knew  better  than  he  did  the  character  and 
qualifications  of  the  soldier  who  joined  him  at  Montgomery,  Ala- 
bama. His  clear  conception  of  this  fact  was  at  once  manifested  by 
placing  him  at  the  head  of  tlie  Adjuta'nt  and  Inspector-General's 
Department,  and  afterwards  making  him  a  full  general — the  first 
on  the  list  of  five — the  remaining  four  being  Generals  Albert  Syd- 
ney Johnston,  Robert  E.  Lee,  Joseph  E.  Johnston  and  Beauregard, 
holding  respective  rank  in  the  order  named. 

During  the  four  long  years  in  the  life  of  the  Confederacy,  Gene- 
ral Cooper  fully  discharged  the  onerous  duties  confided  to  him 
with  a  fidelity,  an  exactness,  a  loyalty  and  an  honesty,  which, 
whilst  perfectly  consistent  with  his  conscientiousness  and  ability, 
gave  great  satisfaction  to  the  army  and  the  country. 

It  is  indeed  difficult  to  place  a  proper  estimate  upon  the  value 
of  his  service  during  that  trying  period,  so  great  was  his  capacity 
for  work. 


274  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Punctiliously  and  unceasingly  he  daily  discharged  the  great 
duties  of  his  office,  and  at  night,  when  others  sought  relaxation 
and  rest,  in  a  room  in  his  private  residence,  his  work  was  steadily 
carried  forward.  At  the  termination  of  the  war.  General  Cooper 
returned  to  his  country  seat  near  Alexandria,  Virginia,  to  find  his 
home  in  ruins. 

His  house  had  been  torn  down  and  destroyed  by  the  Federal 
troops,  and  upon  the  eminence,  in  its  stead,  a  Federal  fort  had  been 

Adding  to  another  house,  which  before  the  war  had  been  his 
manager's,  the  remaining  years  of  the  old  hero  were  quietly  and 
peacefully  passed. 

General  Cooper  died  upon  the  3d  of  December,  1876,  in  the 
seventy-eighth  year  of  his  age. 

"Well  done,  thou  good  and  faithful  servant,  enter  thou  into  the 
joy  of  thy  Lord." 

For  many  years  before  his  death  he  was  a  conscientious  and 
consistent  communicant  of  the  Episcopal  church. 

His  bereaved  family  can  indeed  find  consolation,  in  their  irre- 
parable loss,  in  the  belief:  "  Blessed  are  the  jDure  in  heart,  for  they 
shall  see  God." 

Letter  from  Ex-President  Davis. 

Mississippi  City,  Mississippi,  April  5th,  1877. 
General  F.  Lee  : 

My  Dear  Sir — I  am  gratified  to  know  that  you  have  under- 
taken to  make  a  record  of  the  services  and  virtues  of  a  man  than 
whom  none  has  higher  claims  upon  the  regard  of  all  who  loved 
the  Confederacy.  No  one  presents  an  example  more  worthy  of 
the  emulation'^of  the  youth  of  his  country.  My  personal  acquaintr 
ance  with  General  Cooper  began  at  the  time  when  he  was  associated 
with  Mr.  Poinsett  in  the  War  Office,  where  his  professional 
knowledge  was  made  available  to  the  Secretary,  in  those  army 
details  of  which  a  civilian  was  necessarily  but  little  informed. 
His  sterling  character  and  uniform  courtesy  soon  attracted  the 
attention  and  caused  him  to  be  frequently  resorted  to  by  members 
of  Congress  having  business  with  the  War  Office.  Ex-President 
Pierce,  who  was  then  a  Senator,  spoke  in  after  years  of  the  favora- 
ble impression  which  General  Cooper  had  made  upon  him,  and 
said  his  habit  had  been  when  he  "  wanted  information  to  go  to 

.  Sketch  of  the  Late  General  S.  Cooper.  275 

Cooper  instead  of  to  the  Secretary;"  but  while  he  thus  brought  to 
the  service  of  the  Secretary  his  professional  knowledge,  the  latter 
eminently  great  in  other  departments  of  learning,  no  doubt  did 
much  to  imbue  General  Cooper's  mind  with  those  political  ideas 
which  subsequently  marked  him  as  more  profoundly  informed 
upon  the  character  of  our  Government  than  most  others  of  his 

In  the  midst  of  his  professional  duties,  he  found  leisure  for  high 
literary  culture,  had  much  dramatic  taste,  and  in  the  dull  days  of 
garrison  life  he  contributed  much  to  refined  enjoyment.  When  I 
became  Secretary  of  War,  General  Cooper  was  Adjutant-General  of 
the  United  States  army.  My  intercourse  with  him  was  daily,  and  as 
well  because  of  the  purity  of  his  character  as  his  knowledge  of 
the  officers  and  affairs  of  the  army,  I  habitually  consulted  him  in 
reference  to  the  duties  I  had  to  perform. 

Though  calm  in  his  manner  and  charitable  in  his  feelings,  he 
was  a  man  of  great  native  force,  and  had  a  supreme  scorn  for  all 
that  was  mean. 

To  such  a  man,  a  life  spent  in  the  army  could  not  fail  to  have 
had  its  antagonisms  and  its  friendships;  yet  when  officers  were  to  be 
selected  for  special  duties,  to  be  appointed  in  staff  corps,  or  to  be 
promoted  into  new  regiments,  where  qualifications  were  alone  to 
be  regarded,  I  never,  in  four  years  of  constant  consultation,  saw 
Cooper  manifest  prejudice,  or  knew  him  to  seek  favors  for  a  friend, 
or  to  withhold  what  was  just  from  one  to  whom  he  bore  reverse  re- 
lations. This  rare  virtue — this  supremacy  of  judgment  over  feel- 
ing— impressed  me  as  being  so  exceptional,  that  I  have  often  men- 
tioned it  as  a  thing  so  singular  and  so  praiseworthy  that  it  deserves 
to  be  known  by  all  men. 

When  in  1861  a  part  of  the  Southern  States,  in  the  exercise  of 
their  sovereignty,  passed  ordinances  of  secession  from  the  Union, 
and  organized  a  separate  Confederacy,  General  Cooper  was  at  the 
head  of  the  corps,  in  which  a  large  part  of  his  life  had  been  passed. 
This  office  was  one  for  which  he  was  peculiarly  qualified,  and 
which  was  best  suited  to  his- taste.  He  was  a  native  of  a  Northern 
State;  his  sole  personal  relation  with  the  South  was  that  he  was 
the  husband  of  a  granddaughter  of  George  Mason,  of  Virginia — 
Virginia,  not  yet  belonging  to  the  Confederate  States.  He  foresaw 
the  storm,  which  was  soon  to  burst  upon  the  seceding  States — 
saw  that  the  power  which  had  been  refused  in  the  convention 
which  formed  the  Constitution  of  the  Union — the  power  to  use  the 

276  Southern  Historical  Society  Paj^ers. 

military  arm  of  the  General  Government  to  coerce  a  State,  was  to 
be  employed  without  doubt,  and  conscientiously  believing  that 
would  be  violative  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  the  compact 
of  Union,  he  resigned  his  commission,  which  was  his  whole  wealth, 
and  repaired  to  Montgomery  to  tender  his  services  to  the  weaker 
party,  because  it  was  the  party  of  law  and  right. 

The  Confederate  Government  had  no  military  organization,  and, 
save  the  patriotic  hearts  of  gallant  men,  had  little  on  which  to  rely 
for  the  defence  of  their  country.  The  experience  and  special 
knowledge  of  General  Cooper  was,  under  these  circumstances,  of 
incalculable  value.  If  he  would  consent,  while  his  juniors  led 
armies  in  the  field,  to  devote  himself  to  the  little  attractive  labors 
of  the  Adjutant-General's  office — if  he  would  consent?  They  little 
knew  the  self-sacrificing,  duty-loving  nature  of  Cooper,  who  did 
not  anticipate  his  modest  request  "to  be  employed  wherever  it  was 
thought  he  might  be  useful,"  and  with  unrelaxing  assiduity  he  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  labors  of  the  Adjutant-General's  office.  The 
many  who  measure  the  value  of  an  officer's  service  by  the  con- . 
spicuous  part  he  played  upon  the  fields  of  battle,  may  not  pro- 
perly estimate  the  worth  of  Cooper's  services  in  the  war  between 
the  States,  but  those  who  like  yourself  were  in  a  position  to  Jcnoio 
what  he  did,  what  he  prevented,  what  he  directed,  will  not  fail  to 
place  him  among  those  who  contributed  most  to  whatever  was 

Faithful  to  the  cause  he  espoused — unmoved  by  the  prospect  of 
disaster,  when  the  fortune  of  war  seemed  everywhere  to  be  against 
us — Cooper  continued  unswerving  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty, 
and  when  the  evacuation  of  the  capital  became  a  necessity,  he 
took  with  him  such  books  and  papers  as  were  indispensable,  and 
although  worn  down  by  incessant  labor,  never  relaxed  his  attention 
to  the  functions  of  his  office  until  disease  compelled  him  to  confess 
his  inability  to  continue  the  retreat.  The  affection,  the  honor  and 
the  confidence  with  which  I  regarded  him  made  our  parting  a 
sorrowful  one,  under  circumstances  so  hard  for  us  both.  Of  the 
events  which  followed  his  return  to  the  spot  where  his  house  had 
stood,  you  are  so  well  informed  that  I  will  not  protract  this  already 
long  letter. 

I  remain  with  great  regard  and  affectionate  remembrance, 

(Signed)  Jefferson  Davis. 

Battle  of  Seven  Pines — Report  of  General  Longstreet.         277 

Battle  of  Seren  Pines — Report  of  General  James  Longstreet. 

[The  following  report  does  not  appear  in  the  printed  volumes  of  Confede- 
rate Battle  Keports,  and  has  never,  so  far  as  we  are  aware,  been  in  print. 
It  will  be  a  valuable  addition  to  our  series  of  original  reports.] 

Major — Agreeably  to  verbal  instructions  from  the  Commanding 
General,  the  division  of  Major-General  D.  H.  Hill  was,  on  the 
morning  of  the  31st  ultimo,  formed  at  an  early  hour,  on  the  Wil- 
liamsburg road,  as  the  column  of  attack  ujDon  the  enemy's  front 
on  that  road,  A  brigade  was  placed  on  each  side  of  the  road  to 
advance  to  the  attack,  and  each  was  supported  by  one  of  the  other 
brigades  of  the  same  division. 

In  advance  of  each  of  the  columns  of  attack  a  regiment  as 
skirmishers  was  deployed.  The  plan  for  the  forward  movement 
was  that  fields  should  be  passed  by  a  flank  movement  of  the  regi- 
ments of  skirmishers,  and  the  woods  in  front  once  in  our  posses- 
sion, the  brigades  were  to  advance  rapidly,  occupying  them,  and 
move  steadily  forward.  Abatis  and  entrenched  positions  were  or- 
dered to  be  taken  by  a  flank  movement  of  the  brigades  or  brigade 
in  front  of  them,  the  skirmishers  engaging  the  sharpshooters,  and 
the  supporting  brigade  occupying  the  position  of  the  brigades 
during  the  flank  movement. 

The  division  of  Major-General  Huger  was  intended  to  make  a 
strong  flank  movement  around  the  left  of  the  enemy's  position  and 
attack  him  in  rear  of  that  flank.  This  division  did  not  get  into 
position,  however,  in  time  for  any  such  attack,  and  I  was  obliged 
to  send  three  of  my  small  brigades  on  the  Charles  City  road  to 
sup]3ort  the  one  of  Major-General  Huger's  that  had  been  ordered 
to  protect  my  right  flank. 

After  waiting  some  six  hours  for  these  troops  to  get  into  position, 
I  determined  to  move  forward  without  regard  to  them,  and  gave 
orders  to  that  effect  to  Major-General  D.  H.  Hill.  The  forward 
movement  began  about  two  o'clock,  and  our  skirmishers  soon  be- 
came engaged  with  those  of  the  enemy.  The  entire  division  of 
General  Hill  became  engaged  about  three  o'clock,  and  drove  the 
enemy  steadily  back,  gaining  'possession  of  his  abatis  and  part  of 
his  entrenched  camp.  General  Rodes,  by  a  movement  to  the  right, 
driving  in  the  enemy's  left. 

The  only  reinforcements  on  the  field  in  hand  were  my  own  bri- 
gades, of  which  Anderson's,  Wilcox's  and  Kemper's  were  put  in  by 

278  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  front  on  the  Williamsburg  road,  and  Colston's  and  Pryor's  by  my 
right  flank.  At  the  same  time  the  decided  and  gallant  attack  made 
by  the  other  brigades  gained  entire  possession  of  the  enemy's  posi- 
tion, with  his  artillery,  camp  equipage,  &c.  Anderson's  brigade, 
under  Colonel  Jenkins,  pressing  forward  rapidly,  continued  to  drive 
the  enemy  till  night-fall. 

The  severest  part  of  the  work  was  done  by  Major-General  D,  H- 
Hill's  division,  but  the  attack  of  the  two  brigades,  under  General 
R.  H.  Anderson — one  commanded  by  Colonel  Kemper  (now  Briga- 
dier-General), the  other  by  Colonel  M.  Jenkins — was  made  with 
such  spirit  and  regularity  as  to  have  driven  back  the  most  de- 
termined foe.     This  decided  the  day  in  our  favor. 

General  Pickett's  brigade  was  held  in  reserve.  General  Pryor's 
did  not  succeed  in  getting  upon  the  field  of  Saturday  in  time  to 
take  part  in  the  action  of  the  31st.  Both,  however,  shared  in  re- 
pulsing a  serious  attack  upon  our  position  on  Sunday,  the  1st  in- 
stant, Pickett's  brigade  bearing  the  brunt  of  the  attack  and  repuls- 
ing it. 

Some  of  the  brigades  of  Major-General  Huger's  division  took 
part  in  defending  our  position,  but  being  fresh  at  the  work  did  not 
show  the  same  steadiness  and  determination  as  the  troops  of  Hill's 
division  and  my  own. 

I  have  reason  to  believe  that  the  affair  would  have  been  a  com- 
plete success,  had  the  troops  Uf)on  the  right  been  put  in  position 
within  eight  hours  of  the  proper  time.  The  want  of  promptness 
on  that  part  of  the  field,  and  the  consequent  severe  struggle  in  my 
front,  so  greatly  reduced  my  supply  of  amunition  that,  at  the  late 
hour  of  the  move  on  the  left,  I  was  unable  to  make  the  rush  neces- 
sary to  relieve  that  attack. 

Besides  the  good  effect  produced  by  driving  back  such  heavy 
masses  of  the  enemy,  we  have  made  superior  soldiers  of  several 
brigades  that  were  entirely  fresh  and  unreliable.  There  can 
scarcely  be  a  doubt  about  our  ability  to  overcome  the  enemy  upon 
any  fair  field. 

Brigadier-General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  in  the  absence  of  any  opportunity 
to  use  his  cavalry,  was  of  material  service  by  his  presence  with  me  on 
the  field. 

The  conduct  of  the  attack  was  left  entirely  to  Major-General 
Hill.  The  entire  success  of  the  affair  is  sufficient  evidence  of 
his  ability,  courage  and  skill.  I  will  refer  you  to  his  reports 
for  particular  mention  of  the  conduct  of  his  officers  and  soldiers. 

Battle  of  Seven  Pines — Report  of  General  Longstreet.         279 

I  will  mention  Brigadier-General  Rodes,  of  that  division,  as  dis- 
tinguished for  coolness,  ability  and  determination.  He  made  one 
of  the  most  important  and  decisive  movements  on  the  field,  and 
held  his  command  several  hours  after  receiving  a  severe  wound. 
My  own  troops  have  been  so  often  tried  and  distinguished  on  other 
fields  that  they  need  no  praise  from  my  lips.  A  truer,  better  body 
of  men  never  marched  upon  a  battle-field. 

I  will  mention,  however,  as  distinguished  for  their  usual  gal- 
lantry and  ability.  Generals  R.  H.  Anderson,  C.  M.  Wilcox,  Geo.  E. 
Pickett,  R.  E.  Colston,  R.  A.  Pryor,  and  Colonels  Kemper  and  Jen- 
kins (commanding  brigades),  and  Colonels  Corse,  Winston,  Funs- 
ton  and  Sydenham  Moore — the  latter  twice  shot,  once  severely 

I  desire  also  to  mention  the  conspicuous  courage  and  energy  of 
Captain  James  Bearing,  of  the  Lynchburg  artillery,  and  his  officers 
and  men.  His  pieces  were  served  under  the  severest  fire,  as  his 
serious  loss  will  attest.  Captain  Carter,  of  Gen-eral  Hill's  division, 
also  displaj^ed  great  gallantry  and  skill  in  the  management  of  his 

My  personal  staff— Majors  G.  M.  [Sorrel,  J.  W.  -Fairfax,  P.  T. 
Manning,  and  Captains  Thomas  Goree,  Thomas  Walton,  and  my 
young  aid,  Lieutenant  R.  W.  Blackwell — have  my  kind  thanks  for 
their  activity,  zeal  and  intelligence  in  carrying  orders  and  the  pro- 
per discharge  of  their  duties.  Captain  Walton  was  slightly  wounded. 
I  am  indebted  to  General  Wigfall  and  Colonel  P.  T.  Moore,  volun- 
teer aids,  for  assistance  in  rallying  troops  and  carrying  orders 
during  the  battle  of  the  31st  instant,  and  kindly  aided  in  carrying 
orders  during  the  several  assaults  made  by  the  enemy  on  that  day. 
I  am  also  indebted  to  Colonel  R.  H.  Chilton  for  material  aid.  Dr. 
J.  S.  D.  Cullen,  Surgeon-in-Chief,  and  the  officers  of  his  Depart- 
ment, kindly  and  untiringly  devoted  themselves  to  the  wounded. 
They  have  none  of  the  chances  of  distinction  of  other  officers,  but 
discharge  the  most  important  duties.  I  refer  to  his  report  for  the 
conduct  of  the  officers  of  his  department. 

Detailed  reports  of  the  major-generals,  brigadiers  and  other  com- 
manders and  chiefs  of  staff  have  been  called  for,  and  will  be  for- 
warded as  soon  as  received.  Our  loss  in  valuable  officers  and  men 
has  been  severe.  Colonels  Giles,  Fifth  South  Carolina;  Jones, 
Twelfth  Alabama;  Lomax,  Third  Alabama,  fell  at  the  head  of  their 
commands,  gallantly  leading  them  to  victory. 

Three  hundred  and  forty-seven  prisoners,  ten  pieces  of  artillery, 

280  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

five  thousand  small  arms,  one  garrison  flag  and  several  regimental 
standards  were  taken.  A  rough  estimate  of  the  loss  on  this  part 
of  the  field  may  be  put  at  three  thousand  killed  and  wounded. 
The  loss  on  the  part  of  the  enemy  may  be  put  at  a  much  higher 
figure,  inasmuch  as  he  was  driven  from  his  positions,  and  some 
half  dozen  attempts  to  recover  them  were  successfully  repulsed. 

List  of  killed,  wounded  and  missing. 

Officers.  Enlisted  Men.  Aggregate.- 

Killed,        ......     61                   755  816 

Wounded,    -        -        -        -          209                3,530  3,739 

Missing, 3                   293  296 

Total,        -        -  -         273  4,578  4,851 

Headquarters  Right  Wing,  June  11th,  1862. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

(Signed)  J,  Longstreet, 

Major-  General  Commanding.. 

To  Major  Thomas  G.  Rhett,  Assistant  Adjutant-General. 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  281 

Keport  of  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart  of  Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Mary- 
land Campaign,  from  August  30th  to  September  18tli,  1862. 

[We  were  suprised  to  find  the  following  report  missing  from  the  published 
reports  of  the  campaign  of  1862,  and  can  only  account  for  the  omission  by 
reference  to  the  late  date  at  which  it  was  sent  in.  As  it  has  never,  we  believer 
been  printed  in  any  other  form,  and  is  a  report  of  importance  and  value,  we 
give  it  fi-om  the  original  autograph  MS.  of  the  great  cavalryman.] 

Headquarters  Cavalry  Corps,  Army  Northern  Virginia, 

February  13th,  1864. 

Colonel — I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  of  the 
operations  of  the  cavalry  division  from  the  battle  of  Groveton 
Heights,  August  30th,  1862,  to  the  recrossing  of  the  Potomac,  Sep- 
tember 18th,  1862. 

On  the  31st  of  August,  while  following  up  the  enemy  in  the 
direction  of  Centreville,  Colonel  Rosser  was  sent  in  the  direction  of 
Manassas,  where  it  was  understood  the  enemy  were  still  in  some 
force.  He  succeeded  in  driving  them  from  that  place  with  some 
captures,  and  rejoined  the  command,  when,  in  pursuance  of  the 
instructions  of  the  Commanding  General,  I  made  a  flank  move- 
ment to  the  left,  gained  the  Little  River  turnpike,  and  effected  a 
concentration  of  Robertson's  and  Lee's  brigades  near  Chantilly. 
Near  this  point,  Robertson's  brigade  captured  one  entire  company 
of  New  York  cavalry,  and  Lee's  brigade  an  entire  company  of  the 
old  Second  Dragoons  (regulars),  Captain  Thomas  Hight,  and  also 
his  subaltern,  Robert  Clay,  and  their  horses,  arms  and  equipments. 

It  was  here  ascertained  that  the  main  body  of  the  enemy  was  at 
Centreville  and  Fairfax  Courthouse.  A  section  of  the  Washington 
artillery  accompanied  the  movement,  designed  to  attack  the  enemy 
on  the  Centreville  and  Fairfax  Courthouse  pike.  A  position  was 
gained,  by  a  difficult  road,  commanding  this  road,  which  was  com- 
pletely occupied  by  the  enemy  with  one  continuous  roll  of  wagons 
going  toward  Fairfax  Courthouse.  It  was  discovered  also  that  we 
were  in  sight  of  the  sentinels  of  a  camp,  the  dimensions  of  which 
could  not  be  seen. 

The  artillery  was  placed  in  position  just  after  dark,  and  opened 
upon  the  road.  A  few  rounds  sufficed  to  throw  everything  into 
confusion ;  and  such  commotion,  upsetting,  collisions  and  smash- 
ups  were  rarely  ever  seen.  The  firing  continued  as  long  as  it  seemed 
desirable,  and  the  pieces  and  the  command  withdrew  to  camp  for 

282  SoiUhern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

the  night,  two  miles  north  of  the  Oxhill,  on  that  road.  Next 
morning,  I  returned  by  way  of  Frying  Pan  to  connect  with  General 
Jackson,  and  inform  him  of  the  enemy  as  far  as  ascertained. 

The  head  of  his  column  was  opposite  Chantilly,  and  I  disposed 
part  of  Robertson's  brigade  on  his  right  flank  between  him  and 
Centreville,  and  reconnoitred  in  person,  but  no  force  but  a  small 
one  of  cavalry  was  discernible  nearer  than  Centreville.  Oxhill  was 
held  by  my  cavalry  till  General  Jackson  came  up,  and  having  charged 
General  Robertson  with  the  care  of  the  right  flank,  I  first  tried  to 
force,  with  some  skirmishers,  our  way  down  the  turnpike  toward 
Fairfax  Courthouse,  but  the  wooded  ridges  were  firmly  held  by 
infantry  and  artillery,  and  it  was  plainly  indicated  that  the  enemy 
would  here  make  a  stand.  General  Jackson  being  in  advance,  waited 
for  Longstreet  to  close  up.  Meanwhile,  with  Lee's  brigade,  I  moved 
round  toward  Flint  Hill,  directly  north  of  Fairfax  Courthouse,  to 
attack  the  enemy's  flank.  Passing  Fox's  mill  and  following  a 
narrow  and  winding  route  in  the  midst  of  a  heavy  thunder-storm, 
I  reached  the  summit  of  the  ridge  which  terminates  in  the  Flint 
Hill,  about  dark,  and  discovered  in  my  immediate  front  a  body  of 
the  enemy,  a  portion  of  which  was  thrown  out  as  sharpshooters  to 
oppose  our  further  advance.  Having  thus  discovered  that  Flint 
Hill  was  occupied  by  the  enemy  in  force,  and  hearing  about  the 
same  time  some  shots  in  my  rear,  I  withdrew  my  command  by  the 
same  road.  As  we  approached  the  mouth  of  the  road,  the  advance 
guard,  under  Colonel  Wickham,  engaged  and  drove  off  a  portion  of 
an  infantry  regiment  which  had  taken  position  on  the  steep  embank- 
ment of  the  road  to  dispute  our  return,  and  the  command  continued 
its  march,  bivouacking  that  night  in  the  neighborhood  of  German- 

Meanwhile  a  heavy  engagement  had  taken  place  on  Jackson's 
right,  the  enemy  having  penetrated  to  his  flank  by  way  of  Mollen's 

On  the  next  day,  the  enemy  having  retired,  Fairfax  Courthouse 
was  occupied  by  Lee's  brigade,  and  I  sent  Hampton's  brigade,  which 
had  just  reported  to  me,  having  been  detained  on  the  Charles  City 
border  until  the  enemy  had  entirely  evacuated  that  region,  to 
attack  the  enemy  at  Flint  Hill.  Getting  several  pieces  of  the 
Stuart  horse  artillery  in  position,  Brigadier-General  Hampton  opened 
on  the  enemy  at  that  point,  and  our  sharpshooters  advancing  about 
the  same  time,  after  a  brief  engagement,  the  enemy  hastily  retired. 
They  were  immediately  pursued,  and  Captain  Pelham  having  chosen 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  283 

a  new  position,  again  opened  upon  them  with  telling  effect,  scatter- 
ing them  in  every  direction.  They  were  pursued  by  Hampton's 
brigade,  which  took  a  few  prisoners,  but  owing  to  the  darkness  and 
the  fact  that  the  enemy  had  opened  fire  upon  us  with  infantry  and 
artillery  from  the  woods,  he  considered  it  prudent  to  retire,  which 
was  done  with  the  loss  of  only  one  man. 

This  proved  to  be  the  rear  guard  of  Sumner's  column  retreating 
towards  Vienna,  and  I  afterwards  learned  that  they  were  thrown 
into  considerable  confusion  by  this  attack  of  Hampton.  With  a 
small  portion  of  the  cavalry  and  horse  artillery,  I  moved  into 
Fairfax  Courthouse,  and  taking  possession,  obtained  some  valuable 
information,  which  was  sent  to  the  Commanding  General.  On  the 
night  of  the  second  the  command  bivouacked  near  Fairfax  Court- 
house, except  Robertson's  brigade,  which,  by  a  misapprehension  of 
the  order,  returned  to  the  vicinity  of  Chantilly  before  the  engage- 

While  these  events  were  occurring  near  Fairfax  Courthouse,  the 
Second  Virginia  cavalry.  Colonel  T.  T.  Munford,  had  proceeded  by 
my  order  to  Leesburg  to  capture  the  party  of  marauders  under 
Means  which  had  so  long  infested  that  country  and  harassed  the 
inhabitants.  Colonel  Munford  reached  the  vicinity  of  Leesbnrg  on 
the  forenoon  of  the  2d,  and  learning  that  Means  with  his  command 
was  in  the  town,  supported  by  three  companies  of  the  Maryland 
cavalry,  on  the  Point  of  Rocks  road,  he  made  a  circuit  toward 
Edward's  ferry,  attacked  from  that  direction,  and  succeeded,  after 
a  heavy  skirmish,  in  routing  and  driving  the  enemy  as  far  as 
Waterford,  with  a  loss  on  their  part  of  eleven  killed,  nine  severely 
wounded,  and  forty-seven  prisoners,  including  two  captains  and 
three  lieutenants.  Our  own  loss  was  Lieutenant  Davis  killed,  and 
several  officers  and  privates  wounded.  In  this  engagement,  Edmund) 
a  slave  belonging  to  one  of  the  men,  charged  with  the  regiment  and 
shot  Averhart,  one  of  the  most  notorious  ruffians  of  Means'  party. 
The  enemy's  papers  acknowledged  that  there  entire  force,  of  150  men 
of  the  First  Maryland  and  Means'  company,  were,  all  but  forty, killed 
or  captured,  stating  that  our  force  was  2,000.  Colonel  Munford's 
entire  force  was  163  men,  of  whom  but  123  were  in  the  charge. 

On  the  morning  of  the  3d,  General  Fitz.  Lee,  pursuant  to  in- 
structions, made  a  demonstration  with  his  brigade  and  some  horse 
artillery  toward  Alexandria,  Hampton's  brigade  moving  by  way  of 
Hunter's  mill  to  the  Leesburg  turnpike  below  Dranesville,  encamp- 
ing near  that  place.     Robertson's  brigade,  having  also  crossed  over 

284  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

from  the  Little  River  turnpike,  encamped  near  the  same  place  on 
the  same  night.  Meantime  the  main  army  was  moving  by  a  flank 
toward  Leesburg.  Demonstrations  were  also'kept  up  toward  George- 
town and  the  Chain  bridge,  Robertson's  brigade  moving  in  the 
direction  of  Falls  church.  Between  Vienna  and  Lewinsville  he 
encountered'the  enemy's  pickets,  and  after  a  brief  skirmish  drove 
them  in.  Having  posted  a  portion  of  his  cavalry  with  one  piece 
of  artillery  near  Lewinsville  to  prevent  surprise,  he  then  drew  up 
the  remainder  of  the  cavalry  in  a  conspicuous  position  near  the 
church,  and^opened  with  his  two  remaining  pieces.  The  enemy 
replied  with  two  guns,  and  the  firing  continued  until  nearly  sun- 
down, when  perceiving  several  regiments  advancing  to  assail  his 
position ,",General  Robertson,  in  accordance  with  his  instructions^ 

The  cavalry  followed  the  rear  of  the  army  to  Leesburg,  and  cross- 
ing the  Potomac  on  the  afternoon  of  the  5th,  Lee's  brigade  in  ad- 
vance, moved  to  Poolesville.  He  encountered  at  that  point  a  body 
of  the  enemy's  cavalry,  which  he  attacked,  capturing  the  greater 
portion.  The  reception  of  our  troops  in  Maryland  was  attended 
with  the  greatest  demonstrations  of  joy,  and  the  hope  of  enabling 
the  inhabitants  to  throw  off  the  tyrant's  yoke  stirred  every  South- 
ern heart  with  renewed  vigor  and  enthusiasm. 

The  main  army  moving  to  Frederick,  the  next  day  the  cavalry 
resumed  their  march  on  the  flank,  halting  at  Urbanna,  Hampton's 
•brigade  in  advance.  The  advance  guard  had  the  good  fortune  to 
rescue,  from  a  member  of  the  enemy's  signal  corps,  a  bearer  of  dis- 
patches from  President  Davis  to  General  Lee.  The  dispatches, 
fortunately,  by  the  discreetness  of  the  bearer,  had  not  fallen  into 
the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  were  eventually  safely  delivered.  At 
Urbanna  the  main  body  was  joined  by  Robertson's  brigade,  at  this 
time  under  command  of  Colonel  T.  T.  Munford. 

Near  this  place  I  remained  with  the  command  until  the  12th  of 
September,  covering  the  front  of  the  army  then  near  Frederick 
city,  in  the  direction  of  Washington.  My  left,  consisting  of  Lee's 
brigade,  rested  at  New  Market,  on  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  railroad; 
my  centre,  Hampton's  brigade,  near  Hyattstown;  and  my  right, 
Robertson's  brigade,  Colonel  Munford  commanding,  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Poolesville,  with  one  regiment  (the  Twelfth  Virginia  cavalry) 
at  that  point. 

The  enemy  having  advanced  upon  my  front,  Hampton's  brigade 
became  engaged  in  several  skirmishes  near  Hyattstown,  driving  the 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  285 

enemy  back  on  every  occasion;  and  on  the  8th  September,  ascer- 
taining that  the  enemy  were  about  to  occupy  Poolesville,  I  ordered 
Colonel  Munford  to  proceed  to  that  point  and  drive  them  from  the 
place.  Munford's  advance  guard  had  just  reached  the  town  when 
the  enemy  appeared,  with  three  regiments  of  cavalry  and  four 
pieces  of  artillery.  Munford  selected  a  position  and  oi^ened  fire 
with  a  Howitzer  and  Blakely,  when  the  enemy  also  brought  up  two 
pieces  and  returned  the  fire.  Their  guns  had  scarcely  opened  when 
their  cavalry  suddenly  advanced  and  charged  the  Howitzer.  They 
were,  however,  received  with  two  rounds  of  canister,  which  drove 
them  back,  and  the  Seventh  Virginia  cavalry,  Captain  Myers  com- 
manding, charged  them.  They  also  charged  the  Blakely,  but  Col- 
onel Harman,  with  about  seventy-five  men  of  the  Twelfth  Virginia 
cavalry,  met  and  repulsed  them.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burks,  in  tem- 
porary command  of  the  Second  Virginia  cavalry,  held  the  cross- 
roads commanding  the  approach  to  Sugar  Loaf  mountain  and  kept 
the  enemy  in  check  with  his  sharpshooters.  The  loss  on  this  occa- 
sion was  fifteen,  killed,  wounded  and  missing.  The  cross-roads 
were  successfully  held  for  three  days,  during  which  regular  skir- 
mishing and  artillery  firing  took  place,  when  on  the  11th  the  ene- 
my advanced  in  force  with  infantry.  Having  maintained  the  pre- 
sent front  even  longer  than  was  contemplated  by  the  instructions 
covering  the  investment  of  Harper's  Ferry,  found  in  the  orders 
appended  to  this  report,  the  cavalry  was  withdrawn  to  within  three 
miles  of  Frederick. 

Lee's  brigade  having  fallen  back  from  New  Market  and  crossed 
the  Monocacy  near  Liberty,  Robertson's  brigade  was  ordered  to  re- 
tire in  the  direction  of  Jefferson,  and  Hampton's  brigade  was  di- 
rected to  occupy  Frederick  city,  in  the  rear  of  the  army  then  mov- 
ing toward  Middletown.  Hampton's  pickets  were  thrown  out  on 
the  various  roads  leading  in  the  direction  of  the  enemy's  approach, 
and  about  midday  on  the  12th  he  was  notified  that  a  heavy  force 
was  advancing  on  the  National  road.  As  two  squadrons  had  been 
left  on  picket  at  the  bridge  over  the  Monocacy,  between  Frederick 
city  and  Urbanna,  it  was  of  great  importance  to  hold  the  ap- 
proaches by  the  National  road  until  the  squadrons  were  withdrawn, 
and  with  this  end  in  view,  a  rifle  piece  was  added  to  the  two  guns 
already  in  position  on  the  turnpike,  and  a  squadron  from  the  Sec- 
ond South  Carolina  cavalry,  under  Lieutenant  Meighan,  sent  to 
support  the  battery.  The  enemy  soon  appeared,  and  opened  fire 
on  the  cavalry,  when,  the  squadrons  at  the  bridge  having  rejoined 

286  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

him,  General  Hampton  slowly  retired  to  the  city,  sending  his  ar- 
tillery on  before  to  occupy  a  position  commanding  the  ground  be- 
tween the  city  and  the  mountain.  The  enemy  now  pressed  for- 
ward, and  planting  a  gun  in  the  suburbs  of  the  city,  supported  by 
a  body  of  cavalry  and  a  regiment  and  half  of  infantry,  opened  fire 
upon  the  crowded  thoroughfares  of  the  place.  To  secure  a,  safe  re- 
treat for  the  brigade,  it  was  necessary  to  charge  this  force,  which 
was  gallantly  done  by  the  Second  South  Carolina  cavalry.  Colonel 
Butler,  Lieutenant  Meighan  leading  his  squadron  in  advance. 

The  enemy  were  scattered  in  every  direction,  man}'-  of  them 
killed  and  wounded,  ten  prisoners  taken,  among  them  Colonel 
Moore,  Twenty-third  Ohio,  and  the  gun  captured.  Unfortunately, 
five  of  the  horses  attached  to  the  piece  were  killed;  so  that  it  could 
not  be  removed.  The  enemy's  account,  subsequently  published, 
admits  the  repulse  of  their  force  and  the  capture  of  the  gun.  After 
this  repulse  the  enemy  made  no  further  efforts  to  annoy  our  rear. 
The  brigade  retired  slowly,  bringing  off  the  prisoners  captured,  and 
bivouacked  that  night  at  Middletown — Lieutenant-Colonel  Martin 
having  been  left  with  his  command  and  two  pieces  of  artillery  to 
hold  the  Catoctin  mountain.  Munford  was  in  the  meanwhile 
ordered  to  occupy  the  gap  in  this  range  near  the  town  of  Jefferson. 
The  force  under  his  command  consisted  at  this  time  of  only  the 
Second  and  Twelfth  Virginia  cavalry — the  Sixth  Virginia  having 
been  left  at  Centreville  to  collect  arms,  etc.,  the  Seventeenth  bat- 
talion detached  before  crossing  the  Potomac  on  a*n  expedition  into 
Berkely,  and  the  Seventh  Virginia  cavalry  having  been  ordered  a 
day  or  two  before  to  report  to  General  Jackson  for  operations 
against  Harper's  Ferry.  Every  means  was  taken  to  ascertain  what 
the  nature  of  the  enemy's  movement  was,  whether  a  reconnoisance 
feeling  for  our  whereabouts,  or  an  aggressive  movement  of  the 
army.  The  enemy  studiously  avoided  displaying  any  force,  except 
a  part  of  Burnside's  corps,  and  built  no  camp  fires  in  their  halt  at 
Frederick  that  night.  The  information  w^as  conveyed  promptly  to 
the  Commanding  General,  through  General  D,  H.  Hill,  now  at 
Boonsboro';  and  it  was  suggested  that  the  gap  which  I  held  this 
night  was  a  very  strong  position  for  infantry  and  artillery.  Friday 
the  day  on  which  (by  the  calculation  of  the  Commanding  General) 
Harper's  Ferry  would  fall,  had  passed,  and  as  the  garrison  was  not 
believed  to  be  very  strong  at  that  point,  I  supposed  the  object 
already  accomplished.  I  nevertheless  felt  it  important  to  check 
the  enemy  as  much  as  possible,  in  order  to  develop  his  force.     With 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  287 

a  view  to  ascertain  what  the  nature  of  this  movement  was,  I  had, 
before  leaving  Frederick,  sent  instructions  to  Brigadier- General 
Fitz.  Lee  to  gain  the  enemy's  rear  from  his  position  on  the  left. 

On  the  morning  of  the  13th,  I  moved  forward  all  of  Plampton's 
command  to  the  support  of  Colonel  Martin.  Foiled  in  their  attack 
on  the  preceding  evening,  the  enemy  appeared  in  front  of  Colonel 
Martin,  at  daylight  on  the  13th,  and  endeavored  to  force  their  way 
through  the  mountain.  Their  advance  guard  was  driven  back, 
when  they  posted  artillery  on  the  turnpike  and  opened  fire  on 
Colonel  Martin,  who  held  the  mountain  crest.  This  was  responded 
to  by  a  section  of  rifle  guns  under  Captain  Hart,  whose  fire  was  so 
effective  that  the  enemy's  battery  was  forced  several  times  to  change 
its  position.  The  skirmishers  on  both  sides  had  meanwhile  become 
actively  engaged,  and  the  enemy  was  held  in  check  until  he  had 
marched  up  to  the  attack  two  brigades  of  infantry,  which  was  the 
only  force  we  were  yet  able  to  discover,  so  well  did  he  keep  his 
troops  concealed.  About  2  P.  M.  we  were  obliged  to  abandon  the 
crest,  and  withdrew  to  a  position  near  Middletown.  All  this  was 
duly  reported  in  writing  by  me  through  General  D.  H.  Hill,  to  the 
Commanding  General. 

In  the  engagemts  at  the  gap  in  the  Catoctin  and  near  Middletown, 
the  Jeff.  Davis  Legion  and  First  North  Carolina  cavalry,  respectively 
under  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Martin  and  Colonel  Baker, 
conducted  themselves  with  the  utmost  gallantry,  and  sustained  a 
hot  fire  of  artillery  and  musketry  without  flinching  or  confusion 
in  the  ranks.  Captain  Siler,  a  gallant  officer  of  the  First  North 
Carolina  cavalry,  had  his  leg  broken  during  the  engagement. 

The  enemy  soon  appeared  in  force  crossing  the  mountain,  and 
a  spirited  engagement  took  place,  both  of  artillery  and  sharpshooters, 
the  First  North  Carolina,  Colonel  Baker,  holding  the  rear  and  acting 
with  conspicuous  gallantry.  This  lasted  for  some  time,  when,  having 
held  the  enemy  in  check  sufficiently  long  to  accomplish  my  object, 
I  withdrew  slowly  toward  the  gap  in  the  South  mountain,  having 
given  General  D.  H.  Hill  ample  time  to  occupy  that  gap  with  his 
troops,  and  still  believing  that  the  capture  of  Harper's  Ferry  had 
been  effected.  On  reaching  the  vicinity  of  the  gap  near  Boonsboro', 
finding  General  Hill's  troops  occupying  the  gap,  I  turned  off  Gene- 
ral Hampton  with  all  his  cavalry,  except  the  Jeff.  Davis  Legion,  to 
reinforce  Munford  at  Crampton's  gap,  which  was  now  the  weakest 
point  of  the  line.  I  remained  myself  at  the  gap  near  Boonsboro' 
until  night,  but  the  enemy  did  not  attack  the  position.     This  was 

288  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

obviously  no  place  for  cavalry  operations,  a  single  horseman  pass- 
ing from  point  to  point  on  the  mountain  with  difficulty. 

Leaving  the  Jeff.  Davis  Legion  here,  therefore,  and  directing 
Colonel  Kosser,  with  a  detachment  of  cavalry  and  the  Stuart  horse 
artillery,  to  occupy  Braddock's  gap,  I  started  on  my  way  to  join  the 
main  portion  of  my  command  at  Crampton's  gap,  stopping  for  the 
night  near  Boonsboro'.  I  had  not  up  to  this  time  seen  General 
D.  H.  Hill,  but  about  midnight  he  sent  General  Ripley  to  me  to 
get  information  concerning  roads  and  gaps  in  a  locality  where  Gene- 
ral D.  H.  Hill  had  been  lying  for  two  days  with  his  command. 
All  the  information  I  had  was  cheerfully  given,  and  the  situation 
of  the  gaps  explained  by  map.  I  confidently  hoped  by  this  time 
to  have  received  the  information  which  was  expected  from  Brigadier- 
General  Fitz.  Lee.  All  the  information  I  possessed,  or  had  the 
means  of  possessing,  had  been  laid  before  General  D.  H.  Hill  and 
the  Commanding  General.  His  troops  were  duly  notified  of  the 
advance  of  the  enemy,  and  I  saw  them  in  line  of  battle  awaiting 
his  approach,  and  myself  gave  some  general  directions  concerning 
the  location  of  his  lines,  during  the  afternoon  in  his  absence. 

Early  next  morning  I  repaired  to  Crampton's  gap,  which  I  had 
reason  to  believe  was  as  much  threatened  as  any  other. 

Brigadier-General  Hampton  proceeded  as  directed  toward  Bur- 
ketsville.  As  General  Jackson  was  then  in  front  of  Harper's  Ferry, 
and  General  McLaws  with  his  division  occupied  Maryland  Heights 
to  prevent  the  escape  of  the  Federal  garrison,  it  was  believed  that 
the  enemy's  efforts  would  be  against  McLaws,  probably  by  the  route 
of  Crampton's  gap.  On  his  way  to  the  gap,  Brigadier-General 
Hampton  encountered  a  regiment  of  the  enemy's  cavalry,  on  a 
road  parallel  to  the  one  which  he  was  pursuing,  and,  taking  the 
Cobb  Legion,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Young,  at  once  charged  them, 
dispersing  them,  killing  or  wounding  thirty,  and  taking  five  prison- 
ers. Our  loss  was  four  killed  and  nine  wounded ;  among  the  former 
Lieutenant  Marshall  and  Sergeant  Barksdale,  and  among  the  latter 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Young  and  Captain  Wright,  all  of  whom  acted 
with  remarkable  gallantry. 

General  Hampton  then  drew  near  the  gap,  when  Colonel  Munford, 
mistaking  his  command  for  a  portion  of  the  enemy's  cavalry, 
ordered  his  artillery  to  open  upon  him.  This  order  was  on  the 
point  of  being  executed,  when  Hampton,  becoming  aware  of  his 
danger,  exhibited  a  white  flag,  and  thus  averted  this  serious  mis- 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  289 

Hampton's  brigade  reraainod  at  the  gap  for  the  night.  Next 
morning  upon  my  arrival,  finding  that  the  enemy  had  made  no 
demonstration  toward  Crampton's  gap  up  to  that  time,  and  appre- 
hending that  he  might  move  directly  from  Frederick  to  Harper's 
Ferry,  I  deemed  it  prudent  to  leave  Munford  to  hold  this  point 
until  he  could  be  reinforced  with  infantry,  and  moved  Hampton 
nearer  the  Potomac.  General  McLaws  was  advised  of  the  situation 
of  affairs,  and  sent  Brigadier-General  Howell  Cobb  with  his  com- 
mand to  hold  Crampton's  gap.  General  Hampton's  command  was 
halted  at  the  south  end  of  South  mountain,  and  pickets  sent  out 
on  the  roads  toward  Point  of  Rocks  and  Frederick.  I  proceeded 
myself  to  the  headquarters  of  General  McLaws  to  acquaint  him 
with  the  situation  of  affairs,  and  also  to  acquaint  myself  with  what 
was  going  on.  I  went  with  him  to  the  Maryland  Heights  over- 
looking Harper's  Ferry,  which  had  not  yet  fallen.  I  explained  to 
him  the  location  of  the  roads  in  that  vicinity,  familiar  to  myself 
from  my  connection  with  the  John  Brown  raid,  and  repeatedly 
urged  the  importance  of  his  holding  with  an  infantry  picket  the 
road  leading  from  the  Ferr}^  by  the  Kennedy  farm  toward  Sharps- 
burg;  failing  to  do  which  the  entire  cavalry  force  of  the  enemy  at 
the  Ferry,  amounting  to  about  500,  escaped  during  the  night  by 
that  very  road,  and  inflicted  serious  damage  on  General  Long-street's 
train,  in  the  course  of  their  flight. 

I  had  ordered  Colonel  Munford  to  take  command  (as  the  senior 
officer)  at  Crampton's  gap  and  hold  it  against  the  enemy  at  all 
hazards.  Colonel  Munford  gave  similar  instructions  to  the  officers 
commanding  the  two  fragments  of  infantry  regiments  from  Ma. 
hone's  brigade  then  present,  and  posted  the  infantry  behind  a 
stone  wall  at  the  eastern  base  of  the  mountain.  Chew's  battery 
and  a  section  of  Navy  Howitzers  belonging  to  the  Portsmouth 
battery  were  placed  on  the  slope  of  the  mountain,  and  the  whole 
force  of  cavalry  at  his  command  dismounted  and  disposed  on  the 
flanks  as  sharpshooters.  The  enemy  soon  advanced  with  overpow- 
ering numbers  to  assail  the  position — his  force  in  sight  amounting 
to  a  division  (Slocum's)  of  infantry.  They  were  received  with  a 
rapid  and  steady  fire  from  our  batteries,  but  confined  to  advance, 
preceded  by  their  sharpshooters,  and  an  engagement  ensued  be- 
tween these  and  our  infantry  and  dismounted  cavalry.  Colonel 
Parham,  commanding  Mahone's  brigade,  soon  after  arrived  with 
the  Sixth  and  Twelfth  Virginia  infantry,  scarcely  numbering  in  all 

290  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

three  hundred  men;  and  this  small  force,  for  at  least  three  hours, 
maintained  their  position  and  held  the  enemy  in  check  without 
assistance  of  any  description  from  General  Semmes,  who,  Colonel 
Munford  reports,  held  the  next  gap  below,  and  witnessed  all  that 
took  place.  General  Cobb  finally  came  with  two  regiments  to  the 
support  of  the  force  holding  the  gap.  At  his  request,  Colonel  Mun- 
ford. posted  the  new  regiments,  when  the  infantry  which  had  been 
engaged,  having  exhausted  their  ammuntion,  fell  back  from  their 
position.  The  enemy  took  advantage  of  this  circumstance  and 
suddenly  advanced,  and  the  fresh  regiments  broke  before  they  were 
well  in  position.  General  Cobb  made  great  efforts  to  rally  them, 
but  without  the  least  effect,  and  it  was  evident  that  the  gap  could 
no  longer  beheld.  Under  these  circumstances,  Colonel  Munford. 
(whose  artillery  had  exhausted  every  round  of  ammunition  and 
retired)  formed  his  command  and  moved  down  the  mountain  on 
the  Boonsboro' road  to  the  point  where  the  horses  of  the  dismount- 
ed sharpshooters  were  stationed.  The  enemy  were  at  the  forks  of 
the  Harper's  Ferry  and  Boonsboro'  roads  before  many  of  the  cav- 
alry reached  it — the  infantry  having  retired  in  great  disorder,  and 
the  cavalry  were  the  last  to  give  up  their  position.  In  this  hot 
engagement,  the  Second  and  Twelfth  Virginia  cavalry  behaved 
with  commendable  coolness  and  gallantry,  inflicting  great  injury 
with  their  long  range  guns  upon  the  enemy,  and  their  exertions 
were  ably  seconded  by  the  troops  under  Colonel  Parham,  who  held 
his  position  most  gallantly  until  overpowered. 

Hearing  of  the  attack  at  Crampton's  gap,  I  rode  at  full  speed  to 
reach  that  point,  and  met  General  Cobb's  command,  just  after  dark, 
retreating  in  disorder  down  Pleasant  valley.  He  represented  the 
enemy  as  only  two  hundred  yards  behind,  and  in  overwhelming 
force.  I  immediately  halted  his  command,  and  disposed  men  upon 
each  side  of  the  road  to  meet  the  enemy,  and  a  battery,  which  I 
had  accidentally  met  with,  was  placed  in  position  commanding  the 
road.  The  enemy  not  advancing,  I  sent  out  parties  to  reconnoitre, 
who  found  no  enemy  within  a  mile.  Pickets  were  thrown  out,  and 
the  command  was  left  in  partial  repose  for  the  night.  The  next 
morning,  more  infantry  and  a  portion  of  the  cavalry  having  been 
brought  up  to  this  point,  preparations  were  made  to  repulse  any 
attack — Major-General  R.  H.  Anderson  being  now  in  immediate 
command  at  this  point.  The  battle  of  Boonsboro'  or  South  Moun- 
tain having  taken  place  the  evening  previous,  resulted  unfavorably 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  291 

to  us,  and  the  troops  occupying  that  line  were  on  the  march  to 

The  garrison  at  Harper's  Ferry  surrendered  during  the  forenoon. 
Late  on  the  afternoon  previous,  Brigadier- General  Fitz.  Lee  arrived 
at  Boonsboro'  and  reported  to  the  Commanding  General,  having 
been  unable  to  accomplish  the  object  of  his  mission,  which  his 
report  will  more  fully  explain. 

His  command  was  assigned  to  the  important  and  difficult  duty 
of  occupying  the  line  of  battle  of  the  infantry  to  enable  it  to  with- 
draw during  the  night,  and  early  next  morning  his  command  was 
charged  with  bringing  up  the  rear  of  that  column  to  Sharpsburg, 
while  Hampton  accomplished  the  same  for  McLaws'  command 
moving  out  of  Pleasant  Valley  to  Harper's  Ferry.  I  reported  in 
person  to  General  Jackson  at  Harper's  Ferry,  and  thence  rode,  at 
his  request,  to  the  Commanding  General  at  Sharpsburg,  to  commu- 
nicate to  him  General  J.'s  views  and  information. 

Our  army  being  in  line  of  battle  on  the  heights  overlooking  the 
Antietam,  I  was  assigned  to  the  left,  -^here  Brigadier-General  Fitz. 
Lee's  brigade  took  position  after  his  severe  engagement  near  Boons- 
boro' between  the  enemy  and  his  rear  guard,  Munford's  small  com- 
mand being  on  the  right. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  16th,  the  enemy  was  discovered  moving 
a  column  across  the  Antietam  to  the  pike,  with  the  view  of  turning 
our  left  beyond  the  Dunkard  church.  This  was  duly  reported,  and 
the  movement  watched.  A  little  skirmishing  took  place  before 
night.  I  moved  the  cavalry  still  farther  to  the  left,  making  way 
for  our  infantry,  and  crowned  a  commanding  hill  with  artillery, 
ready  for  the  attack  in  the  morning.  General  Jackson  had  arrived 
in  time  from  Harper's  Ferry,  with  a  part  of  his  command,  on  the 
night  before  to  take  position  on  this  line,  and  the  attack  began 
very  early  next  morning.  The  cavalry  was  held  as  a  support  for 
the  artillery,  which  was  very  advantageously  posted  so  as  to  bring 
an  enfilading  fire  upon  the  enemy's  right.  About  this  time,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John  T.  Thornton,  of  the  Third  Virginia  cavalry, 
was  mortally  wounded,  at  the  head  of  his  regiment.  To  the  ser- 
vice he  was  a  brave  and  devoted  member.  In  him  one  of  the 
brightest  ornaments  of  the  State  has  fallen. 

This  fire  was  kept  up  with  terrible  effect  upon  the  enemy ;  and 
the  position  of  the  artillery  being  somewhat  endangered,  Early's 
brigade  was  sent  to  me  by  General  Jackson  as  additional  support. 
The  enemy  had  advanced  too  far  into  the  woods  near  the  Dunkard 

2f)2  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

church  for  the  fire  to  be  continued  without  danger  of  harming  our 
own  men.  I  accordingly  withdrew  the  batteries  to  a  position 
further  to  the  rear,  where  our  own  line  could  be  seen,  and  ordered 
General  Early  to  rejoin  liis  division,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Thirteenth  Virginia  infantry,  commanded  by  Captain  Winston, 
which  was  retained  as  a  support  for  the  artillery. 

The  artillery  opened  from  its  new  position  at  close  range  upon 
the  enemy,  with  still  more  terrible  effect  than  before:  the  Thirteenth 
Virginia  infantry  being  within  musket  range,  did  telling  execution. 
Early's  division  now  pouring  a  deadly  fire  into  their  front,  while 
the  artillery  and  its  support  were  bearing  so  heavily  upon  their 
flank,  the  enemy  soon  broke  in  confusion,  and  were  pursued  for 
half  a  mile  along  the  Williamsport  turnpike.  I  recognized  in  this 
pursuit  part  of  Barksdale's  and  part  of  Semraes'  brigades,  and  I 
a,lso  got  hold  of  one  regiment  of  Ransom's  brigade,  which  I  posted 
in  an  advantageous  position  on  the  extreme  left  flank,  after  the 
pursuit  had  been  checked  by  the  enemy's  reserve  artillery  coming 
into  action.  Having  informed  General  Jackson  of  what  had  trans- 
pired, I  was  directed  by  him  to  hold  this  advance  position,  and 
that  he  would  send  all  the  infantry  he  could  get  in  order  to  follow 
up  the  success.  I  executed  this  order,  keeping  the  cavalr}'  well  out 
to  the  left,  and  awaiting  the  arrival  of  reinforcements.  "These  re- 
inforcements were,  however,  diverted  to  another  part  of  the  field, 
and  no  further  engagement  took  place  on  this  part  of  the  field  be- 
yond a  desultory  artillery  fire. 

On  the  next  day  it  was  determined,  the  enemy  not  again  attack- 
ing, to  turn  the  enemy's  right.  In  this  movement  I  was  honored 
with  the  advance.  In  endeavoring  to  pass  along  up  the  river  bank, 
however,  I  found  that  the  river  made  such  an  abrupt  bend  that 
the  enemy's  batteries  were  within  800  yards  of  the  brink  of  the 
stream,  which  would  have  made  it  impossible  to  have  succeeded 
in  the  movement  proposed,  and  it  was  accordingly  abandoned. 

The  Commanding  General  having  decided  to  recross  the  Potomac, 
the  delicate  and  difficult  duty  of  covering  this  movement  was 
assigned  to  Brigadier-General  Fitz.  Lee,  while  I  was  directed  to 
ford  the  river  that  afternoon  with  Hampton's  brigade,  at  an  obscure 
ford,  and  proceeding  to  Williamsport,  cross  the  river  again  at  that 
point  so  as  to  create  a  diversion  in  favor  of  the  movement  of  the  army. 
Hampton's  brigade  did  not  reached  the  ford  until  dark,  and  as  the 
ford  was  very  obscure  and  rough,  many  got  over  their  depth  and  had 
to  swim  the  river.    The  duty  assigned  to  Brigadier-General  Fitz.  Lee 

Cavalry  Operations  on  First  Maryland  Campaign.  29o 

was  accomplished  with  entire  success,  and  he  withdrew  his  com- 
mand safely  to  the  south  side  of  the  Potomac  on  the  morning  of 
the  19th. 

Hampton's  brigade  crossed  the  Potomac  a  short  distance  above 
Williamsport,  while  a  part  of  the  Twelfth  Virginia  cavalry  dashed 
across  the  river  immediately  at  Williamsport,  chasing  a  few  of  the 
enemy's  pickets  from  the  place.  I  was  also  aided  in  this  demon- 
stration by  a  battalion  of  infantry,  under  Captain  Randolpth,  of 
the  Second  Virginia,  also  by  a  detachment  of  the  Eleventh  Georgia, 
and  it  may  be  by  small  detachments  of  other  regiments,  and  a 
section  of  the  Salem  artillery,  and  one  of  the  Second  company 

The  bridge  over  the  canal  was  destroyed,  but  a  very  good  road 
was  constructed,  without  much  labor,  under  the  aqueduct,  over  the 
Conochocheague.  Having  moved  out  the  command,  including 
Hampton's  brigade,  upon  the  ridges  overlooking  Williamsport, 
active  demonstrations  were  made  toward  the  enemy. 

On  the  20th  the  enemy  were  drawn  toward  my  position  in  heavy 
force,  Couch's  division  in  advance.  Showing  a  bold  front,  we 
maintained  our  position  and  kept  the  enemy  at  bay  until  dark, 
when,  having  skirmished  all  day,  we  withdrew  to  the  south  bank 
of  the  Potomac,  without  loss. 

During  the  Maryland  campaign  my  command  did  not  suffer  on 
any  one  day  as  much  as  their  comrades  of  other  arms,  but  theirs 
was  the  sleepless  watch  and  the  harassing  daily  ^^ petite  guerre,^''  in 
which  the  aggregate  of  casualties  for  the  month  sums  up  heavily. 
There  was  not  a  single  day  from  the  time  my  command  crossed 
the  Potomac  till  it  recrossed,  that  it  was  not  engaged  with  the 
enemy,  and  at  Sharpsburg  was  several  times  subjected  to  severe 
shelling.  Their  services  were  indispensable  to  every  success  at- 
tained, and  the  officers  and  men  of  the  cavalry  division  recur  with 
pride  to  the  Maryland  campaign  of  '62. 

I  regret  exceedingly  that  I  have  not  the  means  of  speaking  more 
in  detail  of  the  brave  men  of  other  commands  whose  meritorious 
conduct  was  witnessed  both  at  Sharpsburg  and  Williamsport,  but 
whose  names  owing  to  the  lapse  of  time  cannot  be  now  recalled, 
and  I  have  no  reports  to  assist  me.  Brigadier-General  Early  at 
the  former  place  behaved  with  great  coolness  and  good  judgment, 
particularly  after  he  came  in  command  of  his  division,  and  Colonel 
(since  General)  William  Smith,  Forty-ninth  Virginia  infantry,  was 
conspicuously  brave  and  self-possessed. 

294  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

One  of  the  regiments  of  Ransom's  brigade,  also  becoming  detached 
from  the  brigade,  behaved  with  great  gallantry,  and  for  a  long  time 
held  an  important  detached  position  on  the  extreme  left  unaided. 

The  gallant  Pelham  displayed  all  those  noble  qualities  which 
have  made  him  immortal.  He  had  under  his  command  batteries 
from  every  portion  of  General  Jackson's  command.  The  batteries 
of  Poague,  Pegram  and  Carrington,  the  only  ones  which  now  recur 
to  me,  did  splendid  service,  as  also  did  the  Stuart  horse  artillery, 
all  under  Pelham.  The  hill  held  on  the  extreme  left  so  long  and 
so  gallantly  by  artillery  alone,  was  essential  to  the  maintenance  of 
our  position. 

Major  Heros  Von  Borcke  displayed  his  usual  skill,  courage  and 
energy.     His  example  was  highly  valuable  to  the  troops. 

Cadet  W.  Q.  Hullihen,  Confederate  States  army,  was  particularly 
distinguished  on  the  field  of  Sharpsburg  for  his  coolness,  and  his 
valuable  services  as  acting  aid-de-camp.  I  deem  it  proper  to 
mention  here  also  a  young  lad  named  Randolph,  of  Fauquier,  who, 
apparently  about  12  years  of  age,  brought  me  several  messages 
from  General  Jackson  under  circumstances  of  great  personal  peril, 
and  delivered  his  dispatches  with  a  clearness  and  intelligence  highly 
creditable  to  him. 

*    Private ,  Cobb's  Georgia  legion,  one  of  my  couriers, 

was  killed  while  behaving  with  the  most  conspicuous  bravery, 
having  borrowed  a  horse  to  ride  to  the  field.  He  had  been  sent  to 
post  a  battery  of  artillery  from  his  native  State. 

Captain  Frayser,  signal  corps,  rendered  important  services  to  the 
Commanding  General  from  a  mountain  overlooking  the  enemy  on 
the  Antietam. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be. 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

(Signed)  J.  E.  B.  Stuaet,  Major- General. 

Colonel  R.  H.  Chilton,  Chief  of  Staff,  Army  Northern  Virginia. 

Field  Telegrams.'  295 

Field  Telegrams. 

[A  deeply  interesting  volume  might  be  made  by  collecting  together  the 
field  telegrams  and  letters  sent  by  our  leading  Generals  on  the  eve  of  or 
during  important  battles.  Unfortunately  the  full  material  for  such  a  volume 
has  been  destroyed,  or  is  scattered  so  widely  that  it  would  be  almost  impos- 
sible to  collect  it.  We  have  in  our  archives,  however,  a  large  amount  of 
such  material,  and  propose,  from  time  to  time,  to  give  some  specimens  of  it. 
We  have  recently  received  from  Mr.  R.  M.  J.  Paynter,  of  this  city,  the  loan 
of  files  of  telegrams  sent  principally  from  army  headquarters  on  the  south 
side  of  the  James  during  the  summer  of  1864.  The  telegrams  themselves 
(written  generally  on  scraps  of  Confederate  paper,  and  frequently  in  the 
autograph  of  the  officer  sending  them),  possess  a  curious  interest.  They  are 
valuable  as  giving  the  information  received  of  the  movements  and  intentions 
of  the  enemy,  and  the  consequent  orders  in  reference  to  the  movements  of 
our  troops.    We  give  the  following  selections  from  these  telegrams.] 

Headquarters  Drewry's  Bluff, 
May  10—1  P.  M. 
His  Excellency  Jefferson  Davis, 

President  C.  S.  A.,  Richmond  : 

I  have  just  received  the  following  dispatch  from  General 
Kansom:  "Thus  far  we  are  doing  well;  the  fight  is  progressing." 
This  is  about  all  the  information  I  can  give  you. 
Very  respectfully, 

G.  H.  Terrett. 

Headquarters  Army  Northern  Virginia, 
12  K.  45,  P.M.  1,  viaMc2d. 
General  G.  T.  Beauregard  : 

It  would  be  disadvantageous  to  abandon  line  between  Rich- 
mond and  Petersburg;  but  as  two-thirds  of  Butler's  force  has  joined 
Grant,  can  you  not  leave  sufficient  guard  to  move  with  balance  of 
your  command  to  north  side  of  James  river  and  take  command  of 

right  wing  of  arm}'-? 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Oflicial :    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Headquarters  Army  Northern  Virginia, 
7  K.  A.  M. 
General  R.  E.  Lee  : 

I  have  ordered  a  forced  reconnoisance  to  ascertain  more  of 
enemy's  position  and  condition.  Have  ordered  Ransom's  brigade 
to  Bottom's  bridge,  as  requested  by  General  Bragg.     I  am  willing 

296  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

to  do  anything  for  our  succor,  but  cannot  leave  my  department 

without  orders  of  War  Department. 

G,  T.  Beauregard. 

Shady  Grove  Church,  1st  June,  4  K.  P.  M. 
General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Hancock  House  : 

General  Grant  appears  to  be  gradually  approaching  the  York 
River  railroad,  whether  with  the  view  of  touching  James  river  or 
not,  I  cannot  ascertain.  I  am  ignorant  of  the  movements  of  the 
enemy  in  your  front,  or  whether  it  would  be  in  your  power  to  take 

position  north  of  James  river, 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  4  A.  M.,  16th  June,  '64. 
General  B.  Bragg,  Richmond  : 

Just  arrived  at  this  point  with  Pickett's  division ;  have  in- 
formed General  Beauregard.     Direct  to  me  here. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  16th  June,  '64. 
General  A.  P.  Hill, 

RiddeVs  Shops,  via  Savage  Station  : 

Send  a  brigade  to  vicinity  of  New  Market  station,  intersection 

of  Kingsland  and  New  Market  roads. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  9.40,  16  June,  '64. 
General  Beauregard,  Petersburg : 

Please  inform  me  of  condition  of  affairs.     Pickett's  division 

is  in  vicinity  of  your  lines  and  front  of  Bermuda. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  10.30  A.  M.,  16th  June,  '64. 
General  Beauregard,  Petersburg  : 

Your  dispatch  of  9.45  receive ;  it  is  the  first  that  has  come 
to  hand.  I  do  not  know  the  position  of  Grant's  army;  cannot 
strip  north  bank  of  James  river;  have  you  not  force  sufficient? 

R.  E.  Lee. 

•  Meld  Telegrams.  297 

Drewry's  Bluff,  3  P.  M.,  16th  June. 

General — Dispatches  12.45  received.  Pickett  had  passed  this 
place  at  date  of  my  first  dispatch.  I  did  not  receive  your  notice 
of  intended  evacuation  till  2  A.  M;  troops  were  then  at  Malvern 
Hills,  four  miles  from  me.  Am  glad  to  hear  you  can  hold  Peters- 
burg. Hope  you  will  drive  the  enemy.  Have  not  heard  of  Grant's 
crossing  James  river. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

16th  June,  '64,  4  P.  M. 
General  Beauregard,  Petersburg  : 

The  transports  you  mentioned  have  probably  returned  But- 
ler's troops.     Has  Grant  been  seen  crossing  James  river? 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Headquarters  Dreavry's  Bluff, 
5.30  P.  M.,  16th  June,  '64. 
Mr.  D.  H.  Wood, 

Transportation  Office,  Richmond,  Virginia  : 

Trains  are  not  wanted  at  Rice's  turnout,  about  which  in- 
quiry was  made  this  morning;  do  not  send  them. 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official :    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  June  16th,  '64,  8  P.  M. 

General  Wade  Hampton,  Pole  Cat  Station  : 

Dispatches  of  to-day  received.  Our  cavalry  north  and  south 
of  Chickahominy  have  been  advised  of  movements  of  bearer  of 
dispatches ;  also  to  endeavor  to  ascertain  movements  of  Sheridan, 
and  to  unite  with  you  when  practicable  to  crush  him.  Keep  them 
advised  of  his  movements. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  Midnight,  16th  June,  '64. 

President  or  Superintendent  Richmond  and 

Petersburg  Railroad,  Richmond,  Virginia  : 

The  line  of  breastworks  across  Bermuda  Neck  is  being  reoccu- 
pied  by  our  troops.  General  Anderson  reports  that  the  enemy  tore 
up  and  burned  about  half  a  mile  of  the  railroad  below  Walthall 

298  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

junction.     Preparations  should  be  made  to  repair  this  portion  of 

the  track  as  soon  as  it  is  practicable. 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official :    W.  H.  TAYLOR,  A.  A.  G. 

Drewby's  Bluff,  June  17th,  1864,  6  A.  M. 

E.  H.  Gill,  Superintendent  Eichmond  and 

Petersburg  Eailroad,  Eichmond,  Virginia : 

About  half  a  mile  of  railroad  at  Port  Walthall  junction  was 
torn  up  yesterday  by  enemy  during  their  temporary  possession. 
Please  replace  the  rails  and  open  the  road  at  once. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Drewry's  Bluff,  June  17th,  '64,  6  A.  M. 

General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Petersburg  : 

I  am  delighted  at  your  repulse  of  the  enemy.  Endeavor  to 
recover  your  lines.  Can  you  ascertain  any  thing  of  Grant's  move- 
ments? I  am  cut  off  now  from  all  information.  At  11  P.  M.  last 
night  we  took  the  original  line  of  breastworks  at  Hewlett's  house, 
and  the  rest  of  the  line  is  being  recovered.  I  have  directed  that 
the  battery  of  heavy  artillery  be  re-established,  and  the  rails  at 
Walthall  junction  be  replaced  and  the  road  reopened. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Headquarters  Clay's  House, 

10.30  A.  M.,  17th  June,  1864. 

His  Excellency  Jefferson  Davis,  Eichmond,  Virginia  : 

At  11  o'clock  last  night  took  breastworks  at  Hewlett's  house ; 
other  portions  of  same  line  were  retaken.  Pickett's  division  now 
occupies  trenches  from  Hewlett's  to  front  of  Clay's;  Field's  division 
is  on  the  right,  but  I  believe  whole  of  front  line  not  occupied. 
Battery  at  Hewlett's  is  being  re-established. 

Saw  five  vessels  sunk  by  enemy  in  French's  reach.  Behind  lie 
the  monitors;  counted  ten  (10)  steamers  within  the  reach.  Enemy 
made  two  attacks  last  night  on  Beauregard,  but  were  repulsed  with 
loss;  400  prisoners,  including  11  commissioned  officers  captured. 
He  has  not  entirely  recovered  his  original  position.  Some  fighting 
has  occurred  there  this  morning  without  result.     Have  ordered 

Field  Telegrams.  299 

railroad  at  Port  Walthall  destroyed  by  enemy  yesterday  to  be 
repaired  and  reopened. 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official :    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Clay's  House,  10.45  A.  M.,  17th  June,  '64. 
General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Petersburg  : 

Battery  at  Howlett's  is  being  re-established ;  hope  your  new 
line  will  protect  the  city.  I  would  recommend  it  being  established 
sufficiently  in  advance.  Your  line  from  Howlett's  to  Clay's  is  re- 
occupied.     Enemy  still  hold  some  portion  on  right  of  Clay's. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Clay's  House,  12  M.,  17th  Jane,  '64. 
General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Petersburg,  Virginia  : 

Telegrams  of  9  A.  M.  received.  Until  I  can  get  more  definite 
information  of  Grant's  movements,  I  do  not  think  it  prudent  to 
draw  more  troops  to  this  side  of  the  river. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Headquarters  Army  Northern  VrEGiNiA, 
June  17th,  1864. 
General  "Wade  Hampton, 

Vernon  Church,  via  Hanover  Junction  : 

Grant's  army  is  chiefly  on  south  side  of  James  river.  Cham- 
bliss  has  been  ordered  to  co-operate  with  you.  Communicate  with 

R.  E.  Lee. 
Official :    C.  S.  Venable,  A.  D.  C. 

Clay's  House,  1.45  P.  M.,  17th  June,  '64. 
General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Petersburg,  Virginia  : 

Fifth  corps  (Warren's)  crossed  Chickahominy  at  Long  bridge 
on  13th ;  was  driven  from  Riddel's  shop  by  General  Hill,  leaving 
many  dead  and  prisoners  on  our  hands.  That  night  it  marched  to 
Westover.  Some  prisoners  were  taken  from  it  on  the  14th ;  have 
not  heard  of  it  since.     All  prisoners  taken  here  are  from  Tenth 


R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official :    W.  H,  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

300  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

Clay's  House,  3.30  P.  M.,  17th  June,  '64. 
Major-General  W.  H.  F.  Lee, 

Malvern  Hill,  via  Meadoie  Station : 

Push  after  enemy,  and  endeavor  to  ascertain  what  has  be- 
come of  Grant's  army.     Inform  General  Hill. 

R.  E.  Lee. 

Lieutenant-General  A.  P.  Hill, 

Bidders  Shop,  via  Meadow  Station,  Y.  R.  R.  R.: 

As  soon  as  you  can  ascertain  that  Grant  has  crossed  James 
river,  move  up  to  Chaffin's  Bluff,  and  be  prepared  to  cross. 

R.  E.  Lee. 
Official :    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Clay's  House,  4.30  P.  M.,  17th  June,  '64. 

General  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Petersburg,  Virginia: 

Have  no  information  of  Grant's  crossing  James  river,  but 

upon  your  report  have  ordered  troops  up  to  Chaffin's  Bluff. 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official :    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Clay's  House,  4.30  P.  M.,  17th  June,  '64. 
Lieutenant-General  A.  P.  Hill, 

RiddeVs  Shop,  via  Meadow  Station  : 

General  Beauregard  reports  large  number  of  Grant's  troops 

crossed  James  river  above  Fort  Powhatan  yesterday.     If  you  have 

nothing  contradictory  of  this,  move  to  Chaffin's  Bluff. 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official :    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Clay's  House,  5  P.  M.,  17th  June,  '64. 
His  Excellency  Jeff.  Davis, 

Richmond,  Virginia  : 
At  4  P.  M.  assaulted  that  portion  of  our  front  line  held  by 
enemy  and  drove  him  from  it;  we  again  have  the  entire  line  from 
Howlett's  to  Dunn's  mill. 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 
Official:    W.  H.  Taylor,  A.  A.  G. 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  301 

Exlitanal  Ifaragt^aphB. 

We  Consolidate  our  May  and  June  N'umbees,  and  will  be  thus  enabled 
to  make  our  issue  hereafter  the  1st  instead  of  the  last  of  the  month,  as  many 
of  our  readers  seem  to  prefer.  It  is  all  the  same  to  our  subscribers,  and  they 
will  not  object  to  our  issuing  the  two  under  one  cover  since  it  is  a  convenience 
at  this  time  to  us. 

The  Nation  has  very  quietly  refused  to  accept  our  challenge  to  a  full 
discussion  of  the  question  of  the  "Treatment  of  Prisoners"  daring  the  war. 
Immediately  after  the  appearance  of  our  last  issue  containing  our  reply  to  its 
review,  we  addressed  them  the  following  private  letter  : 

Office  Southern  Historical  Society, 
No.  7  State  Capitol, 
Richmond,  Virginia,  April  27th,  1877. 
Editors  The  Nation : 

I  send  you  by  this  mail  a  copy  of  the  April  number  of  our  monthly  "  South- 
ern Historical  Society  Papers.,''''  which  is  just  out. 

You  will  find  that  we  publish  in  full  in  this  number  your  reply  to  our 
papers  on  the  Treatment  of  Prisoners,  with  such  comments  as  we  think 
proper,  and  that  we  propose  to  you  a  full  discussion  of  the  whole  question, 
promising  to  publish  your  articles  in  full  if  you,  loill  reciprocate. 
Awaiting  your  reply,  I  am,  yours  very  respectfully, 

J.  William  Jones, 
Secretary  Southern  Historical  Society. 

To  this  letter  we  have  received  no  reply. 

But  in  The  Nation  for  May  10th,  we  find  the  following  among  the  notes  : 
*'The  April  number  of  the  '•Southern  Historical  Society  Papers''  republishes 
in  full  the  criticism  published  in  these  columns  of  its  articles  on  the  '  Treat- 
ment of  Prisoners  at  the  South,'  with  comments.  It  proposes  a  full  discus- 
sion '  of  the  'whole  question,'  promising  to  'publish  your  [our]  articles  in 
full,'  provided  'you  [we]  will  reciprocate.'  We  are  compelled  to  decline  this 
polite  offer  for  want  of  space." 

"  Want  of  space  "  is  a  very  good  excuse ;  but  there  are  those  (unreasoning 
"Rebels  "  the  Nation  would  probably  call  them)  who  will  be  uncharitable 
enough  to  conclude  that  the  real  reason  why  this  able  champion  declines  the 
discussion  is  not  so  much  "want  of  space  "  as  the  want  of  facts  and  argu- 
ments to  put  into  the  space — that  The  Nation  is  more  fully  convinced  than  it  is 

302  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

■filling  to  admit  that  "the  stain  upon  the  National  honor  "can  be  best 
"wiped  out,"  not  by  a  manly  discussion,  but  by  silence  and  forgetfulness. 

For  ourselves,  while  we  claim  no  special  experience  or  skill  in  the  field  of 
polemics,  we  feel  that  our  position  on  this  question  is  so  impregnably  forti- 
fied by  the  facts,  that  we  stand  ready  to  defend  it  against  all  comers. 

The  Philadelphia  Weekly  Times  is  publishing  a  series  of  "annals  of 
the  war  "  written  by  both  Confederate  and  Federal  actors  in  the  great  drama. 
The  papers  are  well  written,  and  exceedingly  interesting,  and  some  of  them 
valuable  contributions  to  the  history  of  the  stirring  events  to  which  they 
relate.  At  some  future  time  we  propose  to  notice  some  of  the  articles  in 
detail.  But  we  can  only  say  now  that  Confederates  will  thank  the  Times 
for  allowing  its  readers  to  see  so  much  of  our  side  of  the  story  (e.  g.,  Judge 
Quid's  able  and  unanswerable  statement  of  the  '•'•Exchange''''  question). 
We  are  very  glad  to  be  able  to  see  the  other  side  presented  in  papers 
which  are,  in  the  main,  so  courteous,  and  which  are  so  much  fairer  than  our 
experience  has  led  us  to  expect  from  that  side. 

The  Appreciation  of  Competent  Judges  of  the  work  in  which  we  are 
engaged  has  been  very  gratifying.  Not  only  has  the  press  been  warm  in  its 
commendation  of  the  intei'est  and  value  of  our  work,  but  we  have  also  received 
private  assurances  from  leading  Confederates,  from  friends  in  Europe,  and 
from  prominent  Northern  soldiers,  that  our  publications  have  been  of  great 
historic  value.  We  have  rarely  alluded  to  this  in  our  Papers,  and  do  it  now 
only  because  we  feel  that  we  ought  to  let  our  readers  see  the  following  letter 
from  ex-President  Davis,  whose  opinions  in  reference  to  anything  pertaining 
to  Confederate  history  ought  to  have  (and  do  have)  the  highest  consideration 
with  our  people. 

We  give  his  letter  entire,  and  beg  that  our  friends  will  catch  its  spirit,  and 
give  us  practical  proof  of  their  interest  by  sustaining  us  in  our  work,  and 
asking  others  to  help  us. 

Mississippi  City,  Harbison  County,  Miss., 
15th  May,  1877. 
Rev.  J.  William  Jones,  Secretary  : 

My  Dear  Su-— I  have  read  with  great  satisfaction  the  back  numbers  of 
the  Papers  of  the  Southern  Historical  Society.  The  future  historian,  to  do 
justice  to  our  cause  and  conduct,  will  require  the  material  which  can  only  be 
furnished  by  contemporaneous  witnesses,  and  a  great  debt  is  due  to  the 
Society,  and  especially  to  you,  for  what  you  have  done  and  are  doing  to  save, 
while  there  is  yet  time,  the  scattered  records  and  unwritten  recollections  of 
the  events  of  the  war  against  the  Southern  States. 

Various  causes,  and  not  the  least  among  them,  such  entire  confidence  in 
the  rightousness  of  our  cause  as  gives  assurance  of  a  favorable  verdict,  have 
prevented  our  people  from  presenting,  or  even  carefullv  preserving,  the 
material  on  which  the  verdict  must  be  rendered  by  future  generations. 

Editorial  Paragraphs.  303 

The  Society  has  done  much  in  exposing  and  refuting  the  current  slanders 
in  regard  to  the  treatment  of  prisoners  of  war.  That  was  most  needful  for  the 
restoration  of  good  feeling,  and  sliould  be  welcome,  beyond  the  limits  of  the 
vindicated,  even  to  all  who  respect  trutli  and  eschew  deception. 

There  are  many  brilliant  exploits,  concerning  some  of  which  there  are  no 
official  reports  extant.  In  such  cases,  the  recollection  of  actors  would  be  a 
valuable  contribution  to  our  war  history.  You  have  done  so  much  to  excite 
a  willingness  to  furnish  the  material  for  history,  that  it  may  be  hoped  you 
will  be  able  to  draw  from  those  to  whom  it  is  rather  a  dread  than  a  pleasure 
to  see  themselves  "in  print,"  special  statements,  such  as  any  one  can  prepare 
who  can  write  a  business  letter.  It  is  not  syle,  but  facts  which  are  to  be 

With  the  hope  that  the  interest  felt  by  the  public  in  the  patriotic  work  of 
the  Society  will  be  increased  by  the  manifestation  of  its  power  for  usefulness, 
and  with  cordial  regard  for  you  personally, 
I  am,  yours  faithfully, 

Jefferson  Davis. 

Contributions  to  our  Archives  continue  to  come  in  and  are  always 
Since  our  last  we  acknowledge,  among  others,  the  following  : 

From  Yates  Snowden,  Esq.,  of  Charleston,  South  Carolina — "Bible  View 
of  Slavery,  by  Eev.  M.  J.  Eaphall,  M.  A.,  Ph.  Dr.^  Kabbi  preacher  at  the 
Synagogue,  Green  street.  New  York.  Declaration  of  the  causes  of  the  Seces- 
sion of  South  Carolina,  together  with  the  Ordinance  of  Secession  and  its 
signers.  Address  of  the  people  of  South  Carolina  to  the  people  of  the  slave- 
holding  States;  printed  by  order  of  the  Convention  in  1860.  Fast-day 
sermon  of  Kev.  James  H.  Elliott,  November  21st,  1860.  Keport  on  the 
address  of  a  portion  of  the  members  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Georgia, 
1860.  The  Battle  of  Fort  Sumpter,  April  13th,  1861.  The  correspondence 
of  the  Commissioners  of  South  Carolina  and  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  together  with  the  statement  of  Messrs.  Miles  and  Keitt.  Hon.  Jere 
Black  on  Wilson  and  Stanton,  and  Tliurlow  Weed  on  Early  Incidents  of  the 
Rebellion.  Journal  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  General  Council  of  the  Pro- 
testant Episcopal  church  in  the  Confederate  States  of  America,  held  in 
Augusta,  Georgia,  November  12-22,  1862.  In  Memoriam  of  George  Alfred 
Trenholm,  Ninth  Annual  Eeport  of  the  "  Home  "  for  the  Mothers,  Widows 
and  Daughters  of  the  Confederate  soldiers.  Map  of  Mobile  Bay.  Map  of 
Charleston  Harbor.  Mr.  Snowden  has  been  a  warm  friend  of  the  Society, 
and  a  frequent  contributor  to  its  archives. 

From  Graves  Renfroe,  Esq.,  of  Talladega,  Alabama — "The  Cradle  of  the 
Confederacy,"  or  the  Times  of  Troup,  Quitman  and  Yancey,  by  Joseph 
Hodgson,  of  Mobile,  Alabama,  1876.  Speech  of  Hon.  William  L.  Yancey,  of 
Alabama,  delivered  in  the  National  Democratic  Convention,  Charleston, 
April  28th,  1860. 

From  Rev.  H.  E.  Hayden,  Broivnsville,  Pennsylvania — Report  of  Adjutant- 
General  of  Pennsylvania  for  1863. 

From  ex-Governor  John  Letcher — Report  of  General  Charles  Dimmock, 
Chief  of  Ordnance  of  Virginia,  of  February  9th,  1863.    Governor  Letcher 

304  Southern  Historical  Society  Papers. 

is  constautlj^  placing  the  Society  under  obligations  for  valuable  papers  and 
documents,  and  promises  still  others  in  future. 

Major  J.  M.  McCiie,  of  EockingJmm— Several  newspapers  of  value. 

From  Graham  Daves,  Esq.,  of  Wilmington,  North  Carolina— Ro&ter  of  the 
Confederate  officers  who,  while  prisoners  of  war,  were  placed  under  fire  of 
our  own  guns  at  Morris  Island. 

From  Colonel  William  Allan,  of  Baltimore  {former  Chief  of  Ordnance, 
Second  Corps,  Army  Northern  Virginia)— Two  papers  on  the  battle  of  Gettys- 
\)uvg — valuable  additions  to  our  series. 

From  Fobert  Clarke  ^  Co.,  Cincinnati — The  Washington-Crawford  letters 
concerning  Western  lands,  arranged  and  annotated  by  C.  W.  Butterfield. 

Fro7n  B.  M.  J.  Paynter,  Esq.,  of  Richmond — The  loan  of  files  of  telegrams 
sent  from  the  Confederate  army  headquarters  on  the  south  side  of  James 
river,  May,  June,  August  and  September,  1864.  Many  of  these  telegrams 
are  autographs  of  Generals  K.  E.  Lee,  Beauregard,  Ransom,  Hoke,  Heth, 
Pickett,  &c.,  and  are  both  interesting  and  valuable. 

From  the  Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society — "  Catalogue  "  for  1873-1875, 
in  three  volumes. 

From  General  C.  M.  Wilcox — A  paper  on  the  defence  of  Fort  Gregg. 

From  Captain  W.  L.  Bitter,  Secretary  Society  of  the  Army  and  Navy  of 
the  Confederate  States  in  Maryland — Resolutions  passed  by  the  Society  on  the 
death  of  General  Cooper. 










Late  Lieut.  Colonel  of  Artillery,  C.  S.  A. 




In  consequence  of  the  general  loss  and  destruction  of  Confede- 
rate records,  and  a  refusal  on  the  part  of  the  War  Department  to 
permit  free  access  to  such  as  have  been  preserved  at  Washington, 
the  preparation  of  the  following  Roster  was  environed  with  no  in- 
considerable difficulty.  The  accompanying  pages  embody  the  re- 
sult of  much  toil  and  inquiry.  Fortunately  many  important  wai 
documents,  original  returns  and  official  reports  still  exist  in  private 
hands,  and  from  them  material  aid  has  been  derived.  In  not  a 
few  instances  the  necessary  information  touching  the  commissions 
and  commands  of  general  officers  has  been  obtained  either  from  the 
officers  themselves  or  from  the  friends  of  such  as  fell  in  the  Con- 
federate struggle,  or  have  since  died.  While  perfectness  cannot  be 
claimed  for  it,  this  Roster  may  nevertheless  be  accepted  as  nearly 
complete.  No  labor  like  the  present  having  been  as  yet  attempted, 
it  is  offered  in  the  hope  that  it  will  supply  an  existing  deficiency 
and  prove  a  convenient  roll  of  the  Confederate  Dramatis  Personse 
of  the  greatest  of  modern  Revolutions — of  which,  in  the  language 
of  Phinius  Minor,  it  may  be  truthfully  affirmed,  Si  computes  annoSf 
exiguum  tempus;  si  vices  rerum,  sevum  putes. 


New  York  City,  May  Isi,  1876. 



His  Excellency  Jefferson  Davis,  Mississippi,  President  of  the  Confederate 
States  and  Commander-in-Cliief  of  the  Army  and  Navy. 

Hon.  Alexander  H.  Stephens,  Georgia,  Vice  President  of  the  Confederate 
States  and  President  of  the  Senate. 


i  Colonel  Joseph  E.  Davis,  Mississippi,  A.  D.  C,  w^ith  rank  of  Colonel  of 
Cavalry ;  in  1863  entered  the  field  as  Brigadier-General. 

Colonel  G.  W.  Custis  Lee,  Virginia,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel  of 
Cavalry ;  subsequently  entered  the  field  and  rose  to  the  grade  of  Major- 

Colonel  Joseph  C.  Ives,  A.  D.  C,  vv^ith  rank  of  Colonel  of  Cavalry. 

Colonel  Wm.  Preston  Johnston,  Kentucky,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel 
of  Cavalry. 

Colonel  Wm.  M.  Browne,  Georgia,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel  of 
Cavalry ;  subsequently  entered  the  field  and  rose  to  the  grade  of  Brigadier- 

Colonel  John  Taylor  Wood,  Louisiana,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel  of 

Colonel  James  Chestnut,  Jr.,  South  Carolina,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel 
of  Cavalry ;  subsequently  entered  the  field  and  rose  to  the  grade  of  Brigadier- 

Colonel  Francis  K.  Lubbock,  Texas,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel  of 
Cavalry ;  also  a  Confederate  Governor  of  Texas. 

Robert  Josselyn,  Mississippi,  Private  Secretary  to  the  President  during  the 
Provisional  Government. 

Burton  N.  Harrison,  Mississippi,  Private  Secretary  to  the  President  during 
the  Permanent  Government. 

Colonel  John  M.  Huger,  A.  D.  C,  with  rank  of  Colonel  of  Cavalry. 

Colonel  John  B.  Sale,  Military  Secretary,  with  rank  of  Colonel  of  Cavalry, 
to  General  Braxton  Bragg,  who  was  assigned  to  duty  at  the  Seat  of  Govern- 
ment at  Richmond,  and,  under  the  direction  of  the  President,  was  charged 
with  the  conduct  of  military  operations  in  the  armies  of  the  Confederacy. 
See  General  Orders,  No.  23,  A.  and  I.  General's  otfice,  Richmond,  Virginia, 
February  24th,  1864.  Colonel  Sale  was  thus  brought  into  intimate  relatioa- 
ghip  with  the  President's  military  family. 



Hon.  Robert  Toombs,  Georgia,  First  Secretary  of  State;  subsequently 
entered  the  Confederate  army  with  the  rank  of  Brigadier-General;  also  a 
Delegate  to  Provisional  Congress.  i 

Hon.  E.  M.  T.  Hunter,  Virginia,  succeeded  General  Toombs  as  Secretary 
of  State ;  Delegate  to  Provisional  Congress  and  Confederate  Senator  from. 

Hon.  Judah  P.  Benjamin,  Louisiana,  succeeded  Mr.  Hunter  as  Secretary 
of  State. 


Hon.  Judah  P.  Benjamin,  Louisiana,  first  Attorney  General. 

Hon.  Thomas  Bragg,  North  Carolina,  second  Attorney  General. 

Hon.  T.  H.  Watts,  Alabama,  third  Attorney-General;  subsequently  elected 
Governor  of  Alabama. 

Hon.  George  Davis,  North  Carolina,  fourth  Attorney-General ;  Delegate  to 
Provisional  Congress,  Senator  from  North  Carolina,  &c. 
,  Hon.  Wade  Keys,  Assistant  Attorney-General. 


Hon.  Charles  G.  Memminger,  Soutli  Carolina,  fii-st  Secretary  of  the 

Hon.  George  A.  Trenholm,  South  Carolina,  second  Secretary  of  the 

Hon.  E.  C.  Elmore,  Alabama,  Treasurer. 

Hon.  Philip  Clayton,  Georgia,  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 

Lewis  Cruger,  South  Carolina,  Comptroller  and  Solicitor. 

Boiling  Baker,  Georgia,  First  Auditor. 

Robert  Tyler,  Virginia,  Eegister. 


Hon.  Leroy  P.  Walker,  Alabama,  first  Secretary  of  War;  afterwarda 
entered  the  army  with  the  rank  of  Brigadier-General, 

Hon.  Judah  P.  Benjamin,  Louisiana,  second  Secretary  of  War;  also  Secre- 
tary of  State  and  Attorney-General. 

Hon.  George  W.  Randolph,  Virginia,  third  Secretary  of  War;  at  one  time 
in  the  army  with  the  rank  of  Brigadier-General. 

Hon.  James  A.  Seddon,  Virginia,  fourth  Secretary  of  War;  Delegate  from 
Virginia  to  Provisional  Congress. 

Major-General  John  C.  Breckinridge,  Kentucky,  fifth  Secretary  of  War; 
Bummoned  from  the  field  [where  he  was  serving  with  the  rank  and  command 
of  a  Major-General]  to  discharge  the  duties  of  tliis  office. 


Albert  Taylor  Bledsoe,  LL.  D.,  Virginia,  Assistant  Secretary  of  War, 

Hon.  John  A.  Campbell,  Louisiana,  Assistant  Secretary  of  War. 

Greneral  Samuel  Cooper,  Virginia,  Adjutant  and  Inspector  General. 

Colonel  A.  C.  Myers,  first  Quartermaster-General. 

Brigadier-General  A.  K.  Lawton,  Georgia,  second  Quartermaster-General; 
summoned  from  the  field,  where  he  was  serving  with  the  rank  and  command 
of  Brigadier-General,  to  discharge  the  duties  of  this  office. 

Colonel  L.  B.  Northrup,  South  Carolina,  first  Commissary-General. 

Colonel  L.  M.  St.  John,  second  Commissary-General;  afterwards  promoted 
to  the  grade  of  Brigadier-General. 

Colonel  Josiah  Gorgas,  Virginia,  Chief  of  Ordnance ;  afterwards  promoted 
to  the  grade  of  Brigadier-General. 

Colonel  T.  S.  Rhett,  in  charge  of  the  Ordnance  Bureau. 

Colonel  J.  F.  Gilmer,  North  Carolina,  Chief  of  the  Engineer  Bureau; 
afterwards  promoted  to  the  grade  of  Major-General. 

Colonel  S.  P.  Moore,  M.  D.,  South  Carolina,  Surgeon-General;  afterwards 
promoted  to  the  grade  of  Brigadier-General. 

Colonel  John  S.  Preston,  South  Carolina,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Con- 
scription ;  afterwards  promoted  to  the  grade  of  Brigadier-General. 

Colonel  T.  P.  August,  Superintendent  of  the  Bureau  of  Conscription. 

Brigadier-General  John  H.  Winder,  Maryland,  Commanding  Prison  Camps 
'and  Provost  Marshal  General. 

Colonel  Robert  Ould,  Virginia,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Exchange. 

Colonel  Richard  Morton,  Chief  of  the  Nitre  and  Mining  Bureau. 

Colonel  R.  G.  H.  Kean,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  War. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  I.  H.  Carrington,  Virginia,  Assistant  Provost  Marshal 
Genera'l,  on  duty  at  Richmond,  Virginia. 

Colonel  Thomas  L.  Bayne,  Louisiana,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Foreign 


Hon.  Stephen  R.  Mallory,  Florida,  Secretary  of  the  Navy. 

Captain  French  Forrest,  Virginia,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Orders  and 

Commander  John  M.  Brooke,  Florida,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Ordnance 
and  Hydrography. 


Hon.  John  H.  Reagan,  Texas,  Postmaster-General;  Delegate  from  Texas 
to  the  Provisional  Congress. 
H.  St.  George  Offutt,  Virginia,  Chief  of  Contract  Bureau. 
B.  N.  Clements,  Tennessee,  Chief  of  Bureau  of  Appointment. 
J.  L.  Harrell,  Alabama,  Chief  of  Finance  Bureau. 

Colonel  Ruf  us  R.  Rhodes,  Mississippi,  Commissioner  of  Patents. 




Samuel  Cooper.... 
Albert  S.  Johnston. 

Robert  E.  Lee. 

Joseph  E.  Jolinston.... 

Gustav.  T.  Beauregard. 

Braxton  Bragg. 


Virginia . 

Virginia , 

Virginia , 



To  Whom  to 


Aug.  31, 1861. 
Aug.  31, 1861. 

Aug.  31, 1861. 

Aug,  31, 1861. 

Aug.  31, 1861. 

Apl.  12,1862. 











June  14, 











General  Provisional  Armt 

1  Edmund  B^rby Smith..  Florida....  Trans-Miss.  Dept Feb.  19,1864.  Feb.  19,1864. 

llJohn  B.Hood ITexas., 

General  with 

I  July  18,  1864.  [July  18,1864.1 

NOTK.— At  the  times  of  their  resignations  from  the  United  States  army  in  1861,  five  of  the 
above  named  officers  held  the  following  ranks  respectively : 

General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  was  Quartermaster-General  U.  S.  A.,  with  the  rank  of  Brlgadl  er 

General  Samuel  Cooper  was  Adjutant-General  U.  S.  A.,  with  the  rank  of  ColoneL 



Aug.  31,  1861, 

Apl.    23,  1863. 
Aug.  31,  1861. 

Aug.  31, 1861, 

Apl.    23,  1863. 

Aug.  31, 1861, 

ApU    23,1863. 

Aug.  31, 1861, 

Apl.    23,1863. 

Apl.    12, 1862, 


Adjutant  and  Inspector-General. 

Killed  at  the  Battle  of  Shiloh ;  assigned  by  Special  Order  No» 
149,  A.  &  .1  G.  O.,  Sept.  10, 1861,  to  the  command  of  Depart- 
ment Number  2,  embracing  Tennessee  and  Arkansas,  that 
part  of  Mississippi  west  of  the  N.  O.  J.  &  G.  N.  R.  R.  and  the 
G.  N.  &  C.  R.  R.,  and  the  military  operations  in  Kentucky, 
Missouri,  Kansas,  and  the  Indian  country  west  of  Missouri 
and  Arkansas,  &c.,  &c. 

Nominated  and  confirmed  as  "General-in-Chief  of  the  Armies 
of  the  Confederate  States  of  America"  January  31, 1865;  at 
first  appointed  Major-General  of  the  military  forces  of  Vir- 
ginia ;  in  command  of  the  operations  in  the  Trans-Alleghany 
region;  in  the  winter  of  1861  in  command  of  the  South  Caro- 
lina and  Georgia  coast ;  from  the  spring  of  1862  to  the  close  of 
the  war  In  command  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  <tc., 

At  first  Major-General  of  Virginia  State  forces;  assigned  by 
President  Davis  to  command  at  Harper's  Ferry ;  at  Manassas ; 
in  command,  on  the  Peninsula,  of  the  Department  of  Northern 
Virginia ;  June  9, 1863,  assigned  to  command  of  forces  in  Mis- 
sissippi ;  December  18,  1863,  assigned  to  command  of  the 
Army  of  Tennessee ;  February  23,  I860,  again  in  command  of 
the  Army  of  Tennessee  in  North  Carolina  and  of  all  troops  In. 
the  Department  of  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida,  Ac, 

Assigned  to  command  at  Charleston,  S.  C;  at  Manassas ;  in 
command  of  the  District  of  the  Potomac;  March  5,  1862,  as- 
sumed command  of  the  Army  of  the  Mississippi ;  subsequently 
In  command  of  the  Department  of  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and 
Florida,  of  North  Carolina  and  South  Virginia,  .fee,  <tc. 

Assigned  to  duty  at  the  Seat  of  Government,  and,  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  President,  charged  with  the  conduct  of  military 
operations  in  the  armies  of  the  Confederacy;  see  General 
Orders  No.  23 ;  A.  &  I.  General's  office,  Richmond,  Va.,  Feb- 
ruary 24, 1864 ;  had  previously  commanded  Department  of  tha 
West,  Army  of  Tennessee,  Second  Corps,  Army  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, &c.,  &c. 

Confederate  States. 

Commanding  District  of  Louisiana,  occupied  by  Taylor's  [after- 
wards Buckner's]  corps,  consisting  of  Walker's  and  Polignac's 
divisions  and  Green's  cavalry  brigade ;  the  District  of  Texas, 
defended  by  Magruder's  corps,  consisting  of  Forney's,  Mc- 
culloch's and  Wharton's  divisions ;  the  District  of  Arkansas, 
held  by  Price's  corps,  consisting  of  the  divisions  of  Price  and 
Churchill  and  the  brigades  of  Fagan,  Shelby  and  Marmaduke, 
and  the  district  of  the  Indian  Territory — the  whole  constituting 
the  Trans-Mississippi  Department. 

Commanding  Army  of  Tennessee. 

General  Albert  S.  Johnston  was  Colonel  of  the  Second  cavairy  U.  S.  A.  with  the  rank  ot 
Brevet  Brigadier-General. 
General  Robert  B.  Lee  was  Colonel  of  the  First  cavalry  U.  S.  A. 
General  G.  T.  Beauregard  was  Captain  and  Brevet  Major  Corps  of  Engineers  U.  S.  A. 
See  Official  Army  Register  for  September,  1S61,  page  61 





James  Longstreet 

E.  Kirby  Smith 

Leonidas  Folk 

Theophllus  H.  Holmes. 
William  J.  Hardee 

Thomas  J.  Jackson 

JohnC.  Pemberton..  . 

Richard  S.  Ewell , 

Ambrose  P.  Hill 

Daniel  H.Hill 

John  B.  Hood 

Richard  Taylor 

Stephen  D.  Lee 

Jubal  A.  Early 


Alabama. . . 

Florida . 


N.  Carolina 

Virginia . . , 

Virginia . . , 
Virginia . . , 
Virginia . . 

N.  Carolina 

To  Whom  to 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Gen.  B.  Bragg. 

Gen.  B.  Bragg. 

Gen.  B.  Bragg. 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Gen.  B.  Bragg., 
Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 
Gen.  R.  E.  Lee.. 

Louisiana. . 
S.  Carolina. 

Virginia.. . . 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Texas Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston . . 

Gen.  E.  K.  Smith 

Oct.    11,1862. 

Oct.    11,1862, 

Oct.    11,1862, 

Oct.  13,  1862. 
Oct.    11,1562. 

Oct.    11,1862. 

Oct.  13,  1862. 
May  23,1868. 
May  23, 1863. 

JuV  11,  1863. 

Feb.  11,1864. 

May  16,  1864. 
June  23,  1864. 

May  31, 1864. 

Oct.     9, 1862, 

Oct.     9, 1862, 

Oct.   10,1862. 

Oct.  10,1862, 
Oct.   10,1862, 

Oct.    10,1862. 

Oct.  10,1862. 
May  23,1863. 
May  24,1863. 

July  11,1863. 

Sept.  20, 1863. 

April  8, 1864. 
June  23, 1864. 

May  31,1864. 




Oct.   11,1862. 

Oct.   11,1868. 

Oct.   11,1862. 

Oct.  13,1862. 
Oct.   11,1862. 

Oct.   11,1862. 

Oct.  13,1862. 
Feb.  2, 1864. 
Jan.  15,1864. 

Feb.  11, 1864. 
May  16, 1864. 

May  31,1864. 


In  command  of  1st  corps,  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  &c.,  &c. 
At  the  Battle  of  Preaericksburg,  in  November,  1862,  General 
Longstreet's  corps  was  composed  of  the  divisions  of  Anderson, 
Pickett,  Ransom.  Hood  and  McLaws,  and  the  artillery 
battalions  of  Colonels  Alexander  and  Walton;  In  October, 
1863,  commanding  corps  In  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  composed 
of  the  divisions  of  McLaws,  Preston,  Walker  and  Hood,  and 
the  artillery  battalions  of  Alexander,  Williams,  Leyden  and 
Robertson ;  Pickett's  division  belonged  to  this  corps. 

Promoted  General  P.  A.  C.  S.  February  19,  1864 ;  commanded 
Department  of  East  Tennessee  and  Kentucky,  North  Georgia 
and  West  North  Carolina,  with  infantry  division*  of  Steven- 
son, McCown  and  Heth,  and  the  cavalry  brigades  of  Forrest, 
Morgan,  Scott  and  Ashby ;  also  in  command  of  Trans-Missis- 
sippi Department. 

Killed,  June  14, 1S64,  on  Pine  Mountain,  near  Marietta,  Georgia ; 
at  the  time  of  his  death  in  command  of  the  Array  of  Missis- 
sippi, co-operating  with  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  both  under 
command  of  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston ;  commanded  corps 
Army  of  Tennessee,  composed  of  the  divisions  of  Cheatham, 
Withers  and  McCown ;  commanded  Army  of  Tennessee  at 
Chattanooga,  August,  1863 ;  also,  in  1863  and  1864,  commanded 
Department  of  Alabama,  Mississippi  and  East  Louisiana; 
assigned  to  command  of  Trans-Mississippi  Department. 

In  command,  August,  1863,  of  the  parolled  prisoners  of  Missis- 
sippi, Arkansas,  Missouri,  Texas  and  Louisiana,  recently  form- 
ing part  of  the  garrisons  of  Vicksburg  and  Port  Hudson. 

In  command  of  the  Department  of  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and 
Florida ;  his  corps,  in  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  composed  of 
the  Divisions  of  Cheatham,  Cleyburne,  Stevenson  and  Walker ; 
subsequently  Stevenson's  division  was  exchanged  for  Bates' 
division ;  in  command  of  the  Army  of  Tennessee  at  Dalton, 
Georgia.  December  21, 1863. 

Died  May  10, 1863 ;  commanding  Second  corps  Army  of  North- 
ern Virginia.  At  the  Battle  of  Fredericksburg  this  corps  was 
composed  of  the  divisions  of  A.  P.  Hill,  D.  H.  Hill,  Early  and 
Taliaferro.  Colonel  Brown's  regiment  of  artillery  and  numerons 
light  batteries. 

Resigned  May  18, 1864 ;  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Mississippi  and  East  Louisiana. 

Commanding  Second  corps  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  the  De- 
partment of  Richmond,  &c. 

Killed  In  front  of  Petersburg,  Va.;  commanding  Third  corps 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  &c.,  composed  of  the  divisions  of 
Anderson,  Heth  and  Pender. 

In  October,  1863,  commanding  corps,  Array  of  Tennessee, 
composed  of  the  divisions  of  Cleburne  and  Stewart;  corps 
afterwards  composed  of  the  divisions  of  Cleburne  and 

Promoted  General  with  temporary  rank  July  18,  1864;  com- 
manding corps  in  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  composed  of  the 
divisions  of  Hindmaa,  Stevenson  and  Stewart. 

Commanding  Department  of  Alabama,  Mississippi  and  West 

Assigned  to  the  command  of  the  Department  of  Alabama,  Mis- 
sissippi, East  Louisiana  and  West  Tennessee ;  subsequently 
in  command  of  Hood's  old  corps.  Army  of  Tennessee,  com- 
posed of  the  divisions  of  Hill,  Stevenson  and  Clayton. 

Commanded  Second  corps  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  composed 
of  the  divisions  of  Rodes,  Gordon  and  Ramseur,  and  three 
battalions  of  light  artillery  under  comraand  of  Brigadier- 
General  Long. 




To  Whom  to 












Richard  H.  Anderson. . 

S.  Carolina. 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee 

June   1,  ISW. 

May   31,1864. 


Ambrose  P.  Stewart. .. 

Tennessee . 

Gen.  J.  E.Johnston.. 

June  23, 1S64. 

June  23,  1864. 


Nathan  B.  Forrest 


Gen.  Beauregard 

Feb.  28,1865. 

Feb.  28,  1865. 


Wade  Hampton 

S.  Carolina. 

Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston. . 


Simon  B.  Buckner 

Joseph  Wheeler.. 



Georgia. , . . 

Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston.. 

Feb.  28,  1865. 

Feb.  28,  1865. 


John  B.  Gordon 

Georgia. . . . 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee 





ORDER  OF  RANK— Continued. 











June  1, 1864. 

Commanded  Longstreet's  corps  while  lie  was  disabled  by  wounds 
encountered  in  the  Battle  of  the  Wilderness. 

Corps  composed  of  the  divisions  of  French,  Loringand  Walthall, 
Army  of  the  West. 

Command  composed  of  the  cavalry  divisions  of  Chalmers,  Jack- 
son and  Buford,  McCulloch's  Second  Missouri  cavalry  regiment 
as  a  special  scouting  force,  and  the  Mississippi  militia ;  Army 
of  the  West. 

Commanding  cavalry  in  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston's  army 
during  General  Sherman's  march  through  the  Carolinas,  and 
Butler's  division  of  cavalry  from  the  Army  of  Northern  Vir- 

Commanding  District  of  Louisiana. 

Commanding  cavalry  divisions  of  Allen,  Humes  and  Dibbrell, 
composed  of  the  brigades  of  Allen,  Anderson,  Breckinridge, 
Crews,  Dibbrell,  Ferguson,  Harrison,  Iverson  and  Lewis; 
again,  commanding  cavalry  corps.  Army  of  Tennessee,  com- 
posed of  the  divisions  of  Martin,  Kelley  and  Humes,  and  at 
another  time  a  cavalry  division  In  the  Army  of  Tennessee, 
composed  of  the  brigades  of  Hagan,  Wharton  and  Morgan. 

Commanding  Second  Army  Corps,  Army  of  Northern  Virgiala ; 
at  the  time  of  General  Lee's  surrender,  General  Longstreet  was 
in  command  of  one  wing  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia 
and  General  Gordon  of  the  other. 

Marcli  2, 1865. 





David  B.  Twiggs. 
Leonldas  Polk.. . . 

Braxton  Bragg 

Earl  Van  Dorn 

Gustavua  W.  Smith. . . . 

Tlieopliilus  H.  Holmes, 

William  J.  Hardee. 
Benjamin  Huger... 
James  Longstreet.. 

J.  Bankhead  Magruder. 
Mansfield  Lovell 

Thomas  J.  Jackson. . 

E.  Kirby  Smith. 

George  B.  Crittenden. 
John  C.  Pemberton. . 

Richards.  Ewell.... 
William  W.  Loring. 

Sterling  P^lce 





N.  Carolina 

Georgia. . . . 
S.  Carolina. 
Alabama. . . 

Virginia . . 

Virginia , 

Florida . 

Virginia . . 

Virginia . . 
Florida . . . 


To  Whom  to 

Gen.  R.  B.  Lee.. . 

Maj.  Gen.  Huger. 

May  22,1861 
June  25, 1861. 

Sept.  12, 1861, 

Sept.  19, 1861, 
Sept.  19, 1861, 

Oct.     7, 1861. 

Oct.  7, 1861. 
Oct.  7,  1861. 
Oct.  7, 1861. 

Oct.  7, 1861. 
Oct.     7,  1861. 

Oct.     7,  1861. 

Oct.    11,  1861. 

Nov.  9, 1861. 
Feb.  23,1862. 

Jan.   24,1862. 

Feb.  15,  1862. 

March  6, 1862. 

May  22,1861. 
June  25, 1861 

Sept.  12, 1861, 

Sept,  19, 1861, 
Sept.  19, 1861, 

Oct.     7, 1861. 

Oct.  7, 1861. 
Oct.  7, 1861. 
Oct.     7, 1861. 

Oct.  7, 1861. 
Oct.     7, 1861. 

Oct,     7, 1861. 

Oct.    11,1861. 

Nov.  9,1861. 
Jan.   14,1862. 

Jan.  24,1862. 

Feb.  16,1862. 

March  6, 1862. 




Ang.  29, 1861, 
Aug.  29, 1861. 

Dec.  13,1861. 

Dec.  13,  1861, 
Dec.  13,  1861, 

Dec.  13,1861, 

Dec.  13,1861. 

Dec.  13,1861. 

Dec.  13.1861. 

Dec.  13,1861. 

Dec.  13,1861. 

Dec.  13,1861. 

Dec.  13,1861, 

Jan.  13,1862. 

Jan.  24,1862. 

Feb.  15, 1862, 

Feb.  17,1864. 

Uarche,  1862. 


Died  July  15th,  1862;  in  command,  at  New  Orleans,  of  the- 

Military  Department  of  Louisiana. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  10,  1862;  commanding 
First  corps,  Army  of  the  Mississippi,  composed  of  the  divisions 
of  Clark  and  Cheatham,  and  Maxey's  detached  brigade ;  origi- 
nally assigned  to  command  of  Department  No.  2,  comprising 
the  defences  of  the  Mississippi  river ;  also  in  command  of  the 
Armies  of  Mississippi  and  Kentucky  on  the  retreat  from. 

Promoted  General  C.  8.  A.  April  12, 1862 ;  commanding  Army 
of  Tennessee,  &c.,  &c. 

Commanding  Army  of  the  District  of  the  Mississippi. 

Resigned  February  17, 1863 ;  assigned  to  the  command  of  the- 
Second  corps  A»my  of  the  Potomac ;  afterwards  in  command 
of  the  First  division  in  General  J.  E.  Johnston's  Army  of  Vir- 
ginia; subsequently  relieved  General  Holmes  of  the  command 
at  Fredericksburg ;  at  Yorktown  commanded  division  com- 
posed of  the  brigades  of  Whiting,  Hood,  Hampton,  Pettigrew 
and  Hatton,  &c.,  &c. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  10,  1862;  assigned  tO' 
the  command  of  Confederate  forces  in  North  Carolina ;  sub- 
sequently in  command  of  the  District  of  Arkansas,  &c.,  &c.; 
at  one  time  in  command  of  Daniel's,  Walker's  and  Wise'a 
brigades,  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  10, 1862 ;  commanding 
Third  corps,  Army  of  the  Mississippi,  composed  of  the  brigades 
of  Leddell,  Cleburne,  Wood,  Marmaduke  and  Hawthorne. 

In  command  at  Norfolk,  Virginia;  division  in  the  field  near 
Richmond,  Va.,  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Mahone,  Wright, 
Blanchard  and  Armistead. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  9,  1862;  commanding 
First  corps  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  <fec.,  &c.;  division  com- 
posed of  the  brigades  of  Kemper,  Pickett,  Wilcox,  Anderson, 
Pryor  and  Featherston ;  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

On  duty  on  the  Peninsula;  subsequently  in  command  of  the 
District  of  Texas,  New  Mexico  and  Arizona. 

In  command  of  New  Orleans,  &c.,  &c.;  afterwards  In  command 
of  First  division,  Army  of  the  District  of  .Mississippi,  composed 
of  the  brigades  of  Rust,  Villepique  and  Bowen. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  10,  1862;  assigned  to 
the  command  of  the  Army  of  the  Monongahela ;  later  com- 
mand consisted  of  the  divisions  of  A.  P.  Hill,  Ewell,  Rodes, 
and  Jackson's  old  division. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  9,  1862;  commanded 
reserve  division.  Army  of  the  Potomac,  consisting  of  Trim- 
ble's, Taylor's  and  Blzey's  brigades. 

Resigned  October  23, 1862;  commanding  military  operations  in 
East  Tennessee  and  East  Kentucky. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  October  10,  1862;  assigned  to 
the  command  of  the  Department  of  South  Carolina,  Georgia 
and  Florida. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  May  23, 1868 ;  commanding  De- 
partment of  Richmond ;  division  composed  of  the  brigades  of 
Elzey,  Trimble  and  Taylor. 

Commanding  Department  of  Western  Virgin.^a;  subsequently 
commanded  division  in  Jackson's  corps,  and  afterwards  a  di- 
vision In  the  Department  of  Alabama,  Mississippi  and  East 

Major-General  commanding  Missouri  State  Guard,  and  received 
with  that  rank  Into  Confederate  service ;  commanding  District 
of  Arkansas,  Trans-Mississippi  Department ;  in  1S62  in  com- 
mand of  the  Army  of  the  West ;  in  1864  division  composed  of 
the  brigades  of  Drayton,  Churchill,  Tappan  and  Parsons. 














Benjamin  F.  Cheatham 

Samuel  Jones 

John  P.  McCown 

Daniel  Harvey  Hill.... 
Jones  M.  Withers 

T.  C.  Hindman 

John  C.  Breckinridge. . 

Lafayette  ^cLaws 

Ambrose  P.  Hill 

Richard  H.  Anderson. . 

J.  E.  B.  Stuart 

Richard  Taylor 

Simon  B.  Buckner 



Virginia , 


N.  Carolina 

To  Whom  to 

Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston. 

Alabama...  Gen.  B.  Bragg. 

Arkansas . , 

Kentucky. , 


Virginia . . . 
S.  Carolina. 



Gen.  Beauregard. 

Gen.  Beauregard. 

Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston. 

Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston. 
Gen.  R.  E.  Lee 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 
Gen.  B.  Bragg.. 


Mch.  14,  1862. 

Mch.  14, 1862. 

Mch.  14, 1862. 
Mch.  26, 1862. 
Aug.  16, 1862. 

ApL.  18, 1862. 
Apl.  18,1862. 

May  23,1862. 

May  26,1862. 
Julfr  14,1862. 

July  25,1862. 

July  28,1862. 
Aug.  16, 1862. 






Mch.  10, 


Mch.  10, 


Mch.  10, 


Mch.  26, 


AprU  6, 


ApL   14, 


ApL   14, 


May  23, 


May  26, 


July  14, 


July  25, 


July  28, 


Aug.  16, 




ORDER  OF  RANK— Continued. 

Date  of 


Mch.  14,  1S62. 

Mch.  14,  1862. 

Mch.  14,  1862. 
Mch.  26,  1862. 
Sept.  26,  1S62. 

Apl.  18,  1868. 
Apl.    18,  1862. 

Sept.  26,  1862. 

Sept.  26,  186z. 
Sept.  26,  1862. 

Sept.  26, 1862. 

Sept.  26,  1862. 
Sept,  26,  1862. 


Division  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Maney,  Smith,  Wright  and 
Strahl ;  in  January,  1864,  in  command  of  Hardee's  corps;  di- 
vision afterwards  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Maney,  Wright, 
Strahl  and  Vaughan  ;  at  anothpr  time,  of  the  brigades  of  Jack- 
son, Maney,  Smith,  Wright  and  Strahl ;  Army  of  Tennessee. 

In  1864  in  command  of  the  Department  of  South  Carolina, 
Georgia  and  Florida;  in  1862  commanding  Second  corps,  Army 
of  the  Mississippi,  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Anderson, 
Richard  and  Walker ;  again  in  command  of  the  Department 
of  West  Virginia  and  East  Tennessee. 

Commanding  Army  of  the  West,  composed  of  the  divisions  of 
Little,  McCown  and  Maury  ;  again,  in  command  of  a  division 
in  Polk's  corps.  Army  of  Tennessee,  composed  of  the  brigades 
of  Ector,  Vance  and  McNair. 

Division  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Deas,  Manigault,  Shoup 
and  Brantley ;  also  commanding  division.  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia,  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Doles,  Iverson,  Ramseur, 
Rodes  and  Colquitt. 

Commanding  reserve  corps.  Army  of  the  Mississippi,  composed 
of  the  brigades  of  Gardner,  Chalmers,  Jackson  and  Manigault ; 
also  commanded  division  in  PoIk  s  corps.  Army  of  Tennessee, 
composed  of  the  brigades  of  Deas,  Chalmers,  Walthall  and 

Division  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Deas.  Walthall,  Manigault 
and  Anderson,  Polk's  corps.  Army  of  Tennessee ;  at  one  time 
in  command  of  a  corps  in  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  composed 
of  the  divisions  of  Hindman,  Breckinridge  and  Stewart ;  again, 
division  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Tucker,  Deas,  Manigault 
and  Walthall. 

Afterwards  Secretary  of  War;  division  composed  of  the  brigades 
of  Helm,  Dan'l  W.  Adams  and  Stovall ;  in  1862  commanding 
division,  Van  Dorns  Army,  District  of  Mississippi;  in  De- 
cember, 1862,  commanding  cavalry  division,  Polk's  corps.  Army 
of  Tennessee,  composed  of  the  IJrigades  of  Hanson,  Palmer 
and  Walker;  in  1863  division  composed  of  the  brigades  of 
Helm,  Preston,  Brown  and  Adams.        » 

Division  composed  of  the  brigades  of  Kershaw,  Wofiford,  Hum- 
phreys and  Bryan;  m  1864  in  command  of  the  District  of 
Georgia;  at  the  battle  of  ChancellorsviUe,  division  composed 
of  the  brigades  of  Wofford,  Kershaw,  Barksdale  and  Semmes. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  May  24,  1863;  commanding  di- 
vision in  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  shortly  after  the  battle  of  Spotsyl- 
vania; division  composed  of  Mahone's,  Wright's,  Armistead's 
and  Martin's  brigades ;  Posey's,  Wilcox's  and  Pryor's  brigades 
"were  subsequently  added  ;  ail  attached  to  the  Army  of  North- 
ern Virginia ;  at  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg  his  division  was 
composed  of  the  brigades  of  Perry,  Featherston,  Wright, 
Wilcox  and  Mahone. 

Died  of  wounds  May  12, 1864 ;  division  composed  of  the  brigades 
of  Hampton,  Fitzhugh  Lee  and  W.  H.  F.  Lee ;  Chief  of  Cavalry 
Armyol  Northern  Virginia;  succeeded  Lieutenant-General  A. 
P.  Hill  in  command  of  the  Second  corps.  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia,  during  battle  of  ChancellorsviUe. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  April  8, 1864 ;  commanding  De- 
partment of  Louisiana ;  also  District  of  Western  Louisiana. 

Promoted  Lieutenant-General  1865 ;  command  composed  of  the 
division  of  Major-General  A.  1".  Stewart,  consisting  of  the 
brigades  of  Johnson,  Brown,  Bate  and  Clayton,  and  the  di- 
vision of  Brigadier-General  Wm.  Preston,  consisting  of  the 
brigades  of  Grade,  Trigg  and  Kelly,  and  of  three  battalions 
of  light  artillery ;  Army  of  Tennessee. 


S.  G.  French..... 
C.  L.  Stevenson. 

George  B.  Pickett., 

Jolin  B.  Hood. 


John  H.  Forney.. 


Dabney  H.  Maury., 

M.L.  Smith , 

JohnG.  Walker.... 
Arnold  Elzey 

Isaac  K.  Trimble. 

D.  S.  DonelBon. 
Jubal  A.  Early. 

Joseph  Wheeler... 
W.  H.  C.  Whiting. 
Edward  Johnson. 



Prank  Gardner 

Patrick  R.  Cleburne.... 


Virginia . . . 

Virginia . . . 



Virginia . . 

Florida . . . 



Arkansas . 


Virginia . . . 

Georgia. . . . 
Virginia . . . 

To  Whom  to 

Ma].  Gen.  G.W.Smith 
Lt.  Gen.  E.  K.  Smith. 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee., 

Lt.  Gen.  Pemberton.. 

Lt.  Gen.  Pemberton.. 

Lt.  Gen.  T.  H.  Holmes 

Maj.  Gen.  G.W.Smith 

Lt.  Gen.  Pemberton.. 
Gen.  J.  E.  Johnston. . 

Gen.  R.  E.  Lee 

Gen.  J.  B.  Johnston.. 
Gen.  R.  E.  Lee 

fGen.  Command'g"! 
X    Army  of  Tenn.    j 

Lt.  Gen.  Longstreet.. 
Gen.  R.  E.Lee 




Oct.  22,1862. 
Oct.    13,1862. 

Oct.    11,1362. 

Oct.    11,1862. 

Oct.  11,1862. 
Oct.    2T,  1862. 

Nov.  4,1862. 

Nov.  4,1862. 

Nov.  8,  1862. 

Dec.  4, 1862. 

Dec.  20,  1862. 
Dec.   20,  1862. 

Apl.   23,1863. 

Apl.^  22,  1863. 
Apl.    23,  1863. 

Feb.  4,1864. 
ApL  22,1863. 
ApL   22,1863. 


Aug.  31, 1862. 
Oct.   10,1862. 

Oct.   10,1862. 

Oct.   10,1862. 

Oct.  11,1862. 
Oct.    2T,  1862. 

Nov.  4,1862. 

Nov.  4, 1862. 

Nov.  8,  1862. 

Dec.  4,  1862. 

Dec.  13,1862. 
Dec.  13,1862. 

Jan.  17, 1863. 

Jan.  IT,  1863. 
Jan.  17,1863. 

Jan.  20,1863. 
Feb.  28, 186